Table of keyboard shortcuts

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For keyboard shortcuts in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Keyboard shortcuts.

In computing, a keyboard shortcut is a sequence or combination of keystrokes on a computer keyboard which invokes commands in software.

Some keyboard shortcuts require the user to press a single key or a sequence of keys one after the other. Other keyboard shortcuts require pressing and holding several keys simultaneously. Keyboard shortcuts may depend on the keyboard layout (localization).

Comparison of keyboard shortcuts[edit]

Main article: Keyboard shortcut

Keyboard shortcuts are a common aspect of most modern operating systems and associated software applications. Their use is pervasive enough that some users consider them an essential element of their routine interactions with a computer. Whether used as a matter of personal preference or for adaptive technology, the pervasiveness of common conventions enables the comparison of keyboard shortcuts across different systems. The following sections detail some of these comparisons in widely used operating systems.

General shortcuts[edit]

A note regarding KDE's shortcuts is that they can be changed and the below list contains the defaults. Some of the combinations are not true for localized versions of operating systems. For example in a non-English version of Windows, the Edit menu is not always bound to the "E" shortcut. Furthermore, many shortcuts (such as CTRL-Z, ALT-E, etc.) are just common conventions and are not handled by the operating system. Whether such commands are implemented (or not) depends on how an actual application program (such as an editor) is written. Not all applications follow (all of) these conventions.

ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOMEEmacsVim
File menuAlt+F, or F10 then FCtrl+F2, then F (requires full keyboard access active, using System Preferences > Keyboard > Keyboard Shortcuts > Full Keyboard Access > All Controls. Alternatively use Ctrl+F7 to toggle this setting.)Alt+FMeta+`, then fAlt+f (gvim)
Edit menuAlt+ECtrl+F2, then EAlt+EMeta+`, then eAlt+e (gvim)
View menuAlt+VCtrl+F2, then VAlt+V
Undo the last operationCtrl+Z, or Alt+← Backspace Cmd+ZCtrl+ZCtrl+x, then u

or Ctrl+/
or Ctrl+_
or Undo

u
Redo the last operationCtrl+Y, or Shift+Alt+← Backspace Shift+ Cmd+Z Shift+Ctrl+Z, or Ctrl+YSame as undo, when undo is exhausted, it redoes. Move the cursor after one or more undos, and further undos will be redos.R
Cut the selection and store it in the clipboardCtrl+X, or Shift+Del Cmd+XCtrl+XCtrl+wx

or "ax to cut in register "a" or "+x to cut in system clipboard

Copy the selection into the clipboardCtrl+C, or Ctrl+Ins Cmd+CCtrl+CMeta+w, or Ctrl+Insy

or "ay or "+y

Paste contents of clipboard at cursorCtrl+V, or Shift+Ins Cmd+VCtrl+VCtrl+y, or Shift+Insp

or "ap to paste the content of the "a" register or "+p to paste the content of the system clipboard

Paste specialCtrl+Alt+V Shift+ Opt+ Cmd+VCtrl+ Shift+VMeta+y
Select all in focused control or windowCtrl+A Cmd+ACtrl+ACtrl+x, then hggVG, unlikely ever needed as most command take an optional range parameter. % means "all in focused windows" here so e.g. to copy all the text, use :%y
Cycle through installed keyboard languages / input methods Shift+Alt, or Win+Space

The latter displays a menu with the currently selected input method highlighted, and debuted in Windows 8.

Cmd+Space (not MBR)

Configure desired keypress in Keyboard and Mouse Preferences, Keyboard Shortcuts, Select the next source in Input menu.[1]

Ctrl+Alt+K via KDE Keyboard

Shift+Alt in GNOME

Ctrl+\

Navigation[edit]

ActionWindowsMac OSKDE/GNOME
New browser window with same page as currentCtrl+N (for both explorer.exe and iexplore.exe)Ctrl+N
New folderCtrl+ Shift+N Shift+ Cmd+NCtrl+ Shift+N
Applications menu Win or
Ctrl+Esc
Alt + "n"

e.g. for _File_ Alt + F

Lock desktop Win+L[2]Ctrl+ Shift+Eject or MBR Ctrl+ Shift+Pwr

(If "Require password after sleep or screen saver" is enabled in "System Preferences — Security & Privacy")

Ctrl+Alt+L
Show desktop Win+D or
Win+M (then use Win+ Shift+M to bring back all windows)
F11Ctrl+Alt+D
Log out user Shift+ Cmd+QCtrl+Alt+Delete
Switch active user Win+L[3]
Task managerCtrl+ Shift+Esc, Ctrl+Alt+Delete[4]Alt+ Cmd+EscCtrl+Esc
Rename objectF2 Enter or F2F2
Open file or program Enter Cmd+O Enter
Switch window (next/previous)Alt+Tab /

Shift+Alt+Tab

Cmd+Tab /

Shift+ Cmd+Tab

Alt+Tab /

Alt+ Shift+Tab

Switch window without dialog (next/previous)Alt+Esc /

Shift+Alt+Esc

Only works within single Applications

Cmd+` / Cmd+~

Alt+Esc /

Shift+Alt+Esc

Run application Win, enter executable name or

Win+R, enter executable name

Cmd+Space, enter executable nameAlt+F2, enter executable name
Search Win, enter executable name or
Win+F
Cmd+Space /

Alt+F

Power management[edit]

ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOME
Place computer into sleep/standby modeSleep (available on some keyboards, configurable in Control Panel → Power Options → Advanced tab dialog box) Opt+ Cmd+Eject[5]Sleep (available on some keyboards, configurable in Control Panel → Power Options → Advanced tab dialog box)
Shutdown computerCtrl+ Opt+ Cmd+Eject

(no confirmation, shutdown is immediate)

Ctrl+Alt+ Shift+PageDown

(KDE; no confirmation, shutdown is immediate)

Restart computerCtrl+ Cmd+Eject[5]

(no confirmation, restart is immediate)

Ctrl+Alt+ Shift+PageUp

(KDE; no confirmation, restart is immediate)

Place display in sleep modeCtrl+ Shift+Eject
Bring up power/sleep dialog boxAlt+F4 (while on Desktop only)Ctrl+Eject

Screenshots[edit]

ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOME
Save screenshot of entire screen as file Win+Print Screen or Print Screen Shift+ Cmd+3Print Screen set the name and click "Save". GNOME Shell [6]
Copy screenshot of entire screen to clipboardPrint Screen or Ctrl+Print ScreenCtrl+ Shift+ Cmd+3Print Screen click "Copy to Clipboard". GNOME Shell [6]
Save screenshot of window as file Shift+ Cmd+4 then SpaceAlt+Print Screen set the name and click "Save". GNOME [6]
Copy screenshot of window to clipboardAlt+Print ScreenCtrl+ Shift+ Cmd+4 then SpaceAlt+Print Screen click "Copy to Clipboard". GNOME [6]
Copy screenshot of arbitrary area to clipboardCtrl+ Shift+ Cmd+4
Save screenshot of arbitrary area as file Shift+ Cmd+4
ScreencastingCtrl+ Shift+Alt+R

[7] [8]

Text editing[edit]

Many of these commands may be combined with Shift to select a region of text.[9]

ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOMEEmacsVim
Delete char to the right of cursorDel or Fn+← BackspaceDel, or Ctrl+d, or Fn+← BackspaceDelCtrl+dx
Delete word to the right of cursorCtrl+Del Opt+Del or
Opt+ Fn+← Backspace
Ctrl+DelMeta+ddw (delete space too)

or de (keep space)

Delete word to the left of cursorCtrl+← Backspace Opt+← BackspaceCtrl+← BackspaceCtrl+← Backspace, or Meta+← Backspacedge (delete space too)

or db (keep space)

Go to start of lineHome, or Fn+ Cmd+ or Ctrl+AHomeCtrl+a, or Home^ (go to first non-space)

or 0 (go to column 0)

Go to end of lineEnd, or Fn+ Cmd+ or Ctrl+EEndCtrl+e, or End$
Go to start of documentCtrl + Home Cmd+Ctrl + HomeMeta+<, or Ctrl+Homegg
Go to end of documentCtrl + End Cmd+Ctrl + EndMeta+>, or Ctrl+EndG
Go to previous wordCtrl+ Opt+Ctrl+Meta+b, or Ctrl+, or Meta+b or ge
Go to next wordCtrl+ Opt+Ctrl+Meta+f, or Ctrl+, or Meta+w or e
Go to previous line, or Ctrl+pCtrl+p, or k or
Go to next line, or Ctrl+nCtrl+n, or j or
Go to previous line break (paragraph)Ctrl+ Opt+Ctrl+ (kword or GNOME)Meta+'{', or Control+{
Go to next line breakCtrl+ Opt+Ctrl+ (kword or GNOME)Meta+'}', or Control+}
Move the cursor down the length of the viewportPage DownFn+Page DownCtrl+v, or Page DownCtrl+f, or Page Down
Move the cursor up the length of the viewportPage UpFn+Page UpMeta+v, or Page UpCtrl+b, or Page Up
FindCtrl+F Cmd+F

Cmd+E (Search with current selection)

Ctrl+F

Ctrl+K (GNOME; interactive search)

Ctrl+s/
Go to next search resultF3 Cmd+GCtrl+G (GNOME) or F3 (KDE)[10]Ctrl+sn
Go to previous search result Shift+F3 Shift+ Cmd+G Shift+Ctrl+G (GNOME) or Shift+F3 (KDE)[10]Ctrl+rN
Search and replaceCtrl+H Cmd+FCtrl+H (GNOME) or Ctrl+R (KDE)Meta+%%s/fosh/fish/gc[11]
Search with a regular expressionCtrl+Meta+sAll search uses regular expressions.
Search and replace with a regular expressionCtrl+Meta+%

Text formatting[edit]

ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOME[12]EmacsVim
BoldCtrl+B Cmd+BCtrl+B
UnderlineCtrl+U Cmd+UCtrl+U
ItalicCtrl+I Cmd+ICtrl+I
Uppercase / Lowercase Shift+F3 Opt+ Cmd+C Shift+F3Meta+u for upper,

Meta+l for lower, Meta+c for capitalized.

gU for upper, gu for lower, ~ to toggle.
SuperscriptCtrl+ Shift++Ctrl+ Cmd++ (Pages and Adobe Applications only?)Ctrl+ Shift+P[13]
SubscriptCtrl+=Ctrl+ Cmd+- (Pages and Adobe Applications only?)Ctrl+ Shift+B[13]
Make selected text larger/smallerCtrl+ Shift+>/Ctrl+ Shift+<,

Ctrl+[/Ctrl+]

Make selected text bulleted or Numbered ItemsCtrl+ Shift+L

Browsers / Go menu[edit]

ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOME
Go to Address BarAlt+D or Alt+C
depending on language
Cmd+LCtrl+L or Alt+D or F6
Go to the previous location in historyAlt+ or ← Backspace Cmd+[ or Cmd+Alt+
Go to the next location in historyAlt+ or Shift+← Backspace (web browser only) Cmd+] or Cmd+Alt+
Go up one level in the navigation hierarchyAlt+ (Vista, 7 or 8 only) or ← Backspace (Windows Explorer) Cmd+Alt+
Go to the starting page defined by the user or applicationAlt+Home Cmd+HomeCtrl+Home (KDE) /

Alt+Home (GNOME)

Web browsers[edit]

ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOMEEmacs-w3mVimperator
Bookmarks menuCtrl+B Cmd+B (Firefox)Alt+Bv:bmarks
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .com)Ctrl+ Enter Cmd+ Enter (Firefox) or

Control+ Enter (Chrome)

Ctrl+ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .org)Ctrl+ Shift+ Enter Shift+ Cmd+ Enter (Firefox)Ctrl+ Shift+ Enter
URL Shortcuts (Adds www. + .net) Shift + Enter Shift + Enter (Firefox) Shift + Enter
Add bookmark for current pageCtrl+D Cmd+DCtrl+B /

Ctrl+D

a:bmark
Add bookmark for current linkMeta+a
Manage bookmarksCtrl+B Cmd+ Opt+B (Chrome/Safari) or

Cmd+ Shift+B (Firefox)

Ctrl+ Shift+R /

Ctrl+B

Focus and select Web search barCtrl+E Cmd+E (Opera) or

Cmd+K (Firefox) or
Opt+ Cmd+F (Safari)

Ctrl+kt (open in a new tab)

or T (open in current tab)

Focus and select address barCtrl+L or F6 or Alt+D Cmd+LCtrl+L or Alt+D or F6g sNone (?). Use O to alter URL, use y to copy it.
Refresh a webpageF5 or Ctrl+R Cmd+RF5 or Ctrl+RRr
Refresh a webpage ignoring cacheCtrl+ Shift+F5 or Ctrl+ Shift+R Cmd+ Shift+RCtrl+ Shift+F5 or Ctrl+ Shift+RR
Open a new windowCtrl+N Cmd+N (Chrome)Ctrl+N:winopen
Zoom Options (zoom in / zoom out / zoom 100%)Ctrl++ / Ctrl+- / Ctrl+0 Cmd++ / Cmd+- / Cmd+0Ctrl++ / Ctrl+- / Ctrl+0zi / zo / zz (text only)

or zI / zO / zZ (text and images)

Tab management[edit]

ActionWindowsMac OSKDE / GNOMEEmacs-w3mVimperator
New tabCtrl+T Cmd+TCtrl+ Shift+N or Ctrl+ Shift+T or Ctrl+TCtrl+c, then Ctrl+tt
Close tabCtrl+W Cmd+WCtrl+W Mozilla Firefox [14] & Opera [15] & Chrom{e,ium} [16] & Arora [17] & Epiphany [18] & Midori

Ctrl+F4 Mozilla Firefox [14] & Opera [15] & Chrom{e,ium} [16] & Arora [17]

d
Close all tabs but the current one Cmd+ Opt+t (Safari)Ctrl+c, then Meta+w
Go to next tabCtrl+Tab Control+Tab or Cmd+ Shift+ (Safari)Ctrl+PageDown or Ctrl+Tab or Ctrl+.Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+ngt
Go to previous tabCtrl+ Shift+Tab Shift+Control+Tab or Cmd+ Shift+ (Safari)Ctrl+PageUp or Ctrl+ Shift+Tab or Ctrl+,Ctrl+c, then Ctrl+pgT
Go to tab-nCtrl+n (Chrome/Firefox/Internet Explorer) Cmd+n (Chrome)Alt+n (Chrome/Firefox) or

Ctrl+n '(Chrome)

First tab: g0

Last tab: g$

Open a previously closed tabCtrl+ Shift+T Cmd+ Shift+T (Firefox/Opera/Chrome)Ctrl+ Shift+T (Firefox/Opera/Chrome)[16][19][20]Ctrl+ Shift+T (Firefox)[19]u
Open a previously closed windowCtrl+ Shift+N (Firefox)

Window management[edit]

ActionWindowsMac OSKDEGNOMEEmacs
Pop up window menuAlt+SpaceAlt+F3Alt+SpaceCtrl+`, then b
Close the focused windowAlt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 or Ctrl+W or Alt+Space then C[21] Cmd+WAlt+F4Alt+F4Ctrl+x, then k
Restore the focused window to its previous sizeAlt+Space then R[21]Alt+F3 then XAlt+F5Ctrl+x, then r, then j, then letter of the window state register.
Move the focused windowAlt+Space then M[21] then Arrow Keys and Enter(to save location)Alt+Mouse /

Alt+F3 then M then Arrow Keys

Alt+Mouse /

Alt+F7 then Arrow Keys

Resize the focused windowAlt+Space then S[21] then Arrow KeysAlt+F3 then S then Arrow KeysAlt+F8 then Arrow KeysCtrl+x, then ^ vertically
Hide the focused window Cmd+HMeta+x, then bury-buffer RET, then Ret
Hide all except the focused window Cmd+ Option+H
Lower the focused windowAlt+Esc
Minimize the focused windowAlt+Space then N,[21] or Win+ (Windows 7 and Vista Home Premium) Cmd+MAlt+F3 then NAlt+F9Meta+x, then bury-buffer RET, then Ret
Maximize the focused windowAlt+Space then X,[21] or Win+ (Windows 7 and Windows 8) Cmd+LAlt+F3 then XAlt+F10Ctrl+x, then 1
Maximize horizontallyAvailable, but no defaultAvailable, but no default
Maximize vertically Win+ Shift+ (Windows 7 and Windows 8)Available ('Zoom'), but no defaultAvailable, but no defaultAvailable, but no default
Minimize all Win+M or Win+D Cmd+Alt+MAvailable, but no defaultCtrl+Alt+D
Minimize all non focused windows Win+Home (Windows 7 and Windows 8.1)Available, but no default
Undo minimize all Shift+ Win+MAvailable, but no defaultCtrl+Alt+D
Switch fullscreen/normal sizeF11 Cmd+ Shift+FF11F11
Show the window in full screen mode, with no border, menubar, toolbar or statusbarDepends on application, system default: Cmd+CTRL+FCtrl+ Shift+FCtrl+F11
Rollup/down windowAvailable, but no defaultAlt+F12
Show all open windows Win+Tab F9 or

Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[22][23]

Win works per desktop on Gnome 3+Ctrl+x, then Ctrl+b
Show all windows of current applicationF3 or

Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[22][23]

Ctrl+`Ctrl+x, then Ctrl+b
Show all workspacesF8 or

Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[22][23]

Win then mouse over the desktop bar on the right edge of the screen
Move window to left/right/up/down workspace Win+/ (Windows 7 and Windows 8)Available, but no defaultCtrl+Alt+ Shift+

/ / /

Move window between multiple monitors Win+ Shift+/ (Windows 7 and Windows 8)
Move window to workspace nAvailable, but no default
Switch to next/previous workspace listAvailable, but no default
Go to workspace nCtrl+nCtrl+Fn
Go to left/right/up/down workspace[24]Ctrl+ /

Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ (OS X 10.5 to 10.6), Ctrl+ / Ctrl+ (OS X 10.7)

Available, but no defaultCtrl+Alt+ /

/ /

Quit application of current windowAlt+F4 or Ctrl+F4 varies[25] Cmd+Q[26]Ctrl+Alt+Escq
Close dialogEscEsc
Open/Focus (preview) pinned program on the taskbar Win+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Windows Taskbar (Windows 7 and Windows 8.1)
Open new program window of pinned program in Quick Launch Win+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Quick Launch toolbar (Windows Vista, 7 and 8.1)
Open new program window of the pinned program on the taskbar (if program is already opened) Win+ Shift+(#) where "#" is the position of the program on the Windows Taskbar (Windows 7 and Windows 8.1)
Focus the first taskbar entry. Pressing again will cycle through them Win+T, you can back and forth. Hold Shift to cycle backwards (Windows 7 and Windows 8.1)
Peek at the desktop Win+Space (Windows 7 only)F11 or

Move mouse pointer to configured hot corner or active screen corner[22][23]

Bring gadgets to the front of the Z-order and cycle between gadgets Win+G (Windows Vista,7) or Win+Space (Vista only, no cycling)
External display options (mirror, extend desktop, etc.) Win+P (Windows 7 and Windows 8)

User interface navigation (widgets and controls)[edit]

ActionWindowsMac OSKDEGNOME
Moves keyboard focus to next/previous controlTab / Shift+Tab With full keyboard access active (System Preferences > Keyboard > Keyboard Shortcuts > Full Keyboard Access > All Controls)

Tab / Shift+Tab

Tab / Shift+Tab Tab / Shift+Tab

Ctrl+Tab / Shift+Ctrl+Tab

Pop up tooltip for currently focused control Shift+F1Ctrl+F1
Show context-sensitive help for currently focused window or control Shift+F1 Cmd+? Shift+F1 Shift+F1
Give focus to next/previous paneCtrl+F6 / Alt+F6 Cmd+`F6 / Shift+F6
Give focus to splitter bar in paned windowF8
Give focus to window's menu barF10 or Alt Cmd+ Shift+/, then type command name, or
Ctrl+F2 (or Fn+Ctrl+F2 on some keyboards - requires full keyboard access active using System Preferences > Keyboard > Keyboard Shortcuts > Full Keyboard Access > All Controls))
AltF10
Pop up contextual menu for currently selected objects (aka context menu) Shift+F10 or MenuVaries with laptop / extended keyboard type; enable Mouse keys in Universal Access, then Function+Ctrl+5 or Ctrl+5 (numeric keypad) or Function+Ctrl+i (laptop) Menu Menu or Shift+F10
Toggle selected state of focused checkbox, radio button, or toggle buttonSpaceSpaceSpaceSpace
Activate focused button, menu item etc. EnterSpace (also Enter for menu items) Enter Enter
Select/move to first/last item in selected widgetHome / EndHome / End
Scroll selected view by one page up/left/down/right /

(or Fn+}+Fn+ on some keyboards)

PageUp / Ctrl+PageUp /
PageDown / Ctrl+PageDown
Scroll selected view to top/bottom or on MacBook Pro Fn + Opt +

or on MacBook Pro Fn + Opt +

Switch focus to the next/previous tab within a windowCtrl+Tab Ctrl+Tab /

Cmd+`

Ctrl+Tab ->

Ctrl+ Shift+Tab <-

Switch focus to the next/previous panel on the desktopCtrl+Alt+Tab / Shift+Ctrl+Alt+Tab
Switch focus to the next/previous panel (without dialog)Ctrl+Alt+Esc /

Shift+Ctrl+Alt+Esc

Command line shortcuts[edit]

Below is a list of common keyboard shortcuts that are used in a command line environment.

ActionMicrosoft Windows
(cmd.exe)
Microsoft Windows
(Windows PowerShell)
Unix/Linux/Mac OS X
(bash)
Unix/Linux/Mac OS X
(POSIX shell)
Scroll through History of typed commands/// or Ctrl+P/Ctrl+NESC K / ESC J
Signal end-of-fileCtrl+ZCtrl+D
Abort current command/typingCtrl+CCtrl+CCtrl+CCtrl+C
Erase word to the leftCtrl+← BackspaceCtrl+W
Erase word to the rightCtrl+DeleteAlt+D
Erase line to the leftCtrl+HomeCtrl+HomeCtrl+U
Erase line to the rightCtrl+EndCtrl+EndCtrl+K
Yank/paste previously erased stringCtrl+Y
Move one word to the left (backward)Ctrl+Alt+Alt+B
Move one word to the right (forward)Ctrl+Alt+Alt+F
Move to beginning of lineHomeHomeCtrl+A

or Home

Move to end of lineEndEndCtrl+E

or End

Reverse search of historyF8F8Ctrl+R
Stop execution of the current jobCtrl+Z
Insert the next character typed verbatimCtrl+V
Autocomplete command/file nameTab (enabled by default in Windows XP and later)Tab Tab (usually once)Esc (usually twice)
Paste contents of clipboard at cursor Shift+Ins
Scroll window up Shift+PageUp (may not work in some versions of Windows XP) Shift+PageUp
Scroll window down Shift+PageDown (may not work in some versions of Windows XP) Shift+PageDown

Accessibility[edit]

ActionWindowsMac OSKDEGNOME
Utility Manager Win+U
Use keyboard to control cursor(Left Alt+Left Shift+Numlock[27]
Allow user to press shortcuts one key at a time( Shift 5 times)***( Shift 5 times) [28]
Hear beep when -lock key pressed(Numlock for 5 seconds)
Stop/slow repeating characters when key is pressed(Right Shift for 8 seconds)***( Shift for 8 seconds)[29]

[30][31]

Inverse (Reverse Colors) ModeLeft Alt+Left Shift+PrtScn Cmd+ Opt+Ctrl+8Meta+ Shift+i (if enabled)
Inverse (Reverse Colors) Mode (Only current window)Meta+ Shift+u (if enabled)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mac 101: Set your preferences". Article: HT2490. Apple Inc. 2010-10-22. Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  2. ^ Singh, Swapnil (2012-02-08). "10 Cool Windows Shortcuts You Need to Know". Tricktactoe.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  3. ^ Takes you to the "Switch User" screen when Fast User Switching has been enabled (enabled by default in XP).
  4. ^ Shows task manager in Windows XP if the welcome screen is enabled. Otherwise displays an NT-style menu, with the option of launching the task manager; likewise for Vista.
  5. ^ a b "Mac OS X keyboard shortcuts". Article: HT1343. Apple Inc. 2010-10-29. Retrieved 2010-11-03. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Taking Screenshots". User Guide 2.32. The GNOME Project. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  7. ^ "Cheat Sheet". https://live.gnome.org/GnomeShell/CheatSheet. The GNOME Project. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  8. ^ "Screen Shot Record". GNOME Help Guide. The GNOME Project. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  9. ^ For the concept of "selected text" see also X Window selection
  10. ^ a b "HIG/Keyboard Shortcuts". KDE Techbase. KDE. 2009-06-03. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  11. ^ In whole document (%), substitute (s) fosh by fish, don't stop at one substitution per line (g) and ask for confirmation for each substitution (c).
  12. ^ "Appendix A — Keyboard Shortcuts". Libre Office Documentation. The Document Foundation. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  13. ^ a b community.linuxmint.com. "OpenOffice.org and LibreOffice Keyboard Shortcuts — Linux Mint Community". Community.linuxmint.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  14. ^ a b "Keyboard shortcuts — Perform common Firefox tasks quickly | Firefox Help". Support.mozilla.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  15. ^ a b "Opera Help: Keyboard Shortcuts". Help.opera.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  16. ^ a b c "Linux keyboard shortcuts — Google Chrome Help". Support.google.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  17. ^ a b "DefaultKeyboardShortcuts — arora — The Default Keyboard Shortcuts in Arora (Non-Mac Keyboard) - Cross Platform WebKit Browser — Google Project Hosting". Code.google.com. 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  18. ^ "Shortcuts". Library.gnome.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  19. ^ a b "Keyboard shortcuts — Perform common Firefox tasks quickly | Firefox Help". Support.mozilla.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  20. ^ "Opera Help: Keyboard Shortcuts". Help.opera.com. Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f In Microsoft Windows, all shortcuts with Alt+Space followed by another key are language dependent. The Alt+Space combination opens the window menu, and the following key selects from the menu. As the menu labels (and their underlined hotkeys) vary with the Windows system language, the hotkeys are different for international versions of Microsoft Windows, and may change if users change their Windows system language preference. The given examples are valid for English user preferences/version of Windows.
  22. ^ a b c d "Mac OS X 10.6 Help: Using a screen saver". Docs.info.apple.com. Retrieved 2011-01-03. 
  23. ^ a b c d "Mac OS X 10.4 Help: Setting a hot corner for Dashboard". Docs.info.apple.com. Retrieved 2011-01-03. 
  24. ^ The WinSplit window manager application for Windows knows to emulate this behaviour.
  25. ^ There is no single consistent shortcut for closing a document or quitting an application in Windows XP. In many multiple document interface applications, Ctrl+W or Ctrl+F4 closes a document and Alt+F4 quits. In other applications where each document is in its own window, such as later versions of Microsoft Word, Ctrl+W, Ctrl+F4, and Alt+F4 close a document, and there is no consistent shortcut for quitting an application.
  26. ^ Mac OS uses Cmd+W Close (window), Cmd+Q Quit (application) and Cmd+ Opt+Esc Force Quit (application). Quit is closest to Kill.
  27. ^ "Click and Move Mouse Pointer Using the Keypad". GNOME Library. GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  28. ^ "Turn on Sticky Keys". GNOME Library. GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  29. ^ "Turn On Slow Keys". GNOME Library. GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  30. ^ "Turn Off Repeated Key Presses". GNOME Library. GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  31. ^ "Turn On Bounce Keys". GNOME Library. GNOME Foundation. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 

External links[edit]