Tagalog language

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Tagalog
Wikang Tagalog
Native toPhilippines
RegionCentral and South Luzon
EthnicityTagalog people
Native speakers
28 million  (2007)[1]
45 million L2 speakers (2013)[2]
96% of the Philippines can understand Tagalog (2000)[3]
Early forms
Proto-Philippine
Standard forms
Dialects
Bataan
Bulacan
Lubang
Manila
Marinduque
Tanay-Paete
Tayabas
Balbal
Latin (Tagalog/Filipino),
Filipino Braille
Historically Baybayin
Official status
Official language in
Philippines Philippines (in the form of Filipino)
Regulated byCommission on the Filipino Language
Language codes
ISO 639-1tl
ISO 639-2tgl, fil
ISO 639-3tglinclusive code
Individual code:
fil – Filipino
Glottologtaga1280  (Tagalogic)[4]
taga1269  (Tagalog/Filipino)[5]
Linguasphere31-CKA
{{{mapalt}}}
Predominantly Tagalog-speaking regions in the Philippines. The color-schemes represent the 4 dialect zones of the language: Northern, Central, Southern, and Marinduque. In addition, Tagalog is used as a second language across the country.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.
 
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"Tagalog" redirects here. For other uses, see Tagalog (disambiguation).
Tagalog
Wikang Tagalog
Native toPhilippines
RegionCentral and South Luzon
EthnicityTagalog people
Native speakers
28 million  (2007)[1]
45 million L2 speakers (2013)[2]
96% of the Philippines can understand Tagalog (2000)[3]
Early forms
Proto-Philippine
Standard forms
Dialects
Bataan
Bulacan
Lubang
Manila
Marinduque
Tanay-Paete
Tayabas
Balbal
Latin (Tagalog/Filipino),
Filipino Braille
Historically Baybayin
Official status
Official language in
Philippines Philippines (in the form of Filipino)
Regulated byCommission on the Filipino Language
Language codes
ISO 639-1tl
ISO 639-2tgl, fil
ISO 639-3tglinclusive code
Individual code:
fil – Filipino
Glottologtaga1280  (Tagalogic)[4]
taga1269  (Tagalog/Filipino)[5]
Linguasphere31-CKA
{{{mapalt}}}
Predominantly Tagalog-speaking regions in the Philippines. The color-schemes represent the 4 dialect zones of the language: Northern, Central, Southern, and Marinduque. In addition, Tagalog is used as a second language across the country.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Tagalog /təˈɡɑːlɒɡ/[6] (Tagalog: [tɐˈɡaːloɡ]) is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.[7] It is the first language of the Philippine region IV (CALABARZON and MIMAROPA), of Bulacan and of Metro Manila. Its standardized form, officially named Filipino, is the national language and one of two official languages of the Philippines, the other being English.

It is related to other Philippine languages such as the Bikol languages, Ilokano, the Visayan languages, and Kapampangan, and more distantly to other Austronesian languages such as Indonesian, Hawaiian and Malagasy.

History[edit]

The Tagalog Baybayin script.

The word Tagalog is derived from the endonym taga-ilog ("river dweller"), composed of tagá- ("native of" or "from") and ílog ("river"). Very little is known about the ancient history of the language; linguists such as Dr. David Zorc and Dr. Robert Blust speculate that the Tagalogs and other Central Philippine ethno-lingistic groups had originated in Northeastern Mindanao or the Eastern Visayas.[8][9]

The first written record of Tagalog is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription which dates to 900 CE, and exhibits fragments of the language along with Sanskrit, Malay, Javanese and Old Tagalog. The first known complete book to be written in Tagalog is the Doctrina Christiana (Christian Doctrine), printed in 1593. The Doctrina was written in Spanish and two transcriptions of Tagalog; one in the ancient, then-current Baybayin script and the other in an early Spanish attempt at a Latin orthography for the language. Throughout the 333 years of Spanish occupation, there were grammars and dictionaries written by Spanish clergymen such as Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala by Pedro de San Buenaventura (Pila, Laguna, 1613), Vocabulario de la lengua tagala (1835) and Arte de la lengua tagala y manual tagalog para la administración de los Santos Sacramentos (1850). The indigenous poet Francisco Baltazar (1788–1862) is regarded as the foremost Tagalog writer, his most notable work being the early 19th-century epic Florante at Laura.

Historical changes[edit]

Tagalog differs from its Central Philippine counterparts with its treatment of the Proto-Philippine schwa vowel . In Bikol and Visayan, this sound merged with /u/ and [o]. In Tagalog, it has merged with /i/. For example, Proto-Philippine *dəkət (adhere, stick) is Tagalog dikít and Visayan & Bikol dukot.

Proto-Philippine *r, *j, and *z merged with /d/ but is /l/ between vowels. Proto-Philippine *ŋɡajan (name) and *hajək (kiss) became Tagalog ngalan and halík.

Proto-Philippine *R merged with /ɡ/. *tubiR (water) and *zuRuʔ (blood) became Tagalog tubig and dugô.

Official status[edit]

Main article: Filipino language

Tagalog was declared the official language by the first constitution in the Philippines, the Constitution of Biak-na-Bato in 1897.[10]

In 1935, the Philippine constitution designated English and Spanish as official languages, but mandated the development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing native languages.[11] After study and deliberation, the National Language Institute, a committee composed of seven members who represented various regions in the Philippines, chose Tagalog as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines.[12][13] President Manuel L. Quezon then, on December 30, 1937, proclaimed the selection of the Tagalog language to be used as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines.[12] In 1939 President Quezon renamed the proposed Tagalog-based national language as wikang pambansâ (national language).[13] In 1959, the language was further renamed as "Pilipino".[13] The 1973 constitution designated the Tagalog-based "Pilipino", along with English, as an official language and mandated the development and formal adoption of a common national language to be known as Filipino.[14] The 1987 constitution designated Filipino as the national language mandating that as it evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages.[15]

Article XIV, Section 7 of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines specifies, in part:

Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate, the Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the educational system.

[15]

The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein.

[15]

In 2009, the Department of Education promulgated an order institutionalizing a system of mother-tongue based multilingual education ("MLE"), wherein instruction is conducted primarily in a student's mother tongue until at least grade three, with additional languages such as Filipino and English being introduced as separate subjects no earlier than grade two. In secondary school, Filipino and English become the primary languages of instruction, with the learner's first language taking on an auxiliary role.[16]

Classification[edit]

Tagalog is a Central Philippine language within the Austronesian language family. Being Malayo-Polynesian, it is related to other Austronesian languages such as Malagasy, Javanese, Indonesian, Malay, Tetum (of Timor), and Tao language (of Taiwan). It is closely related to the languages spoken in the Bicol and Visayas regions such as Bikol and the Visayan group including Hiligaynon and Cebuano.

Dialects[edit]

At present, no comprehensive dialectology has been done in the Tagalog-speaking regions, though there have been descriptions in the form of dictionaries and grammars on various Tagalog dialects. Ethnologue lists Lubang, Manila, Marinduque, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Tanay-Paete, and Tayabas as dialects of Tagalog. However, there appear to be four main dialects of which the aforementioned are a part; Northern (exemplified by the Bulacan dialect), Central (including Manila), Southern (exemplified by Batangas), and Marinduque.

Some example of dialectal differences are:

Perhaps the most divergent Tagalog dialects are those spoken in Marinduque. Linguist Rosa Soberano identifies two dialects, western and eastern, with the former being closer to the Tagalog dialects spoken in the provinces of Batangas and Quezon.

One example is the verb conjugation paradigms. While some of the affixes are different, Marinduque also preserves the imperative affixes, also found in Visayan and Bikol languages, that have mostly disappeared from most Tagalog early 20th century; they have since merged with the infinitive.

Manila TagalogMarinduqueño TagalogEnglish
Súsúlat sina Maria at Esperanza kay Juan.Másúlat da Maria at Esperanza kay Juan."Maria and Esperanza will write to Juan."
Mag-aaral siya sa Maynila.Gaaral siya sa Maynila."[He/She] will study in Manila."
Magluto ka na!Pagluto!"You cook now!"
Kainin mó iyan.Kaina yaan."Eat that."
Tinatawag tayó ni Tatay.Inatawag nganì kitá ni Tatay."Father is calling us."
Tutulungan ba kayó ni Hilario?Atulungan ga kamo ni Hilario?"Will Hilario help you?"

Northern dialects and the central dialects are the basis for the national language.

Geographic distribution[edit]

The Tagalog homeland, or Katagalugan, covers roughly much of the central to southern parts of the island of Luzon—particularly in Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Camarines Norte, Cavite, Laguna, Metro Manila, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, and large parts of Zambales. Tagalog is also spoken natively by inhabitants living on the islands, Marinduque, Mindoro, and large areas of Palawan. It is spoken by approximately 64 million Filipinos, 96% of the household population.[17] 22 million, or 28% of the total Philippine population,[18] speak it as a native language.

Tagalog speakers are found in other parts of the Philippines as well as throughout the world, though its use is usually limited to communication between Filipino ethnic groups. In 2010, the US Census bureau reported (based on data collected in 2007) that in the United States it was the fourth most-spoken language at home with almost 1.5 million speakers, behind Spanish or Spanish Creole, French (including Patois, Cajun, Creole), and Chinese. Tagalog ranked as the third most spoken language in metropolitan statistical areas, behind Spanish and Chinese but ahead of French.[19]

Accents[edit]

The Tagalog language also boasts accentations unique to some parts of Tagalog-speaking regions. For example, in some parts of Manila: a strong pronunciation of i exists and vowel-switching of o and u exists so words like "gising" (to wake) is pronounced as "giseng" with a strong 'e' and the word "tagu-taguan" (hide-and-go-seek) is pronounced as "tago-tagoan" with a mild 'o'.

Batangas Tagalog boasts the most distinctive accent in Tagalog compared to the more Hispanized northern accents of the language. The Batangas accent has been featured in film and television and Filipino actor Leo Martinez speaks this accent. Martinez's accent, however, will quickly be recognized by native Batangueños as representative of the accent in western Batangas which is milder compared to that used in the eastern part of the province.

Code-switching[edit]

Taglish and Englog are portmanteau names given to a mix of English and Tagalog. The amount of English vs. Tagalog varies from the occasional use of English loan words to outright code-switching where the language changes in mid-sentence. Such code-switching is prevalent throughout the Philippines and in various languages of the Philippines other than Tagalog.

Code Mixing also entails the use of foreign words that are Filipinized by reforming them using Filipino rules, such as verb conjugations. Users typically use Filipino or English words, whichever comes to mind first or whichever is easier to use.

"Magshoshopping kami sa mall. Sino ba ang magdadrive sa shopping center?"
"We will go shopping at the mall. Who will drive to the shopping center?"

Although it is generally looked down upon, code-switching is prevalent in all levels of society; however, city-dwellers, the highly educated, and people born around and after World War II are more likely to do this.

The practice is common in television, radio, and print media as well. Advertisements from companies like Wells Fargo, Wal-Mart, Albertsons, McDonald's, and Western Union have contained Taglish.

Phonology[edit]

Main article: Tagalog phonology

Tagalog has 33 phonemes: 19 of them are consonants and 14 are vowels. Syllable structure is relatively simple, being maximally consonant-ar-vowel-consonant, where consonant-ar only occurs in borrowed words such as trak "truck" or sombréro "hat".[20]

Vowels[edit]

Tagalog has ten simple vowels, five long and five short, and four diphthongs.[20] Before appearing in the area north of Pasig river, Tagalog had three vowel qualities: /a/, /i/, and /u/. This was later expanded to five with the introduction of words from Northern Philippine languages like Kapampangan and Ilocano and Spanish words.

They are:

Nevertheless simplification of pairs [o ~ u] and [ɛ ~ i] is likely to take place, especially in some Tagalog as second language, remote location and worker class registers.

The four diphthongs are /aj/, /uj/, /aw/, and /iw/. Long vowels are not written apart from pedagogical texts, where an acute accent is used: á é í ó ú.[20]

Consonants[edit]

Below is a chart of Tagalog consonants. All the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word.

Tagalog consonant phonemes[20]
BilabialAlveolar
/Dental
Post-al.
/Palatal
VelarGlottal
Nasalmnɲŋ
Stoppbtdkgʔ
Fricativesʃh
Approximantljw
Flapɾ

/tʃ dʒ ʃ/ are written ts, dy, sy.

Glottal stop is not indicated.[20] Glottal stops are most likely to occur when:

Grammar[edit]

Further information: Tagalog grammar

Writing system[edit]

Baybayin[edit]

Main article: Baybayin

Tagalog was written in an abugida, or alphasyllabary, called Baybayin prior to the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, in the 16th century. This particular writing system was composed of symbols representing three vowels and 14 consonants. Belonging to the Brahmic family of scripts, it shares similarities with the Old Kawi script of Java and is believed to be descended from the script used by the Bugis in Sulawesi.

Although it enjoyed a relatively high level of literacy, Baybayin gradually fell into disuse in favor of the Latin alphabet taught by the Spaniards during their rule.

There has been confusion of how to use Baybayin, which is actually an abugida, or an alphasyllabary, rather than an alphabet. Not every letter in the Latin alphabet is represented with one of those in the Baybayin alphasyllabary. Rather than letters being put together to make sounds as in Western languages, Baybayin uses symbols to represent syllables.

A "kudlit" resembling an apostrophe is used above or below a symbol to change the vowel sound after its consonant. If the kudlit is used above, the vowel is an "E" or "I" sound. If the kudlit is used below, the vowel is an "O" or "U" sound. A special kudlit was later added by Spanish missionaries in which a cross placed below the symbol to get rid of the vowel sound all together, leaving a consonant. Previously, the consonant without a following vowel was simply left out (for example, bundok being rendered as budo), forcing the reader to use context when reading such words.

Example:

Ba Be Bo B (in Baybayin)

Baybayin is encoded in Unicode version 3.2 in the range 1700-171F under the name "Tagalog".

ᜀ
a
ᜁ
e/i
ᜂ
o/u
ᜃ
ka
ᜄ
ga
ᜅ
nga
ᜆ
ta
ᜇ
da/ra
ᜈ
na
ᜉ
pa
ᜊ
ba
ᜋ
ma
ᜌ
ya
ᜎ
la
ᜏ
wa
ᜐ
sa
ᜑ
ha

vowels

a
i
e
u
o

b

bᜊ᜔
ba
bi
be
ᜊᜒ
bu
bo
ᜊᜓ

k

kᜃ᜔
ka
ki
ke
ᜃᜒ
ku
ko
ᜃᜓᜓ

d/r

d/rᜇ᜔
da/ra
di/ri
de/re
ᜇᜒ
du/ru
do/ro
ᜇᜓ

g

gᜄ᜔
ga
gi
ge
ᜄᜒ
gu
go
ᜄᜓ

h

hᜑ᜔
ha
hi
he
ᜑᜒ
hu
ho
ᜑᜓ

l

lᜎ᜔
la
li
le
ᜎᜒ
lu
lo
ᜎᜓ

m

mᜋ᜔
ma
mi
me
ᜋᜒ
mu
mo
ᜋᜓ

n

nᜈ᜔
na
ni
ne
ᜈᜒ
nu
no
ᜈᜓ

ng

ngᜅ᜔
nga
ngi
nge
ᜅᜒ
ngu
ngo
ᜅᜓ

p

pᜉ᜔
pa
pi
pe
ᜉᜒ
pu
po
ᜉᜓ

s

sᜐ᜔
sa
si
se
ᜐᜒ
su
so
ᜐᜓ

t

tᜆ᜔
ta
ti
te
ᜆᜒ
tu
to
ᜆᜓ

w

wᜏ᜔
wa
wi
we
ᜏᜒ
wu
wo
ᜏᜓ

y

yᜌ᜔
ya
yi
ye
ᜌᜒ
yu
yo
ᜌᜓ

Latin alphabet[edit]

Abecedario[edit]

Until the first half of the 20th century, Tagalog was widely written in a variety of ways based on Spanish orthography consisting of 32 letters called 'ABECEDARIO':[21][22]

MajusculeMinusculeMajusculeMinuscule
AaNgng
BbÑñ
CcN͠g / Ñgn͠g / ñg
ChchOo
DdPp
EeQq
FfRr
GgRrrr
HhSs
IiTt
JjUu
KkVv
LlWw
LlllXx
MmYy
NnZz

Abakada[edit]

Main article: Abakada

When the national language was based on Tagalog, grammarian Lope K. Santos introduced a new alphabet consisting of 20 letters called ABAKADA in school grammar books called balarilà:[23][24][25]

MajusculeMinusculeMajusculeMinuscule
AaNn
BbNgng
KkOo
DdPp
EeRr
GgSs
HhTt
IiUu
LlWw
MmYy

Revised alphabet[edit]

Main article: Filipino alphabet

In 1987 the department of Education, Culture and Sports issued a memo stating that the Philippine alphabet had changed from the Pilipino-Tagalog Abakada version to a new 28-letter alphabet[26][27] to make room for loans, especially family names from Spanish and English:[28]

MajusculeMinusculeMajusculeMinuscule
AaÑñ
BbNgng
CcOo
DdPp
EeQq
FfRr
GgSs
HhTt
IiUu
JjVv
KkWw
LlXx
MmYy
NnZz

ng and mga[edit]

See also: ng (digraph)

The genitive marker ng and the plural marker mga are abbreviations that are pronounced nang [naŋ] and mangá [mɐˈŋa]. Ng, in most cases, roughly translates to "of" (ex. Siya ay kapatid ng nanay ko. She is the sibling of my mother) while nang usually means "when" or can describe how something is done or to what extent (equivalent to the suffix -ly in English adverbs), among other uses. Mga (pronounced as "muh-NGA") denotes plurality as adding an s, es, or ies does in English (ex. Iyan ang mga damit ko. (Those are my clothes)).

In the first example, nang is used in lieu of the word noong (when; Noong si Hudas ay madulas). In the second, nang describes that the person woke up (gumising) early (maaga); gumising nang maaga. In the third, nang described up to what extent that Juan improved (gumaling), which is "greatly" (nang todo). In the latter two examples, the ligature na and its variants -ng and -g may also be used (Gumising na maaga/Maagang gumising; Gumaling na todo/Todong gumaling).

The longer nang may also have other uses, such as a ligature that joins a repeated word:

po/ho and opo/oho[edit]

The words po/ho and opo/oho are traditionally used as polite iterations of the affirmative "oo" ("yes"). It is generally used when addressing elders or superiors such as bosses or teachers.

"Po" and "opo" are specifically used to denote a high level of respect when addressing older persons of close affinity like parents, relatives, teachers and family friends. "Ho" and "oho" are generally used to politely address older neighbours, strangers, public officials, bosses and nannies, and may suggest a distance in societal relationship and respect determined by the addressee's social rank and not their age. However, "po" and "opo" can be used in any case in order to express an elevation of respect.

Used in the affirmative:

Po/Ho may also be used in negation.

Vocabulary and borrowed words[edit]

Tagalog vocabulary is composed mostly of words of native Austronesian origin (most of the words that end with the diphthongs -iw and -aw, e.g. words such as banlaw, saliw, etc.). However it has a significant number Spanish loanwords. Spanish is the language that has bequeathed the most loanwords to Tagalog. According to linguists, Spanish has even surpassed Malay in terms of loanwords borrowed. About 40% of everyday (informal) Tagalog conversation is practically made up of Spanish loanwords.

Tagalog also includes loanwords from Indian (Vedic Sanskrit, Sanskrit and Tamil), Chinese (Hokkien, Yue Chinese (Cantonese), and Mandarin), Japanese and other Japonic languages,[29] Arabic, Persian, various Altaic languages (which came from various ancient Central Asian and Chinese merchants settled in the Philippines through the time of the Silk Road trade[30][31]), Nahuatl (Aztec) and English. Examples of Tagalog words that are Altaic in origin are the words pera, ulan, bayan, tabi, aral, etc.[citation needed] In pre-Hispanic times, Trade Malay was widely known and spoken throughout Southeast Asia.

Due to trade with Mexico via the Manila galleons from the 16th to the 19th centuries, many words from Nahuatl were introduced to Tagalog, but some of them were replaced by Spanish loanwords in the latter part of the Spanish colonization in the islands.

English has borrowed some words from Tagalog, such as abaca, barong, balisong, boondocks, jeepney, Manila hemp, pancit, ylang-ylang, and yaya, although the vast majority of these borrowed words are only used in the Philippines as part of the vocabularies of Philippine English.[citation needed]

Other examples of Tagalog words used in English
ExampleDefinition
boondocksmeaning "rural" or "back country," was imported by American soldiers stationed in the Philippines following the Spanish–American War as a mispronounced version of the Tagalog bundok, which means "mountain."
cogona type of grass, used for thatching. This word came from the Tagalog word kugon (a species of tall grass).
ylang-ylanga tree whose fragrant flowers are used in perfumes.
Abacaa type of hemp fiber made from a plant in the banana family, from abaká.
Manila hempa light brown cardboard material used for folders and paper usually made from abaca hemp.
Capizalso known as window oyster, is used to make windows.

Tagalog has contributed several words to Philippine Spanish, like barangay (from balan͠gay, meaning barrio), the abacá, cogon, palay, dalaga etc.

Tagalog words of foreign origin[edit]

Cognates with other Philippine languages[edit]

Tagalog wordmeaninglanguage of originoriginal spelling
bakitwhyKapampanganobakit
akyatclimb/step upKapampanganukyát/mukyat
atandKapampanganat
bundokmountainKapampanganbunduk
huwagdon'tPangasinanag
asodogSouth Cordilleran or Ilocano (also Ilokano)aso
tayowe (inc.)South Cordilleran or Ilocanotayo
ito, nitothis, itsSouth Cordilleran or Ilocanoto
ngofCebuano
Hiligaynon
Waray
Kapampangan
Pangasinan
Ilocano
sa
sg (pronounced as /sang/)
han
ning
na
nga
arawsun; dayVisayan languagesadlaw
angdefinite articleVisayan languages
Central Bikol
ang
an

Austronesian comparison chart[edit]

Below is a chart of Tagalog and twenty other Austronesian languages comparing thirteen words.

Englishonetwothreefourpersonhousedogcoconutdaynewwewhatfire
Tagalogisadalawatatloapattaobahayasoniyogarawbagotayoanoapoy
Tombulu (Minahasa)esazua (rua)teluepattouwaléasupo'po'endowerukai, kitaapaapi
Bikolsaroduwatuloapattawoharongayamniyogaldawba-gokitaanokalayo
Cebuanousa/isaduhatuloupattawobalayirolubiadlawbag-okitaunsakalayo
Warayusaduhatuloupattawobalayayam/idolubiadlawbag-okitaanukalayo
Hiligaynonisaduhatatloapattawobalayidolubiadlawbag-okitaanokalayo
Aklanonisaea, sambilog, unodaywa, dostatlo, tresap-at, kwatrotawobaeayayamniyogadlawbag-okitaanokaeayo
Kinaray-asaradarwatatloapattawobalayayamniyogadlawbag-okitaanokalayo
Tausughambuukduwatuupattaubayiru'niyugadlawba-gukitaniyuunukayu
Maranaoisadowat'lophattawwalayasoneyoggawi'ebagotanotonaaapoy
Kapampanganmetungadwaatluapattaubaleasungungutaldobayuikatamunanuapi
Pangasinansakeydua, duaratalo, taloraapat, apatiratooabongasoniyogageobalosikatayoantopool
Ilokanomaysaduatallouppattaobalayasoniogaldawbarodatayoaniaapoy
Ivatanasadadowatatdoapattaovahaychitoniyoyarawva-yoyatenangoapoy
Ibanagtaddayduatalluappa'tolaybalaykituniukaggawbagusittamanniafi
Yogadtataaddutalluappattolaybinalayatuiyyogagawbagusikitamganiafuy
Gaddangantetaddwatalloappattolaybalayatuayogawbawuikkanetamsanenayafuy
Tbolisotulewutlufattaugunuohulefokdawlomitekuyteduofih
Indonesiansatuduatigaempatorangrumah/balaianjingkelapa/nyiurharibarukitaapa/anuapi
Javanesesijilorotelupapatuwongomahasuklapa/kambilharianyar/enggalkitaapa/anugeni
Acehnesesaduwalhèëpeuëtureuëngrumoh/balèëasèëuuroëbarô(geu)tanyoëpeuëapuy
Lampungesesaikhuatelupakjelemalambanasunyiwikhanibarukhamapiapui
Buginesesediduatellueppataubolaasukalukuessobaruidiagaapi
Bataknesesadaduatoluopathalakjabubiangharambiriaribaruhitaahaapi
Tetumidaruatoluhaatemaumaasunuuloronfounitasaidaahi
Maoritahiruatoruwhatangatawharekurikokonatirahoutauaahaahi
Tuvaluantasiluatolutokofalekurimokuasofoutāuaāafi
Hawaiiankahiluakolukanakahale'īlioniuaohoukākouahaahi
Banjareseasaduwataluampaturangrūmahhadupankǎlapahǎrihanyarkamiapaapi
Malagasyisaroateloefatraolonatranoalikavoanioandrovaovaoisikainonaafo
Dusunisoduotoluapattulunwalaitasupiasautadauwagutokouonu/nutapui
Ibansatuduatigaempatorangrumahasunyuraribarukitainamaapi

Religious literature[edit]

Religious literature remains one of the most dynamic contributors to Tagalog literature. The first Bible in Tagalog, then called Ang Biblia[32] ("the Bible") and now called Ang Dating Biblia[33] ("the Old Bible"), was published in 1905. In 1970, the Philippine Bible Society translated the Bible into modern Tagalog. Even before the Second Vatican Council, devotional materials in Tagalog had been circulating. At present, there are four circulating Tagalog translations of the Bible—the Magandang Balita Biblia (a parallel translation of the Good News Bible), which is the ecumenical version; the Bibliya ng Sambayanang Pilipino; the 1905 Ang Biblia is a more Protestant version; and the Bagong Sanlibutang Salin ng Banal na Kasulatan, one of about ninety parallel translations of the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures published by Jehovah's Witnesses. The latter was released in 2000. Jehovah's Witnesses previously published a hybrid translation: Ang Biblia was used for the Old Testament, while the Bagong Sanlibutang Salin ng Griegong Kasulatan was used for the New Testament.

When the Second Vatican Council, (specifically the Sacrosanctum Concilium) permitted the universal prayers to be translated into vernacular languages, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines was one of the first to translate the Roman Missal into Tagalog. In fact, the Roman Missal in Tagalog was published as early as 1982, while not published in English until 1985.

Jehovah's Witnesses were printing Tagalog literature at least as early as 1941[34] and The Watchtower (the primary magazine of Jehovah's Witnesses) has been published in Tagalog since at least the 1950s. New releases are now regularly released simultaneously in a number of languages, including Tagalog. The official website of Jehovah's Witnesses also has some publications available online in Tagalog.[35]

Tagalog is quite a stable language, and very few revisions have been made to Catholic Bible translations. Also, as Protestantism in the Philippines is relatively young, liturgical prayers tend to be more ecumenical.

Examples[edit]

Lord's Prayer[edit]

The Lord's Prayer is "Ama Namin" (literally "Our Father") in Tagalog.

Ama namin, sumasalangit ka

Sambahin ang ngalan mó.

Mapasaamin ang kaharian mo.

Sundin ang loób mo,

Dito sa lupà, gaya nang sa langit.

Bigyan Mo kami ngayon ng aming kakanin sa araw-araw,

At patawarin Mo kami sa aming mga sala,

Para nang pagpapatawad namin,

Sa nagkakasala sa amin

At huwag mo kaming ipahintulot sa tukso,

At iadya mó kami sa lahat ng masama.

Sapagkat sa Inyó ang kaharián, at ang kapangyarihan,

At ang kaluwalhatian, ngayon, at magpakailanman.

Amen

Universal Declaration of Human Rights[edit]

This is Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Pangkalahatang Pagpapahayag ng Karapatang Pantao)

Bawat tao'y isinilang na may laya at magkakapantay ang taglay na dangal at karapatan.Sila'y pinagkalooban ng pangangatwiran at budhi na kailangang gamitin nila sa pagtuturingan nila sa diwa ng pagkakapatiran.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.[36]

Numbers[edit]

The numbers (mga bilang) in Tagalog language are of two forms. The first form is native to the Tagalog language and the other from are Spanish loanwords. For example, when a person refers to the number "seven", it can be translated into Tagalog as "pito" or "syete" (Original Spanish is siete).

NumberCardinalSpanish loanword
(Original Spanish)
Ordinal
0sero / wala / bokyasero (cero)-
1isauno (uno)una
2dalawa [dalaua]dos (dos)pangalawa / ikalawa (or ikadalawa in some informal compositions)
3tatlotres (tres)pangatlo / ikatlo
4apatkuwatro (cuatro)pang-apat / ikaapat ("ika" and the number-word are never hyphenated. For numbers, however, they always are.)
5limasingko (cinco)panlima / ikalima
6animsais (seis)pang-anim / ikaanim
7pitosiyete (siete)pampito / ikapito
8walootso (ocho)pangwalo / ikawalo
9siyamnuwebe (nueve)pansiyam / ikasiyam
10sampu [sang puo]diyes (diez)pansampu / ikasampu (or ikapu in some literary compositions)
11labing-isaonse (once)panlabing-isa / pang-onse / ikalabing-isa
12labindalawadose (doce)panlabindalawa / pandose / ikalabindalawa
13labintatlotrese (trece)panlabintatlo / pantrese / ikalabintatlo
14labing-apatkatorse (catorce)panlabing-apat / pangkatorse / ikalabing-apat
15labinlimakinse (quince)panlabinlima / pangkinse / ikalabinlima
16labing-animdissisais (dieciséis)panlabing-anim / pandyes-sais / ikalabing-anim
17labimpitodissisyete (diecisiete)panlabimpito / pandyes-syete / ikalabimpito
18labingwalodissiotso (dieciocho)panlabingwalo / pandyes-otso / ikalabingwalo
19labinsiyamdisinuwebe (diecinueve)panlabinsiyam / pandyes-nwebe / ikalabinsiyam
20dalawampubente / beinte (veinte)pandalawampu / ikadalawampu (or ikalawampu in some literary compositions both formal and informal (rarely used))
30tatlumputrenta / treinta (treinta)pantatlumpu / ikatatlumpu (or ikatlumpu in some literary compositions both formal and informal (rarely used))
40apatnapukuwarenta (cuarenta)pang-apatnapu / ikaapatnapu
41apatnapu't isakuwarenta'y uno (cuarenta y uno)pang-apatnapu't isa / ikaapatnapu't isa
50limampusingkuwenta (cincuenta)panlimampu / ikalimampu
60animnapusesenta (sesenta)pang-animnapu / ikaanimnapu
70pitumpusetenta (setenta)pampitumpu / ikapitumpu
80walumpuotsenta / utsenta (ochenta)pangwalumpu / ikawalumpu
90siyamnapunobenta (noventa)pansiyamnapu / ikasiyamnapu
100sandaansiyento (cien)pan(g)-(i)sandaan / ikasandaan (or ika-isandaan in some formal or informal literary compositions (rarely used))
200dalawandaandos siyentos (doscientos)pandalawandaan / ikadalawandaan (or ikalawandaan in some formal or informal literary compositions (rarely used))
300tatlondaantres siyentos (trescientos)pantatlondaan / ikatatlondaan (or ikatlondaan in some formal or informal literary compositions (rarely used))
400apat na raankuwatro siyentos (cuatrocientos)pang-apat na raan / ikaapat na raan
500limandaankinyentos (quinientos)panlimandaán / ikalimandaán
600anim na raansais siyentos (seiscientos)pang-anim na raan / ikaanim na raan
700pitondaansiyete siyentos (sietecientos)pampitondaan / ikapitondaan (or ikapitong raan)
800walondaanotso siyentos (ochocientos)pangwalondaan / ikawalondaan (or ikawalong raan)
900siyam na raannuwebe siyentos (novecientos)pansiyam na raan / ikasiyam na raan
1,000sanlibomil (mil)pan(g)-(i)sanlibo / ikasanlibo
2,000dalawanlibodos mil (dos mil)pangalawang libo / ikalawanlibo
10,000sanlaksa / sampung libodiyes mil (diez mil)pansampung libo / ikasampung libo
20,000dalawanlaksa / dalawampung libobente mil (veinte mil)pangalawampung libo / ikalawampung libo
100,000sangyuta / sandaang libosiyento mil (cien mil) 
200,000dalawangyuta / dalawandaang libodos siyento mil (dos cientos mil) 
1,000,000sang-angaw / sangmilyonmilyon (un millón) 
2,000,000dalawang-angaw / dalawang milyondos milyon (dos millones) 
10,000,000sangkati / sampung milyondyes milyon (diez millones) 
100,000,000sampungkati / sandaang milyonsyento milyon (cien millones) 
1,000,000,000sang-atos / sambilyonbilyon (un billón) 
1,000,000,000,000sang-ipaw / santrilyontrilyon (un trillón) 
NumberEnglishOrdinal SpanishCardinal
1stfirstprimerouna / ika-isa
2ndsecondsegundoikalawa
3rdthirdterceroikatlo
4thfourthcuartoika-apat
5thfifthquintoikalima
6thsixthsextoika-anim
7thseventhséptimoikapito
8theighthoctavoikawalo
9thninthnovenoikasiyam
10thtenthdécimoikasampu
1/2halfmediakalahati
1/4quartercuartakapat
3/5three-fifthstres quintas partestatlong-kalima
2/3two-thirdsdos terciosdalawang-katlo
1 1/2one halfun medioisa't kalahati
2 2/3two two-thirdsdos de dos terciosdalawa't dalawang-katlo
0.5salapi / lima hinati sa sampu
0.005bagol / lima hinati sa sanlibo
1.25isa't dalawampu't lima hinati sa sampu
2.025dalawa't dalawampu't lima hinati sa sanlibo
25%twenty-five percentveinticinco por cientodalawampu't-limang bahagdan
50%fifty percentcincuenta por cientolimampung bahagdan
75%seventy-five percentsetenta y cinco por cientopitumpu't-limang bahagdan

Months and days[edit]

Months and days in Tagalog language are also Tagalized form of Spanish months and days. "Month" in Tagalog is buwan (the word moon is also buwan in Tagalog) and "day" is araw (the word sun is also araw in Tagalog). Unlike Spanish, months and days in Tagalog are capitalized whenever they appear in a sentence.

MonthOriginal SpanishTagalog (abbreviation)
JanuaryEneroEnero (Ene.)
FebruaryFebreroPebrero (Peb.)
MarchMarzoMarso (Mar.)
AprilAbrilAbril (Abr.)
MayMayoMayo (Mayo)
JuneJunioHunyo (Hun.)
JulyJulioHulyo (Hul.)
AugustAgostoAgosto (Ago.)
SeptemberSeptiembreSetyembre (Set.)
OctoberOctubreOktubre (Okt.)
NovemberNoviembreNobyembre (Nob.)
DecemberDiciembreDisyembre (Dis.)
DayOriginal SpanishTagalog
MondayLunesLunes
TuesdayMartesMartes
WednesdayMiércolesMiyerkules / Myerkules
ThursdayJuevesHuwebes / Hwebes
FridayViernesBiyernes / Byernes
SaturdaySábadoSabado
SundayDomingoLinggo

Time[edit]

Time in Tagalog language are also Tagalized form of Spanish time. "Time" in Tagalog is panahon or more commonly, oras. Unlike Spanish, time in Tagalog are capitalized whenever they appear in a sentence.

TimeEnglishOriginal SpanishTagalog
1 hourOne hourUna horaIsang oras
2 minTwo minutesDos minutosDalawang sandali/minuto
3 secThree secondsTres segundosTatlong saglit/segundo
MorningMañanaUmaga
AfternoonTardeHapon
Evening/NightNocheGabi
NoonMedio diaTanghali
MidnightMedia nocheHatingabi
01.00 amOne o'clock morningUna de la mañanaIka-isa ng umaga
07.00 pmSeven o'clock nightSiete de la nocheIkapito ng gabi
01.15Quarter past one
Fifteen past one
Forty-five to two
Una y cuartoKapat makalipas mag-ikaisa
Labinlima makalipas mag-ikaisa
Apatnapu't-lima bago mag-ikaisa
02.30Half past two
Thirty past two
Dos y mediaKalahati makalipas mag-ikalawa
Tatlumpu makalipas mag-ikalawa
03.45Three-quarter past three
Forty-five past three
Fifteen to four
Tres y cuarenta y cincoTatlong-kapat makalipas mag-ikatlo
Apatnapu't-lima makalipas mag-ikatlo
Labinlima bago mag-ikaapat
04.25Twenty-five past four
Thirty-five to four
Cuatro y veinticincoDalawampu't-lima makalipas mag-ikaapat
Tatlumpu't-lima bago mag-ikaapat
05.35Thirty-five past five
Twenty-five to six
Cinco y treinta y cincoTatlumpu't-lima makalipas mag-ikalima
Dalawampu't-lima bago mag-ikaanim

Common phrases[edit]

EnglishTagalog (with Pronunciation)
FilipinoPilipino [ˌpiːliˈpiːno]
EnglishInglés [ʔɪŋˈɡlɛs]
TagalogTagalog [tɐˈɡaːloɡ]
What is your name?Anó ang pangalan ninyo/nila*? (plural or polite) [ɐˈno aŋ pɐˈŋaːlan nɪnˈjo], Anó ang pangalan mo? (singular) [ɐˈno aŋ pɐˈŋaːlan mo]
How are you?kumustá [kʊmʊsˈta]
Good morning!Magandáng umaga! [mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ uˈmaːɡa]
Good noontime! (from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m.)Magandáng tanghali! [mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ taŋˈhaːlɛ]
Good afternoon! (from 1 p.m. to 6:00 p.m.)Magandáng hapon! [mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ ˈhaːpon]
Good evening!Magandáng gabí! [mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ ɡɐˈbɛ]
Good-byepaálam [pɐˈʔaːlam]
PleaseDepending on the nature of the verb, either pakí- [pɐˈki] or makí- [mɐˈki] is attached as a prefix to a verb. ngâ [ŋaʔ] is optionally added after the verb to increase politeness. (e.g. Pakipasa ngâ ang tinapay. ("Can you pass the bread, please?"))
Thank yousalamat [sɐˈlaːmat]
This oneito [ʔiˈtoh], sometimes pronounced [ʔɛˈtoh] (literally—"it", "this")
That oneiyan [ʔiˈjan], When pointing to something at greater distances: iyun [ʔiˈjʊn] or iyon [ʔiˈjon]
Heredito [dɪˈtoh], heto [hɛˈtoh] ("Here it is")
Theredoon [dʒan], hayan [hɑˈjan] ("There it is")
How much?Magkano? [mɐɡˈkaːno]
Yesoo [ˈoːʔo]

opô [ˈʔopoʔ] or ohô [ˈʔohoʔ] (formal/polite form)

Nohindî [hɪnˈdɛʔ], often shortened to [dɛʔ]

hindî pô (formal/polite form)

I don't knowhindî ko álam [hɪnˈdɛʔ ko aːlam]

Very informal: ewan [ʔɛˈʊɑn], archaic aywan [ɑjˈʊɑn] (closest English equivalent: colloquial dismissive 'Whatever')

Sorrypasensya pô (literally from the word "patience") or paumanhin po [pɐˈsɛːnʃa poʔ] patawad po [pɐtaːwad poʔ] (literally—"asking your forgiveness")
Becausekasí [kɐˈsɛ] or dahil [dɑˈhɪl]
Hurry!dalí! [dɐˈli], bilís! [bɪˈlis]
Againmulí [muˈli], ulít [ʊˈlɛt]
I don't understandHindî ko naiintindihan [hɪnˈdiː ko nɐʔɪɪnˌtɪndiˈhan] or

Hindi ko nauunawaan [hɪnˈdiː ko nɐʔʊʊnawaʔˌʔan]

What?Anó? [ɐˈno]
Where?Saán? [sɐˈʔan], Nasaán? [ˌnaːsɐˈʔan] (literally - "Where at?")
Why?Bakít? [bɑˈkɛt]
When?Kailan? [kɑjˈlɑn], [kɑˈɪˈlɑn], or [kɛˈlɑn] (literally—"In what order?/"At what count?"")
How?Paánó? [pɑˌɐˈno] (literally—"By what?")
Where's the bathroom?Nasaán ang banyo? [ˌnaːsɐˈʔan ʔaŋ ˈbaːnjo]
Generic toastMabuhay! [mɐˈbuːhaɪ] [literally—"long live"]
Do you speak English?Marunong ka bang magsalitâ ng Ingglés? [mɐˈɾuːnoŋ ka baŋ mɐɡsaliˈtaː naŋ ʔɪŋˈɡlɛs],

"Marunong po ba kayong magsailitâ ng Ingglés?" (polite version for elders and strangers) Marunong ka bang mag-Ingglés? (short form), "Marunong po ba kayong mag-Ingglés? (short form, polite version for elders and strangers)

It is fun to live.Masaya ang mabuhay! [mɐˈsaˈja ʔaŋ mɐˈbuːhaɪ] or Masaya'ng mabuhay (contracted version)

*Pronouns such as niyo (2nd person plural) and nila (3rd person plural) are used on a single 2nd person in polite or formal language. See Tagalog grammar.

Proverbs[edit]

Ang hindî marunong lumingón sa pinanggalingan ay hindî makaráratíng sa paroroonan. (José Rizal)
One who does not learn to look back to where he came from, will never get to where he is going.

Hulí man daw at magalíng, nakákahábol pa rin. (Hulí man raw at magalíng, nakákahábol pa rin.)
If one is behind but capable, one will still be able to catch up.

Magbirô ka na sa lasíng, huwág lang sa bagong gising.
Make fun of someone drunk, if you must, but never make fun of someone who just woke up.

Aanhin pa ang damo kung patay na ang kabayo?.
For what use is the grass if the horse is already dead?

Ang sakít ng kalingkingan, ramdám ng buong katawán.
The pain of the pinkie is felt by the whole body. (In a group: if one goes down, the rest comes down with it.)

Nasa hulí ang pagsisisi.
Regret always comes last.

Pagkáhába-haba man ng prusisyón, sa simbahan pa rin ang tulóy.
The procession (of Saints, a Catholic tradition) may stretch on and on, but it still ends up at the church. (In romance: refers to how certain people are destined to be married. In general: refers to how some things are inevitable, no matter how long you try and postpone it.)

Kung dî mádaán sa santong dasalan, daanin sa santong paspasan.
If you can't get it through holy prayer, get it through blessed force. (In romance and courting: santong paspasan literally means 'Holy speeding' and is a euphemism for sex. It refers to the two styles of courting by Filipino boys. One is the traditional restrained courting favored by the older generations, which often featured serenades and doing chores for the girl's parents. It is notorious for taking ages before getting the girl to say yes. While the other is the riskier seduction which does away with the courting traditions. It can either lead to getting a slap on the face or a pregnancy out of wedlock. The conclusion is what western cultures would call a 'shotgun marriage', therefore the suitor gets the girl one way or the other. The proverb is also applied in terms of diplomacy and negotiation.)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
  2. ^ Filipino at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  3. ^ "Educational characteristics of the Filipinos". Census.gov.ph. 2005-03-18. Retrieved 2012-06-07. 
  4. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Tagalogic". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  5. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Tagalog/Filipino". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  6. ^ According to the OED and Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  7. ^ Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000
  8. ^ Zorc, David. 1977. The Bisayan Dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and Reconstruction. Pacific Linguistics C.44. Canberra: The Australian National University
  9. ^ Blust, Robert. 1991. The Greater Central Philippines hypothesis. Oceanic Linguistics 30:73–129
  10. ^ 1897 Constitution of Biak-na-Bato, Article VIII, Filipiniana.net, retrieved 2008-01-16 
  11. ^ 1935 Philippine Constitution, Article XIV, Section 3, Chanrobles Law Library, retrieved 2007-12-20 
  12. ^ a b Manuel L. Quezon III, Quezon’s speech proclaiming Tagalog the basis of the National Language, quezon.ph, retrieved 2010-03-26 
  13. ^ a b c Andrew Gonzalez (1998), "The Language Planning Situation in the Philippines" (PDF), Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 19 (5, 6): 487–488, doi:10.1080/01434639808666365, retrieved 2007-03-24. 
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  15. ^ a b c 1987 Philippine Constitution, Article XIV, Sections 6–9, Chanrobles Law Library, retrieved 2007-12-20 
  16. ^ Order No. 74 (2009). Department of Education.
  17. ^ Results from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing: Educational characteristics of the Filipinos bat man, National Statistics Office, March 18, 2005, retrieved 2008-01-21 
  18. ^ Results from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing: Population expected to reach 100 million Filipinos in 14 years, National Statistics Office, October 16, 2002, retrieved 2008-01-21 
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  21. ^ Gómez Rivera, Guillermo (April 10, 2001). "The evolution of the native Tagalog alphabet". Philippines: Emanila Community (emanila.com). Views & Reviews. Archived from the original on August 3, 2010. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  22. ^ Signey, Richard, Philippine Journal of Linguistics, Manila, Philippines: Linguistic Society of the Philippines, The Evolution and Disappearance of the "Ğ" in Tagalog orthography since the 1593 Doctrina Christiana, ISSN 0048-3796, OCLC 1791000, retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  23. ^ Linda Trinh Võ; Rick Bonus (2002), Contemporary Asian American communities: intersections and divergences, Temple University Press, pp. 96, 100, ISBN 978-1-56639-938-8 
  24. ^ University of the Philippines College of Education (1971), "Philippine Journal of Education", Philippine Journal of Education (Philippine Journal of Education.) 50: 556 
  25. ^ Perfecto T. Martin (1986), Diksiyunaryong adarna: mga salita at larawan para sa bata, Children's Communication Center, ISBN 978-971-12-1118-9 
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  27. ^ Renato Perdon; Periplus Editions (2005), Renato Perdon, ed., Pocket Tagalog Dictionary: Tagalog-English/English-Tagalog, Tuttle Publishing, pp. vi–vii, ISBN 978-0-7946-0345-8 
  28. ^ Michael G. Clyne (1997), Undoing and redoing corpus planning, Walter de Gruyter, p. 317, ISBN 978-3-11-015509-9 
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  30. ^ Qwikipedia - The Hindu
  31. ^ The Philippines and the circulation and exchanges in the South China Sea during the Late Prehistoric period | Bérénice Bellina - Academia.edu
  32. ^ Worth, Roland H. Biblical Studies On The Internet: A Resource Guide, 2008 (p. 43)
  33. ^ "Genesis 1 Tagalog: Ang Dating Biblia (1905)". Adb.scripturetext.com. Retrieved 2012-07-07. 
  34. ^ 2003 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses p.155.
  35. ^ "Mga Saksi ni Jehova: Opisyal na Web Site ng Watchtower Society". Watchtower.org. Retrieved 2012-06-07. 
  36. ^ The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The United Nations.

External links[edit]