Tangerine

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Tangerine
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Sapindales
Family:Rutaceae
Genus:Citrus
Species:C. tangerina
Binomial name
Citrus tangerina
Tanaka
 
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Tangerine
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Sapindales
Family:Rutaceae
Genus:Citrus
Species:C. tangerina
Binomial name
Citrus tangerina
Tanaka

The tangerine (Citrus tangerina)[1] is an orange-colored citrus fruit that is closely related to the mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata). Taxonomically, it may be named as a subspecies or variety of Citrus reticulata; further work seems to be required to ascertain its correct scientific name.[2][3][4] Tangerines are smaller than common oranges, and are usually easier to peel and to split into segments. The taste is considered less sour, as well as sweeter and stronger, than that of an orange.[5]

A ripe tangerine is firm to slightly soft, heavy for its size, and pebbly-skinned with no deep grooves, as well as orange in color. Peak tangerine season lasts from Autumn to Spring. Tangerines are most commonly peeled and eaten out of hand. The fresh fruit is also used in salads, desserts and main dishes. The peel is dried and used in Sichuan cuisine. Fresh tangerine juice and frozen juice concentrate are commonly available in the United States. The number of seeds in each segment (carpel) varies greatly.

A popular alternative to tangerines are clementines, which are sometimes called seedless tangerines and are also a variant of the mandarin orange.

Varieties[edit]

Tangerine

Honey tangerines (or "murcotts" as they are called in the industry) are the most widely grown tangerine,[6] trailed by the sunburst tangerine,[7] and with lowest amount of acreage, the fallglo.

One of the oldest and formerly most popular varieties is the Dancy tangerine, but it is no longer widely grown.[8] The Dancy was known as the zipper-skin tangerine, and also as the kid-glove orange, for its loose, pliable peel.

The ponkan or Chinese honey tangerine is very popular around Melrose, Florida, where it was introduced from China by a missionary, Rev. Barrington, in 1883. It is easily peeled, much like a Satsuma mandarin, but has more flavor and grows true from the seeds. Growing tangerines from the seeds may take longer, as usually seven or eight years are required before the first fruit, but the trees will be more cold hardy than a similar grafted tree (even if grafted onto the cold hardy trifoliate orange rootstock) and larger. Seeds must be kept moist until planting. If they dry out, they will not germinate. Oranges do not always come true from seeds due to pollination and hybridization problems, but nearly all tangerines can be grown true from seed, contrary to popular notions.

Nutrition[edit]

Tangerines, raw
A honey tangerine
A honey tangerine
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy223 kJ (53 kcal)
Carbohydrates13.34 g
- Sugars10.58 g
- Dietary fiber1.8 g
Fat0.31 g
Protein0.81 g
Vitamin A equiv.34 μg (4%)
- beta-carotene155 μg (1%)
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.058 mg (5%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.036 mg (3%)
Niacin (vit. B3)0.376 mg (3%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.216 mg (4%)
Vitamin B60.078 mg (6%)
Folate (vit. B9)16 μg (4%)
Choline10.2 mg (2%)
Vitamin C26.7 mg (32%)
Vitamin E0.2 mg (1%)
Calcium37 mg (4%)
Iron0.15 mg (1%)
Magnesium12 mg (3%)
Manganese0.039 mg (2%)
Phosphorus20 mg (3%)
Potassium166 mg (4%)
Sodium2 mg (0%)
Zinc0.07 mg (1%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Tangerines are a good source of vitamin C, folate and beta-carotene.They also contain some potassium, magnesium and vitamins B1, B2 and B3. Also contains Lutein and Zeaxanthin.[9] Tangerine oil, like all citrus oils, has limonene as its major constituent, but also alpha-pinene, myrcene, gamma-terpinene, citronellal, linalool, neral, neryl acetate, geranyl acetate, geraniol, thymol, and carvone.

New research from The University of Western Ontario has discovered a substance in tangerine skins that not only prevents obesity in mice, but also offers protection against type 2 diabetes, and even atherosclerosis, the underlying disease responsible for most heart attacks and strokes. Murray Huff, a vascular biology scientist at the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, along with Erin Mulvihill, a PhD student, studied the effects of a flavonoid in tangerines called Nobiletin. Their research is published in the journal Diabetes.[10][11]

Origin of the name[edit]

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "tangerine" was originally an adjective meaning "Of or pertaining to, or native of Tangier, a seaport in Morocco, on the Strait of Gibraltar" and "a native of Tangier." The OED cites this usage from Addison's The Tatler in 1710 with similar uses from the 1800s. The adjective was applied to the fruit, once known scientifically as "Citrus nobilis var. Tangeriana" which grew in the region of Tangiers. This usage appears in the 1800s. See the Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, 1989. This fruit is referred to as Kamala kaya in Telugu and Portugal through the Caribbean.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Synonymy of C. tangerina at The Plant List". 
  2. ^ "Synonyms of C. reticulata at The Plant List". 
  3. ^ A.H. Krezdorn, Jules Janick. "Classification of Citrus". 
  4. ^ Tshering Penjor, Masashi Yamamoto, Miki Uehara, Manami Ide, Natsumi Matsumoto, Ryoji Matsumoto, Yukio Nagano (2013-04-25). "Phylogenetic Relationships of Citrus and Its Relatives Based on matK Gene Sequences". 
  5. ^ Pittman & Davis (1999-02-22). "Pittman & Davis - Premium Citrus Fruit Gifts - Why Are Tangerines So Tangy?". Pittmandavis.com. Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  6. ^ "HS174/CH078: Murcott (Honey Tangerine)". Edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  7. ^ "HS168/CH079: Sunburst Tangerine". Edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  8. ^ Dancy Tangerine
  9. ^ Susanna Lyle (20 March 2006). Fruit & nuts: a comprehensive guide to the cultivation, uses and health benefits of over 300 food-producing plants. Timber Press. p. 145. Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  10. ^ "Substance in tangerines fights obesity and protects against heart disease". 
  11. ^ "Tangerine chemical can protect against cancer". 

External links[edit]