Tatarstan

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Republic of Tatarstan
Республика Татарстан (Russian)
Татарстан Республикасы (Tatar)
—  Republic  —

Flag of Tatarstan

Coat of arms of Tatarstan
Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of Tatarstan[1]
Coordinates: 55°33′N 50°56′E / 55.550°N 50.933°E / 55.550; 50.933Coordinates: 55°33′N 50°56′E / 55.550°N 50.933°E / 55.550; 50.933
Political status
Country Russia
Federal districtVolga[2]
Economic regionVolga[3]
EstablishedMay 27, 1920
CapitalKazan
Government (as of August 2010)
 - President[5]Rustam Minnikhanov[4]
 - LegislatureState Council[5]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[6]
 - Total68,000 km2 (26,000 sq mi)
Area rank44th
Population (2010 Census)[7]
 - Total3,786,488
 - Rank8th
 - Density[8]55.68 /km2 (144.2 /sq mi)
 - Urban75.4%
 - Rural24.6%
Time zone(s)MSK (UTC+04:00)[9]
ISO 3166-2RU-TA
License plates16, 116
Official languagesRussian;[10] Tatar[11][12]
Official website
 
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Republic of Tatarstan
Республика Татарстан (Russian)
Татарстан Республикасы (Tatar)
—  Republic  —

Flag of Tatarstan

Coat of arms of Tatarstan
Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of Tatarstan[1]
Coordinates: 55°33′N 50°56′E / 55.550°N 50.933°E / 55.550; 50.933Coordinates: 55°33′N 50°56′E / 55.550°N 50.933°E / 55.550; 50.933
Political status
Country Russia
Federal districtVolga[2]
Economic regionVolga[3]
EstablishedMay 27, 1920
CapitalKazan
Government (as of August 2010)
 - President[5]Rustam Minnikhanov[4]
 - LegislatureState Council[5]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[6]
 - Total68,000 km2 (26,000 sq mi)
Area rank44th
Population (2010 Census)[7]
 - Total3,786,488
 - Rank8th
 - Density[8]55.68 /km2 (144.2 /sq mi)
 - Urban75.4%
 - Rural24.6%
Time zone(s)MSK (UTC+04:00)[9]
ISO 3166-2RU-TA
License plates16, 116
Official languagesRussian;[10] Tatar[11][12]
Official website

The Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: Респу́блика Татарста́н, tr. Respublika Tatarstan, IPA: [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə tətɐrˈstan]; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in the Volga Federal District. Its capital is the city of Kazan, which is one of Russia's largest and most prosperous cities. The republic borders with Kirov, Ulyanovsk, Samara, and Orenburg Oblasts, and with the Mari El, Udmurt, and Chuvash Republics, as well as with the Republic of Bashkortostan. The unofficial Tatarstan motto is: Bez Buldırabız! (We can!).[13] In the 2010 Census the population of Tatarstan was enumerated to be 3,786,488.[7]

The state has strong ties with its eastern neighbor Bashkortostan.[14][15]

Terminology[edit]

“Tatarstan” derives from the name of the ethnic group—the Tatars—and the Persian suffix -stan (an ending common to many Eurasian countries). Another version of the Russian name is “Тата́рия” (Tatariya), which was official along with “Tatar ASSR” during the Soviet rule.

Geography[edit]

Map of the Republic of Tatarstan

The republic is located in the center of the East European Plain, approximately 800 kilometers (500 mi) east of Moscow. It lies between the Volga River and the Kama River (a tributary of the Volga), and extends east to the Ural mountains.

Rivers[edit]

View of the Volga River in the confluence with the Kama River
View on the Taima River from Devil's Tower in Yelabuga

Major rivers include (Tatar names are given in parentheses):

Lakes[edit]

Major reservoirs of the republic include (Tatar names are given in parentheses):

The biggest lake is Qaban. The biggest swamp is Kulyagash.

Hills[edit]

Natural resources[edit]

Major natural resources of Tatarstan include oil, natural gas, gypsum, and more. It is estimated that the Republic has over one billion tons of oil deposits.[16]

Climate[edit]

Administrative divisions[edit]

History[edit]

Part of a series on the
History of Tatarstan
Coat of Arms of Tatarstan
Great Bulgaria
Khazars
Volga Bulgaria
Kipchaks
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Khanate of Kazan
Muscovy
Kazan Governorate
Idel-Ural State
Tatar ASSR
Republic of Tatarstan
Portal icon Tatarstan portal

Middle Ages[edit]

An ancient mosque in Bolgar

The earliest known organized state within the boundaries of Tatarstan was Volga Bulgaria (c. 700–1238 CE). The Volga Bulgars had an advanced mercantile state with trade contacts throughout Inner Eurasia, the Middle East and the Baltic, which maintained its independence despite pressure by such nations as the Khazars, the Kievan Rus and the Cuman-Kipchaks. Islam was introduced by missionaries from Baghdad around the time of ibn Fadlan's journey in 922.

Volga Bulgaria finally fell to the armies of the Mongol prince Batu Khan in the late 1230s (see Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria.) The inhabitants, mixing with the Golden Horde's Kipchak-speaking people, became known as the "Volga Tatars." Another theory postulates that there were no ethnic changes in that period, and Bulgars simply switched to the Kipchak-based Tatar language. In the 1430s, the region again became independent as the base of the Khanate of Kazan, a capital having been established in Kazan, 170 km up the Volga from the ruined capital of the Bulgars.

The Khanate of Kazan was conquered by the troops of Tsar Ivan the Terrible in the 1550s, with Kazan being taken in 1552. A large number of Tatars were killed and forcibly converted to Christianity and were culturally Russified. Cathedrals were built in Kazan; by 1593 all mosques in the area were destroyed. The Russian government forbade the construction of mosques, a prohibition that was not lifted until the 18th century by Catherine the Great. The first mosque to be rebuilt under Catherine's auspices was constructed in 1766-1770.

Modern times[edit]

Минарет.jpg

In the 19th century Tatarstan became a center of Jadidism, an Islamic movement that preached tolerance of other religions. Under the influence of local Jadidist theologians, the Tatars were renowned for their friendly relations with other peoples of the Russian Empire. However, after the October Revolution religion was largely outlawed and all theologians were repressed.

During the Civil War of 1918–1920 Tatar nationalists attempted to establish an independent republic (the Idel-Ural State). They were, however, put down by the Bolsheviks and the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was established on 27 May 1920. There was a famine in the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1921 to 1922 as a result of war communist policy. The boundaries of the republic did not include majority of the Volga Tatars. The Tatar Union of the Godless were persecuted in Stalin's 1928 purges.

Tatarstan today[edit]

On August 30, 1990, Tatarstan announced its sovereignty with the Declaration on the State Sovereignty of the Tatar Soviet Socialist Republic[17] and in 1992 Tatarstan held a referendum on the new constitution,[18] and 62 percent of those who took part voted in favor of the constitution. In the 1992 Tatarstan Constitution, Tatarstan is defined as a Sovereign State. However, articles 1 and 3 of the constitution, as introduced in 2002[18] define Tatarstan as a part of the Russian Federation.

On February 15, 1994, the Treaty On Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Authority between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Republic of Tatarstan[19] and Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Tatarstan (On Delimitation of Authority in the Sphere of Foreign Economic Relations) were signed.

Demographics[edit]

Tatarstan population.PNG
Population density
Urban-rural population dynamics (Tatarstan).PNG

Population: 3,786,488 (2010 Census);[7] 3,779,265 (2002 Census);[20] 3,637,809 (1989 Census).[21]

Vital statistics[edit]

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Average population (x 1000)Live birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1000)Crude death rate (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000)Fertility rates
19703,14647,81725,62222,19515.28.17.1
19753,31155,09529,68625,40916.69.07.7
19803,46554,27232,75821,51415.79.56.2
19853,53064,06734,62229,44518.19.88.3
19903,66556,27736,21920,05815.49.95.52,05
19913,68450,16037,26612,89413.610.13.51,88
19923,70644,99039,1485,84212.110.61.61,71
19933,73041,14444,291-3,14711.011.9-0.81,57
19943,74641,81148,613-6,80211.213.0-1.81,58
19953,75639,07048,592-9,52210.412.9-2.51,47
19963,76638,08045,731-7,65110.112.1-2.01,43
19973,77537,26846,270-9,0029.912.3-2.41,38
19983,78537,18245,153-7,9719.811.9-2.11,37
19993,78935,07346,679-11,6069.312.3-3.11,29
20003,78835,44649,723-14,2779.413.1-3.81,29
20013,78435,87750,119-14,2429.513.2-3.81,30
20023,77938,17851,685-13,50710.113.7-3.61,37
20033,77538,46152,263-13,80210.213.8-3.71,36
20043,77138,66151,322-12,66110.313.6-3.41,34
20053,76736,96751,841-14,8749.813.8-3.91,26
20063,76337,30349,218-11,9159.913.1-3.21,25
20073,76340,89248,962-8,07010.913.0-2.11,36
20083,77244,29048,952-4,66211.813.0-1.21,45
20093,77946,60547,892-1,28712.412.7-0.31,55
20103,78548,96849,730- 76212.913.1-0.21,60
20113,79550,82447,0723,75213.412.41.01,65
20123,81355,53846,3159,02314.512.22.31,80
20133,83056,51746,2991021814.812.12.71,83(e)

Note: TFR source.[22]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic
group
1926 Census1939 Census1959 Census1970 Census1979 Census1989 Census2002 Census2010 Census1[7]
Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %Number %
Tatars1,263,38348.7%1,421,51448.8%1,345,19547.2%1,536,43049.1%1,641,60347.6%1,765,40448.5%2,000,11652.9%2,012,57153.2%
Russians1,118,83443.1%1,250,66742.9%1,252,41343.9%1,382,73842.4%1,516,02344.0%1,575,36143.3%1,492,60239.5%1,501,36939.7%
Chuvash127,3304.9%138,9354.8%143,5525.0%153,4964.9%147,0884.3%134,2213.7%126,5323.3%116,2523.1%
Others84,4853.3%104,1613.6%109,2573.8%112,5743.6%140,6984.1%166,7564.6%160,0154.2%150,2444.1%
1 6,052 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[23]
Ethnic map of Tatarstan (2010)

There are about two million ethnic Tatars and a million and a half ethnic Russians, along with significant numbers of Chuvash, Mari, and Udmurts, some of whom are Tatar-speaking. The Ukrainian, Mordvin, and Bashkir minorities are also significant. Most Tatars are Sunni Muslims, but a small minority known as Keräşen Tatars are Orthodox and some of them regard themselves as being different from other Tatars even though most Keräşen dialects differ only slightly from the Central Dialect of the Tatar language.[24] There is a fair degree of speculation as to the early origins of the different groups of Tatars, but most Tatars no longer view religious identity as being as important as it once was, and the religious and linguistic subgroups have intermingled considerably. Nevertheless, despite many decades of assimilation and intermingling, some Keräşen demanded, and were awarded, the option of being specifically enumerated in 2002. This has provoked great controversy however, as many intellectuals have sought to portray the Tatars as homogeneous and indivisible.[25] Although listed separately below, the Keräşen are still included in the grand total for the Tatars. Another unique ethnic group, living in Tatarstan only are the Qaratay Mordvins. When it comes to Religion, Sunni Islam is the most common faith in Tatarstan, as 55% of the estimated 3.8 million population is Muslim while remaining population is mostly Russian Orthodox Christian.[26]

Languages[edit]

In accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan the two state languages of the republic are Tatar and Russian. According to the 2002 Russian Federal Law (On Languages of Peoples of the Russian Federation), the official script is Cyrillic.

Religion[edit]

A Mosque in Mendeleyevsk.
Orthodox Church in the Kazan Kremlin.

Established in 922, the first Muslim state within the boundaries of modern Russia was Volga Bulgaria from which the Tatars inherited Islam. Islam was introduced by missionaries[27] from Baghdad around the time of Ibn Fadlan's journey in 922. Islam's long presence in Russia also extends at least as far back as the conquest of the Khanate of Kazan in 1552, which brought the Tatars and Bashkirs on the Middle Volga into Russia.

In the 1430s, the region became independent as the base of the Khanate of Kazan, a capital having been established in Kazan, 170 km up the Volga from the ruined capital of the Bulgars. The Khanate of Kazan was conquered by the troops of Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible in the 1550s, with Kazan being taken in 1552. Some Tatars were forcibly converted to Christianity and cathedrals were built in Kazan; by 1593, mosques in the area were destroyed. The Russian government forbade the construction of mosques, a prohibition that was not lifted until the 18th century by Catherine II.

In 1990, there were only 100 mosques but the number, as of 2004, rose to well over 1,000. As of January 1, 2008, as many as 1,398 religious organizations were registered in Tatarstan, of which 1,055 were Muslim. Today, Sunni Islam is the most common faith in Tatarstan, as 55% of the population is Muslim.[28] In September 2010, Eid al fitr as well May 21, the day the Volga Bulgars embraced Islam, were made public holidays.[29] Tatarstan also hosted an international Muslim film festival which screened over 70 films from 28 countries including Jordan, Afghanistan and Egypt.[30]

The Russian Orthodox Church is the second largest active religion in Tatarstan, and has been so for more than 150 years,[31] with an estimated 1.6 million followers made up of ethnic Russians, Mordvins, Armenians, Belarusians, Mari people, Georgians, Chuvash and a number of Orthodox Tatars which together constitute 45% of the 3.8 million population of Tatarstan. On the 23rd of August 2010 the “Orthodox monuments of Tatarstan” exhibition was held in Kazan by the Tatarstan Ministry of Culture and the Kazan Eparchy.[32] At all public events an Orthodox Priest is called upon along with an Islamic Mufti.[33]

The Muslim Religious Board of Tatarstan frequently organizes activities, like the 'Islamic graffiti Contest' which was held on November 20, 2011.[34]

Politics[edit]

Cabinet of Ministers building, June 2007

The head of the government in Tatarstan is the President. Since March 2010, the President has been Rustam Minnikhanov.[35] Tatarstan's unicameral State Council has 100 seats: fifty are for representatives of the parties, and the other fifty are for deputies from the republic's localities. The Chairman of the State Council is Farit Mukhametshin from May 27, 1998.

According to the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan, the President can be elected only by the people of Tatarstan, but due to Russian federal law this law was suspended for an indefinite term. The Russian law about election of governors says they should be elected by regional parliaments and that the candidate can be presented only by the president of Russia.

On March 25, 2005 Shaymiyev was re-elected for his fourth term by the State Council. This election was held after changes in electoral law and does not contradict the Constitutions of Tatarstan and Russia.

Political status[edit]

Presidential Palace

The Republic of Tatarstan is a constituent republic of the Russian Federation. Most of the Russian federal subjects are tied with the Russian federal government by the uniform Federal Treaty, but relations between the government of Tatarstan and the Russian federal government are more complex, and are precisely defined in the Constitution. The following passage from the Constitution defines the republic's status without contradicting the Constitution of the Russian Federation:

The Republic of Tatarstan is a democratic constitutional State associated with the Russian Federation by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan and the Treaty between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan On Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Powers between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Republic of Tatarstan, and a subject of the Russian Federation. The sovereignty of the Republic of Tatarstan shall consist in full possession of the State authority (legislative, executive and judicial) beyond the competence of the Russian Federation and powers of the Russian Federation in the sphere of shared competence of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan and shall be an inalienable qualitative status of the Republic of Tatarstan.[this quote needs a citation]

Economy[edit]

An area in Kazan with a mosque in the background

Tatarstan is one of the most economically developed regions of Russia. The republic is highly industrialized, and ranks second only to Samara Oblast in terms of industrial production per km2.[36] Tatarstan's GDP per capita was USD 12,325 in 2004,[37] with GDP in 2008 at about 930 billion rubles.[16]

The region's main source of wealth is oil. Tatarstan produces 32 million tonnes of crude oil per year and has estimated oil reserves of more than 1 billion tons.[16][38] Industrial production constitutes 45% of the Republic's gross regional domestic product. The most developed manufacturing industries are petrochemical industry and machine building. The truck-maker KamAZ is the region's largest enterprise and employs about 1/5 of Tatarstan's work force.[38] Kazanorgsintez, based in Kazan, is one of Russia's largest chemical companies.[39] Tatarstan's aviation industry produces Tu-214 passenger airplanes and helicopters.[16] The Kazan Helicopter Plant is one of the largest helicopter manufacturers in the world.[40] Engineering, textiles, clothing, wood processing, and food industries are also of key significance in Tatarstan.[36]

Tatarstan consists of three distinguished industrial regions. The northwestern part is an old industrial region where engineering, chemical and light industry dominate. In the new industrial Northeast region with its core in the Naberezhnye Chelny-Nizhnekamsk agglomeration, major industries are automobile construction, chemical industry, and power engineering. The Southeast region has oil production with engineering under development. The North, Central, South, and Southwest parts of the Republic are rural regions.[41]The Republic has huge water resources - annual flow of rivers of the Republic exceeds 240 billion cu. m. Soils are very diverse, the best fertile soils covering 1/3 of the territory. Due to high development of agriculture in Tatarstan(it contributes 5,1% of total revenue of republic), forests occupy only 16% of its territory. The agricultural sector of economy are represented mostly by large companies as "Ak Bars Holding" and "Krasniy Vostok Agro".

The republic has a highly developed transport network. It mainly comprises highways, railway lines, four navigable rivers — Volga (İdel), Kama (Çulman), Vyatka (Noqrat) and Belaya (Ağidel), and oil pipelines and airlines. The territory of Tatarstan is crossed by the main gas pipelines carrying natural gas from Urengoy and Yamburg to the west and the major oil pipelines supplying oil to various cities in the European part of Russia.

Culture[edit]

All Religions Temple. A building and cultural center built by the local artist Ildar Khanov

Major libraries include the Science Library of Kazan State University and the National Library of the Republic of Tatarstan. There are two museums of republican significance, as well as 90 museums of local importance. In the past several years new museums appeared throughout the Republic.

There are twelve theatrical institutions in Tatarstan.[42] The state orchestra is the National Tatarstan Orchestra.

Sports[edit]

Tatarstan has Rubin Kazan, a major European football team which has played in the Champions League and the Europa League.

It also has two KHL teams, the successful Ak Bars Kazan, which is based in the capital city of Kazan, and the Neftekhimik Nizhnekamsk, who play in the city of Nizhnekamsk. The state also has a Russian Major League team (the second highest hockey league in Russia), Neftyanik Almetyevsk, who play in the city of Almetyevsk. There are also two Minor Hockey League teams which serve as affiliates for the two KHL teams. A team also exists in the Russian Hockey League, the HC Chelny, who are based in the city of Naberezhnye Chelny. Another team plays in the MHL-B (the second level of junior ice hockey in Russia).

Nail Yakupov is an ethnic Tatar who was drafted first overall in the 2012 NHL Entry Draft

Twice Russian champions, Rubin Kazan play in the Russian Premier League.

Former ATP No.1 Marat Safin and former WTA No.1 Dinara Safina are of Tatar descent.

Kazan is set to host the XXVII Summer Universiade in 2013.

Education[edit]

The most important facilities of higher education include Kazan State University, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan State Technological University, World Information Distributed University, Kazan State Technical University, Kazan State Finance and Economics Institute and Russian Islamic University, all located in the capital Kazan.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Официальный портал Республики Татарстан (Официальный Татарстан)
  2. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. ^ Official website of the President of the Republic of Tatarstan. Rustam Minnikhanov
  5. ^ a b Constitution, Article 9.2
  6. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  8. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  9. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  10. ^ Official the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  11. ^ Constitution, Article 8.1
  12. ^ Kempton, Daniel R. and Terry D. Clark, Unity or separation: center-periphery relations in the former Soviet Union, (Praeger Publishers, 2002), 110.
  13. ^ (Tatar) Президент Татарстанның милли идеясен - "Булдырабыз!" дип билгеләде
  14. ^ "Tatarstan And Bashkortostan Become More Close". Executive Committee of World Congress of Tatars. December 23, 2010. 
  15. ^ "Meeting of two presidents". Administration of President of the Republic Tartarstan. August 16, 2011. Retrieved July 19, 2012. 
  16. ^ a b c d Economy: The Republic of Dagestan
  17. ^ Declaration on the State Sovereignty of the Tatar Soviet Socialist Republic
  18. ^ a b (In Russian)Конституция Республики Татарстан
  19. ^ Treaty on Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Powers between Bodies of Public Authority of the Russian Federation and Bodies of Public Authority of the Republic of Tatarstan
  20. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  21. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  22. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  23. ^ Перепись-2010: русских становится больше
  24. ^ Tatar The language of the largest minority in Russia. American Association of Teachers of Turkic. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  25. ^ Tatars as Meso-Nation (PDF). Hokkaido University. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  26. ^ https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Wmi9H2WSwFIJ:https://cdr.lib.unc.edu/indexablecontent?id%3Duuid:01e41212-73fc-4660-b184-57c1c9a65c95%26ds%3DDATA_FILE%26dl%3Dtrue+&hl=en&gl=ca&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjtsxkT3NrB5cPfb-Id0HL0gXHtvTjgZOuVljoHZ5YP9BfEHZAqObnmYbMKzx9CXy6HWN4a0vPqimhFDS_J5EaDxlAVQA1CRysS556fLYsOMAIHb3NzRtl_At8J7Ab-Yt7pZqk1&sig=AHIEtbRBE3CjBwjR7skCZ63Qaw4PD8uFaw&pli=1
  27. ^ Tatarstan Parliament Introduces New Islam Holiday
  28. ^ Alexey D. Krindatch. Patterns of Religious Change in Postsoviet Russia: Major Trends from 1998 to 2003. Religion, State & Society, Vol. 32, No. 2, June 2004. Published by BiblicalStudies.org.uk, p. 123.
  29. ^ Holiday Commemorating Arrival of Islam in Russia Ratified in Tatarstan
  30. ^ Tatarstan's Muslim filmfest kicks off
  31. ^ http://www.chanceforlove.com/archives/content/full/5870
  32. ^ “Orthodox monuments of Tatarstan” exhibition to be held in Kazan
  33. ^ Today's Tatarstan in brief
  34. ^ Islamic Graffiti Contest Held In Kazan | KazanTimes
  35. ^ Tatarstan's New President Sworn In, Radio Free Europe's Tatar-Bashkir Service, Kazan, 25 March 2010.Accessed: 14 January 2012.
  36. ^ a b Tatarstan Microsoft Encarta
  37. ^ Human Development Index in the Regions of Russia United Nations
  38. ^ a b Tatarstan Economy
  39. ^ Kazanorgsintez
  40. ^ Kazan Helicopter Plant (KHP)
  41. ^ General information on the Tatarstan Republic
  42. ^ Culture: The Republic of Tatarstan

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]