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|Location||Bankside, London SE1, England, United Kingdom|
|Public transit access||Blackfriars, Southwark|
|Location||Bankside, London SE1, England, United Kingdom|
|Public transit access||Blackfriars, Southwark|
Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London. It is Britain's national gallery of international modern art and forms part of the Tate group (together with Tate Britain, Tate Liverpool, Tate St Ives and Tate Online). It is the most-visited modern art gallery in the world, with around 4.7 million visitors per year. It is based in the former Bankside Power Station, in the Bankside area of the London Borough of Southwark. Tate holds the national collection of British art from 1500 to the present day and international modern and contemporary art.
The galleries are housed in the former Bankside Power Station, which was originally designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, the architect of Battersea Power Station, and built in two stages between 1947 and 1963. The power station closed in 1981. In 1992 The Tate Gallery at the British National Art Museum proposed a competition to build a new building for modern art. The purpose for the new building would help with the ever-expanding collection on modern and contemporary art. In 1995 it was announced that Herzog & de Meuron had won the competition with their simple design. The architects decided to reinvent the current building instead of demolishing it. The Tate modern is an example of adaptive reuse, the process of finding new life in old buildings. The building itself still resembles the 20th century factory in style from the outside and that is reflected on the inside by the taupe walls, steel girders and concrete floors. The façade of the building is made out of 4.2 million bricks that are separated by groups of thin vertical windows that help create a dramatic light inside. The history of the site as well as information about the conversion was the basis for a 2008 documentary Architects Herzog and de Meuron: Alchemy of Building & Tate Modern. This challenging conversion work was carried by Carillion. The southern third of the building was retained by the French power company EDF Energy as an electrical substation (in 2006, the company released half of this holding).
Tate Modern currently has seven floors, originally numbered 1 to 7, they were renumbered 0 to 6 in 2012. Levels 0 to 4 contain gallery space.
The main collection displays consist of 4 wings each taking up approximately half a complete floor of the main building. Each wing has a named theme or subject. Within each wing there are some rooms that change periodically showing different works in keeping with the overall theme or subject of the wing.
When the gallery opened in 2000, the collections were not displayed in chronological order but were rather arranged thematically into four broad groups each allocated a wing on levels 3 and 5 (now levels 2 and 4):
This was ostensibly because a chronological survey of the story of modern art along the lines of the Museum of Modern Art in New York would expose the large gaps in the collections, the result of the Tate's conservative acquisitions policy for the first half of the 20th century.
The first rehang at Tate Modern opened in May 2006. It eschewed the thematic groupings in favour of focusing on pivotal moments of twentieth-century art. It also introduced spaces for shorter exhibitions in between the wings. The layout was:
As of mid-2012, a third rehang is in progress. The current arrangement is:
A smaller section, located between wings, covering installations with theatrical or fictional themes.
It has not been announced whether the current rehang will eventually replace all four of the sections introduced in the first rehang.
The Turbine Hall, which once housed the electricity generators of the old power station, is five storeys tall with 3,400 square metres of floorspace. It is used to display large specially-commissioned works by contemporary artists, between October and March each year. This series was planned to last the gallery's first five years, but the popularity of the series has led to its extension until at least 2012.
The artists who have exhibited commissioned work in the turbine hall as part of the Unilever series are:
|May 2000 – November 2000||Louise Bourgeois||I Do, I Undo, I Redo||About|
|June 2001 – March 2002||Juan Muñoz||Double Bind||About|
|October 2002 – April 2003||Anish Kapoor||Marsyas||About|
|October 2003 – March 2004||Olafur Eliasson||The Weather Project||About|
|October 2004 – May 2005||Bruce Nauman||Raw Materials||About|
|October 2005 – May 2006||Rachel Whiteread||EMBANKMENT||About|
|October 2006 – April 2007||Carsten Höller||Test Site||About|
|October 2007 – April 2008||Doris Salcedo||Shibboleth||About|
|October 2008 – April 2009||Dominique Gonzalez-Foerster||TH.2058||About|
|October 2009 – April 2010||Miroslaw Balka||How It Is||About|
|October 2010 – April 2011||Ai Weiwei||Sunflower Seeds||About|
|October 2011 – March 2012||Tacita Dean||Film||About|
|July 2012 – October 2012||Tino Sehgal||These associations||About|
Until 2012, the series was named after its corporate sponsor, Unilever. Between 2000 and 2012, Unilever had provided £4.4m sponsorship in total including a renewal deal of £2.2m for a period of five years agreed in 2008.
When the series is not running, the Turbine Hall is used for occasional events and exhibitions. Most recently it has been used to display Damien Hirst's For The Love Of God  and a sell out show by Kraftwerk in February 2013 which famously crashed the ticket hotline and website causing a backlash from the band's fans. In 2013, Tate Modern signed a sponsorship deal worth around £5 million with Hyundai to cover a ten-year program of commissions, then considered the largest amount of money ever provided to an individual gallery or museum in the United Kingdom.
Two wings of the main building are used to stage the major temporary exhibitions for which an entry fee is charged. These exhibitions normally run for three or four months. When they were located on a single floor, the two exhibition areas could be combined to host a single exhibition. This was done for the Gilbert and George retrospective due to the size and number of the works. Currently the two wings used are on levels 2 and 3. It is not known if this arrangement is permanent. Each major exhibition has a dedicated mini-shop selling books and merchandise relevant to the exhibition.
The Tanks, located on level 0, are three large underground oil tanks, connecting spaces and side rooms originally used by the power station and refurbished for use by the gallery. One tank is used to display installation and video art specially commissioned for the space while smaller areas are used to show installation and video art from the collection.
The Project Space (formerly known as the Level 2 Gallery) is a smaller gallery located on the north side of the building on level 1 which houses exhibitions of contemporary art in collaboration with other international art organisations. Its exhibitions typically run for 2–3 months and then travel to the collaborating institution for display there.
Small exhibition spaces can be created between the wings on levels 2 to 4. These have been used used to display recent acquisitions and other temporary displays from the collection. Works are also sometimes shown in the restaurants and members' room. Other locations that have been used in the past include the mezzanine on Level 1 and the north facing exterior of the building.
In addition to exhibition space there are a number of other facilities:
Tate Modern has attracted more visitors than originally expected and plans to expand it have been in preparation since 2004. These plans are focused on the south west of the building and will provide 5,000m2 of new display space, almost doubling the amount of display space.
This project was initially costed at £215 million  Of the money raised, 50 million pounds is coming from the U.K. government; 7 million pounds from the London Development Agency; 5 million pounds from philanthropist John Studzinski; and donations from, among others, the Sultanate of Oman and Elisabeth Murdoch.
As of 2 June 2013, international shipping and property magnate Eyal Ofer pledged £10m to the extension project, making it to 85% of the required funds. Eyal Ofer, chairman of London-based Zodiac Maritime Agencies, said the donation made through his family foundation would enable "an iconic institution to enhance the experience and accessibility of contemporary art". The Tate director, Nicholas Serota, praised the donation saying it would help to make Tate Modern a "truly twenty-first-century museum".
The first phase of the expansion involved the conversion of three large, circular, underground oil tanks originally used by the power station into accessible display spaces and facilities areas. These opened on 18 July 2012 and are used to show live performance art and installations. Tate describes them as "the world's first museum galleries permanently dedicated to live art".
The new western block will occupy the space no longer required by EDF Energy for their electrical substation. The original block has been demolished and a new building will be built with large gallery spaces and access routes between the main building and the new tower on level 1 (ground level) and level 4. The new galleries on level 4 will have natural top lighting. A bridge will be built across the turbine hall on level 4 to complete the upper access route.
A ten storey tower is being built above the oil tanks. It is scheduled to open in 2016.
The design, also designed by Herzog & de Meuron, has been controversial. It was originally designed as a glass stepped pyramid, or zigurat, but this was amended to incorporate a sloping façade in brick latticework (to match the original power-station building) after the feedback on the original design was unfavourable.
The chimney is one of the most recognizable monuments on The South bank. It is directly across the river from Saint Paul’s Cathedral. The chimney stands at 325 ft, made completely out of brick except for The Swiss Light added on top by the architects Herzog and De Meuron.
The closest station is Blackfriars via its new south entrance. Other nearby stations include Southwark, as well as St Paul's and Mansion House north of the river which can be reached via the Millennium Bridge. The lampposts between Southwark tube station and Tate Modern are painted orange to show pedestrian visitors the route.
There is also a riverboat pier just outside the gallery called Bankside Pier, with connections to the Docklands and Greenwich via regular passenger boat services (commuter service) and the Tate to Tate service, which connects Tate Modern with Tate Britain.
from Tate Modern
|London Buses||Southwark Street / Blackfriars Road||RV1||0.2 mile walk|
|Blackfriars Bridge||381, N343, N381||0.2 mile walk|
|Blackfriars Bridge / South Side||45, 63, 100, N63, N89||0.2 mile walk|
|Southwark Bridge / Bankside Pier||344||0.4 mile walk|
|London Underground||Southwark||0.4 mile walk|
|National Rail||Blackfriars||First Capital Connect, Southeastern||0.5 mile walk|
|London Bridge||First Capital Connect, Southern, Southeastern||0.7 mile walk|
|London River Services||Bankside Pier||Commuter Service|
Tate to Tate
Westminster to St Katharine's Circular
Georges Braque, 1909–10, La guitare (Mandora, La Mandore), oil on canvas, 71.1 x 55.9 cm
Juan Gris, 1914, The Sunblind, collage and oil on canvas, 92 × 72.5 cm
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 1909/1926, Badende bei Moritzburg (Bathers at Moritzburg)
Paul Klee, 1921, Abenteuer eines Fräuleins (A Young Lady's Adventure), watercolor on paper, 43.8 × 30.8 cm
Paul Klee, 1935, Walpurgisnacht (Walpurgian Night)
Robert Delaunay, 1934, Endless Rhythm
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