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Three key types of withholding tax are imposed at various levels in the United States:
The amount of tax withheld is based on the amount of payment subject to tax. Withholding of tax on wages includes income tax, social security and medicare, and a few taxes in some states. Certain minimum amounts of wage income are not subject to income tax withholding. Wage withholding is based on wages actually paid and employee declarations on Federal and state Forms W-4. Social Security tax withholding terminates when payments from one employer exceed the maximum wage base during the year.
Amounts withheld by payers (employers or others) must be remitted to the relevant government promptly. Amounts subject to withholding and taxes withheld are reported to payees and the government annually.
In the History of the U.S. Tax System, the U.S. Department of Treasury describes tax withholding.
This greatly eased the collection of the tax for both the taxpayer and the Bureau of Internal Revenue. However, it also greatly reduced the taxpayer's awareness of the amount of tax being collected, i.e. it reduced the transparency of the tax, which made it easier to raise taxes in the future.
In the United States, withholding by employers of tax on wages is required by the federal, most state, and some local governments. Taxes withheld include federal income tax, Social Security and Medicare taxes, state income tax, and certain other levies by a few states.
Income tax withheld on wages is based on the amount of wages less an amount for declared withholding allowances (often called exemptions). Amounts of tax withheld are determined by the employer. Tax rates and withholding tables apply separately at the federal, most state, and some local levels. The amount to be withheld is based on both the amount wages paid on any paycheck and the period covered by the paycheck. Federal and some state withholding amounts are at graduated rates, so higher wages have higher withholding percentages. Withheld income taxes are treated by employees as a payment on account of tax due for the year, which is determined on the annual income tax return filed after the end of the year (federal Form 1040 series, and appropriate state forms). Withholdings in excess of tax so determined are refunded.
Employees must provide their employer with a Federal Form W-4. Many states require a similar form. The form provides the employer with a Social Security number. Also, on the form employees declare the number of withholding allowances they believe they are entitled to. Allowances are generally based on the number of personal exemptions plus an amount for itemized deductions, losses, or credits. Employers are entitled to rely on employee declarations on Form W-4 unless they know they are wrong.
Social Security tax is withheld from wages at a flat rate of 4.2% for 2011 and 2012. Wages paid above a fixed amount each year by any one employee are not subject to Social Security tax. For 2009, 2010, and 2011, this wage maximum is $106,800. Medicare tax of 1.45% is withheld from wages, with no maximum. Employers are required to pay an additional equal amount of Medicare taxes, and a 6.2% rate of Social Security taxes.
A few states also impose additional taxes that are withheld from wages.
Companies and individuals who make certain types of payments to foreign persons must withhold Federal income tax on those payments. Foreign persons include nonresident aliens, foreign corporations, and foreign partnerships. Payments subject to withholding include compensation for services, interest, dividends, rents, royalties, annuities, and certain other payments. Tax is withheld at 30% of the gross amount of the payment. This withholding rate may be reduced under a tax treaty. This tax withheld is usually considered a final determination and payment of tax, requiring no further action or tax return by the foreign person.
In addition, partnerships are required to make tax payments (referred to as withholding) on behalf of foreign partners. These payments are required regardless of whether income is actually distributed to the partner. Payments are also required quarterly or at year end for business income or other undistributed income. Partnership payments on business income are treated like estimated tax payments, and the foreign person must still file a U.S. tax return reporting the business income.
Purchasers of U.S. real estate must withhold 10% of the sales price from payments to foreign sellers. This amount can be reduced to the anticipated Federal income tax due, upon advance application on Form 8288-B to the Internal Revenue Service. These payments are treated like estimated tax payments, and the foreign person must still file a U.S. tax return reporting any gain or loss.
Payers of interest, dividends, and certain other items must withhold 28% Federal income tax on such payments in limited circumstances. Generally, this applies only if the recipient is a U.S. person and either
Withheld taxes must be paid to the appropriate government promptly. Rules vary by jurisdiction and by balance of total payments due. Federal employment tax payments are due either monthly or semi-weekly. Federal tax payments must be made either by deposit to a national bank or by electronic funds transfer. If the balance of Federal tax payments exceeds $100,000, it must be paid within 1 banking day. Beginning January 1, 2011, payments may be made only by electronic funds transfer. State rules vary widely, and generally allow slightly more time for deposit of withheld taxes.
Employers must file a quarterly report of aggregate withholding taxes, Form 941, with the Internal Revenue Service. This report includes income, Social Security, and Medicare tax totals for the quarter. Partnerships making payments for partners must file Form 8813 quarterly. State requirements vary.
All persons withholding taxes must file annual Federal and state reports of the tax withheld and the amount subject to withholding. A copy must be provided to the employee or other payee. The relevant forms are as follows:
Federal filings must be done electronically if more than 250 forms are required. States generally do not require separate filings other than for partnerships, instead relying on information provided by the IRS.
Failing to pay Federal taxes withheld can result in a penalty of 100% of the amount not paid. This may be assessed against anyone responsible for the funds from which payment of withheld tax could have been made.
Paying withheld Federal taxes late may result in penalties up to 10%, plus interest, on the balance paid late. State penalties vary. Failure to timely file withholding tax forms may result in penalties up to $50 per form not filed.
Intentional failures may result in criminal penalties.