T-90

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T-90
2013 Moscow Victory Day Parade (28).jpg
Russian Army T-90A tank on display during parade festivities in May 2013.
TypeMain battle tank
Place of originRussia
Service history
In service1991 – present
Used bySee Operators
Production history
DesignerKartsev-Venediktov
ManufacturerUralvagonzavod
Unit cost$2.77 – 4.25 million USD in 2011 (varies by source)[1]
Produced1992–present
Number built2053+
Specifications
Weight47.5 tonnes (46.7 long tons; 52.4 short tons)
Length9.63 m (31 ft 7 in)
Width3.78 m (12 ft 5 in)
Height2.22 m (7 ft 3 in)
Crew3

Armor

Steel-composite-reactive blend

vs APFSDS: 800mm, with Kontakt-5 = 800-830mm; vs HEAT: 1000mm with Kontakt-5 = 1,150–1,350mm[2][3][4]
Main
armament
125 mm smoothbore gun with ATGM capability; mainly 9M119 Svir
Secondary
armament
12.7mm Kord Heavy machine gun, 7.62mm PKMT
Engine

Model 84 V-84 12-cyl. diesel
V-92 12-cyl. diesel
V-96 12-cyl. diesel
840 hp (618 kW) for V-84 12-cyl. diesel engine
950 hp (736 kW) for V-92 12-cyl. diesel engine

1,250 hp (930 kW) for V-96 12-cyl. diesel engine
Power/weight

18.1 hp/tonne (13.5 kW/tonne) for V-84 12-cyl. diesel engine
20.4 hp/tonne (15.8 kW/tonne) for V-92 12-cyl. diesel engine

26.3 hp/tonne (19.8 kW/tonne) for V-96 12-cyl. diesel engine
Suspensiontorsion bar
Operational
range
550–700 km (340–430 mi) (depending on type of engine)
Speed60–65 km/h (37–40 mph) (depending on type of engine)
 
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T-90
2013 Moscow Victory Day Parade (28).jpg
Russian Army T-90A tank on display during parade festivities in May 2013.
TypeMain battle tank
Place of originRussia
Service history
In service1991 – present
Used bySee Operators
Production history
DesignerKartsev-Venediktov
ManufacturerUralvagonzavod
Unit cost$2.77 – 4.25 million USD in 2011 (varies by source)[1]
Produced1992–present
Number built2053+
Specifications
Weight47.5 tonnes (46.7 long tons; 52.4 short tons)
Length9.63 m (31 ft 7 in)
Width3.78 m (12 ft 5 in)
Height2.22 m (7 ft 3 in)
Crew3

Armor

Steel-composite-reactive blend

vs APFSDS: 800mm, with Kontakt-5 = 800-830mm; vs HEAT: 1000mm with Kontakt-5 = 1,150–1,350mm[2][3][4]
Main
armament
125 mm smoothbore gun with ATGM capability; mainly 9M119 Svir
Secondary
armament
12.7mm Kord Heavy machine gun, 7.62mm PKMT
Engine

Model 84 V-84 12-cyl. diesel
V-92 12-cyl. diesel
V-96 12-cyl. diesel
840 hp (618 kW) for V-84 12-cyl. diesel engine
950 hp (736 kW) for V-92 12-cyl. diesel engine

1,250 hp (930 kW) for V-96 12-cyl. diesel engine
Power/weight

18.1 hp/tonne (13.5 kW/tonne) for V-84 12-cyl. diesel engine
20.4 hp/tonne (15.8 kW/tonne) for V-92 12-cyl. diesel engine

26.3 hp/tonne (19.8 kW/tonne) for V-96 12-cyl. diesel engine
Suspensiontorsion bar
Operational
range
550–700 km (340–430 mi) (depending on type of engine)
Speed60–65 km/h (37–40 mph) (depending on type of engine)

The T-90 is a Russian third-generation main battle tank that is essentially a modernisation of the T-72B, incorporating many features of the T-80U (it was originally to be called the T-72BU, later renamed to T-90). It is currently the most modern tank in service with the Russian Ground Forces and Naval Infantry. Although a development of the T-72, the T-90 uses a 125mm 2A46 smoothbore tank gun, 1G46 gunner sights, a new engine, and thermal sights. Standard protective measures include a blend of steel, composite armour, smoke mortars, Kontakt-5 explosive-reactive armor, laser warning receivers, Nakidka camouflage and the Shtora infrared ATGM jamming system. The EMT-7 electromagnetic pulse (EMP) creator has been used in testing but not fitted to T-90s in active service.[5] It is designed and built by Uralvagonzavod, in Nizhny Tagil, Russia. Since 2011, the Russian armed forces have ceased ordering the T-90, and are instead waiting for the development of the Armata Universal Combat Platform that is expected to enter service in 2020.[6]

Development[edit]

By 1992, the Russian Ministry of Defense announced that it could no longer afford to manufacture two main battle tanks in parallel.[7] Since both the "quality" T-80U and the cheaper "quantity" T-72B were being built at different plants, and each plant was critical to the economy of its city, the government gave small orders to both. Omsk built five T-80Us and Nizhny Tagil built fifteen T-72s, and both built more in the hopes of winning large export orders. Nizhny Tagil had built a few T-72BAs, T-72Bs upgraded with a third generation add-on explosive reactive armour (ERA) called Kontakt-5, which was already in service on the T-80U.[7]

To further improve the T-72's export prospects and its chances of being selected as Russia's sole production main battle tank, the T-80U's more sophisticated fire control system was also added to produce a vehicle designated T-72BU. The T-90 was developed by the Kartsev-Venediktov Design Bureau at the Uralvagonzavod factory in Nizhny Tagil. The production model is based on the T-72BM, with some added features from the T-80 series.[7]

The T-90 with an 830 hp (620 kW) engine went into low-level production in 1993, based on a prototype designated T-88. It features a new generation of Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armor on its hull and turret. Of conventional layout, the T-90 represents a major upgrade to every system in the T-72, including the main gun.[7] The T-90S have been identified as export model. The references to a T-90E appear to be unsubstantiated.[7] The T-90 is fitted with a "three-tiered" protection system: the first tier is the composite armour in the turret, second tier is third generation Kontakt-5 ERA and third tier is a Shtora-1 countermeasures suite.[7]

T-90s were used in combat for the first time during the invasion of Dagestan in 1999.

Production and service history[edit]

A T-90 during a military exercise in Russia, demonstrating underwater driving

The Russian Defence Ministry made a selection of a single main battle tank (MBT) in 1995.[7] The T-80 was more expensive and its delicate, fuel-hungry gas turbine engine provided a questionable advantage. In addition, the older T-80BV tanks performed poorly in urban combat in the First Chechen War.[8]

By September 1995, some 107 T-90 tanks had been produced, located in the Siberian Military District.[9] By mid-1996 some 107 T-90s had gone into service in the Far Eastern Military District.[10]

1999 saw the appearance of a new model of T-90, featuring the fully welded turret of the Object 187 experimental MBT instead of the original T-90's cast turret. This new model is called "Vladimir" in honour of T-90 Chief Designer Vladimir Potkin, who died in 1999. It is unknown how this design affects the protection and layout of the turret, or whether the tank's hull armour layout was changed.

A Russian Army T-90A

The T-90A saw combat action during the 1999 Chechen invasion of Dagestan. According to Moscow Defense Brief, one T-90 was hit by seven RPG anti-tank rockets but remained in action. The journal concludes that with regular equipment T-90A seems to be the best protected Russian tank, especially if the Shtora and Arena defensive protection systems are integrated in it.[11]

In 2007, there were about 334 T-90 tanks serving in the Russian Ground Forces' 5th Guards Tank Division, stationed in the Siberian Military District, and seven T-90 tanks in the Navy.[12] Some 31 new T-90 tanks were expected to enter service in 2007, and 60 in 2008.[12]

The Russian Federal Service for Defense Contracts (Rosoboronzakaz) announced in July 2008 that a new tank (which rumour has previously referred to as the T-95) was due to be introduced in 2009, but development was cancelled in May 2010.[13]

Russia is developing a new Universal Combat Platform T-99 (also known as Armata) to be ready for use by 2015. It is expected to have a more powerful engine, improved armor, main gun and autoloader, with ammunition storage separated from the crew.[14]

Export[edit]

India[edit]

Indian Army's T-90 Bhishma tanks take part in a military training exercise in the Thar Desert, Rajasthan. The tanks have two different turret armour arrays.

In 2001, India bought 310 T-90S tanks from Russia, of which 120 were delivered complete, 90 in semi-knocked down kits, and 100 in completely knocked down kits. The T-90 was selected because it is a direct development of the T-72 that India already employs with 60% logistics commonality with T-90 simplifying training and maintenance. India bought the T-90 after the delay in production of the domestically developed Arjun main battle tank, and to counter Pakistani deployment of the Ukrainian T-80UD in 1995–97. These tanks were made by Uralvagonzavod and the updated 1,000 hp (750 kW) engines were delivered by Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant. These tanks however did not feature the Shtora-1 passive/active protection system though there are reports that a separate contract for shipment of a modernized version of this suite is being discussed.[15]

A follow-on contract, worth $800 million, was signed on October 26, 2006, for another 330 T-90M "Bhishma" MBTs that were to be manufactured in India by Heavy Vehicles Factory at Avadi, Tamil Nadu.

The T-90M Bhishma is a customised, improved version of the T-90S, which India developed with assistance from Russia and France, with both of whom India has very close ties. (Bhishma was a near invincible warrior in the ancient Hindu epic, the Mahabharata). The tanks are equipped with the French Thales built Catherine-FC thermal sights[16] and utilizes Russian Kontakt-5 K-5 explosive reactive armored plates.[17] Kontakt-5 (K-5) ERA in its export variant provides a protection level of 1,2 [20%] against Kinetic Energy (APFSDS) rounds and 1,7–1,8 [70 %] against Chemical Energy rounds (Tandem HEAT). Semi-active baffle plates and ceramic layers with high tensile proprieties are employed in T-90 base armour. Even more advanced armour composition was implemented in the welded turrets of domestic T-90s and on export T-90 Bhishma tanks for India. In several tests conducted in front of an Indian delegation the latest foreign M829A2/KEW-A2 APFSDS ammunitions were fired from 250 meters against a T-90S lacking the normal built-in explosive reactive armor (ERA) Kontakt-5 (K-5) The turret proved completely impenetrable, which proved to be crucial in selling the T-90 Bhishma MBT to India.[18]

In April 2008, the Indian Army sent a request for proposal to Rafael, BAE Systems, Raytheon, Rosoboronexport, Saab, and IBD Deisenroth Engineering for an active protection system for the T-90S Bhishma.[19] The contract is expected to be worth US$270 million. Saab's LEDS-150 won the contract in January 2009.[20]

A third contract, worth $1.23 billion, was signed in December 2007 for 347 upgraded T-90Ms, the bulk of which will be license-assembled by HVF. The Army hopes to field a force of over 21 regiments of T-90 tanks and 40 regiments of modified T-72s. The Indian Army would begin receiving its first T-90M main battle tank in completely knocked-down condition from Russia’s Nizhny Tagil-based Uralvagonzavod JSC by the end of 2009.[21][22]

The T-90M features the ‘Kaktus K-6’ bolted explosive reactive armour (ERA) package on its frontal hull and turret-top (the T-90S has ‘Kontakt-5’ ERA), is fitted with an enhanced environmental control system supplied by Israel’s Kinetics Ltd for providing cooled air to the fighting compartment, has additional internal volume for housing the cryogenic cooling systems for new-generation thermal imagers like the THALES-built Catherine-FC thermal imager (operating in the 8–12 micrometre bandwidth).[21] In all, India plans to have 1,640 T-90 tanks in service by 2018–2020.[23]

The first batch of 10 license built T-90M "Bhishma" was inducted into the Indian army on August 24, 2009. These vehicles were built at the Heavy Vehicles Factory at Avadi, Tamil Nadu.

A INR100 billion (US$1.6 billion) purchase of 354 new T-90MS tanks for six tank regiments for the China border has been approved[24] which would take the total number of T-90 tanks in the Indian Army's inventory to 2011 and with a total of nearly 4500 tanks (T-90 and variants, T-72 and Arjun MBT) in active service, the world's third largest operator of tanks.

India plans to have 21 tank regiments of T-90s by 2020, with 45 combat tanks and 17 training and replacement tanks per regiment, for 62 total each.[25]

On 17 September 2013, India’s Defense Ministry approved the production of 235 T-90 tanks under Russian license for $1 billion.[26]

Other[edit]

The Cyprus House Defense Committee approved funds in January 2009 for the purchase of 41 Russian-built T-90 tanks. The money is included as part of the 2009 defense budget. Cyprus already operates the Russian-made T-80 tank.[27] In March 2010 it was reported that Cyprus had opted for 41 additional T-80s instead of purchasing T-90s.[28]

Anonymous Venezuelan defense sources said that president Hugo Chavez "wants to replace his army's obsolete AMX-30 main battle tanks with between 50 and 100 Russian-built T-90 main battle tanks," according to an October 2008 article by analyst Jack Sweeney.[29] In September, 2009 a deal was announced for 92 T-72s only.[30] Saudi Arabia was reported, in July 2008, by Russian daily Kommersant to be in negotiations to buy 150 T-90 tanks.[31] Lebanese Defence Minister Elias El Murr met with Russian Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov in December 2008, when they discussed the possibility of a transfer of military equipment including T-90 tanks.[32][33]

In February 2010, an arms deal was signed between Libya and Russia. Details of the sale were not immediately released, but a Russian diplomat stated that Libya had wanted 20 fighter planes, air defense systems, and may also be interested in purchasing "several dozen" T-90s, and modernizing a further 140 T-72s. However after Libya's crackdown on anti-government protesters in early 2011, the United Nations enacted an international arms embargo on Libya resulting in the cancellation of Russian arms deals.[34][35]

In April 2013, Rosoboronexport requested for the entry of the T-90S in an upcoming tender by the Peruvian Army for main battle tanks.[36] Peru sought to acquire between 120 and 170 tanks to replace its aging T-55 tanks. The T-90 was tested against the M1A1 Abrams from the United States, the Leopard 2A4 offered from the Spanish Army, Leopard 2A6s formerly operated by the Dutch Army, and T-64s and T-84s offered by Ukraine. By September 2013, only the T-90S, the Russian T-80, the Ukrainian T-84, and American M1A1 were still competing.[37] On 19 September 2013, a T-90S was demonstrated to the Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Land Forces and 300 officers. During the day, the tank's combat and running capabilities were shown. At night, the accuracy of all weapons at different ranges while stationary and on the move were shown under limited visibility and mountainous terrain conditions. A Peruvian T-55 driver was briefed for 5 minutes about the controls, then was able to move and operate the T-90S, demonstrating the commonality of the two vehicles.[38] Russia pushed for the sale of 110 T-90S tanks.[39]

The People's Army of Vietnam is reportedly interested in buying the T-90 to keep its military capability in step with its neighbors.[40]

Design[edit]

Armament[edit]

A T-90A tank firing its main gun at Engineering Technologies 2012.
The T-90 tank's main tank gun, the 2A46M 125 mm smoothbore tank gun.

The T-90's main armament is the 2A46M 125 mm smoothbore tank gun. This is a highly modified version of the Sprut anti-tank gun, and is the same gun used as the main armament on the T-80-series tanks. It can be replaced without dismantling the inner turret and is capable of firing armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS), high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT-FS), and high explosive fragmentation (HE-FRAG) ammunition, as well as 9M119M Refleks anti-tank guided missiles. The Refleks missile has semi-automatic laser beam-riding guidance and a tandem hollow-charge HEAT warhead. It has an effective range of 100 m to 6 km, and takes 17.5 seconds to reach maximum range. Refleks can penetrate about 950 millimetres (37 in) of steel armour and can also engage low-flying air targets such as helicopters.[7]

The NSV 12.7mm (12.7x108) remotely controlled anti-aircraft Heavy machine gun can be operated from within the tank by the commander and has a range of 2 km and a cyclic rate of fire of 700–800 rounds per minute with 300 rounds available (the NSV was replaced by the Kord heavy machine gun in the late 1990s). The PKMT 7.62mm (7.62x54mm R) coaxial machine gun weighs about 10.5 kg while the ammunition box carries 250 rounds (7,000 rounds carried) and weighs an additional 9.5 kg.[7]

Like other modern Russian tanks the 2A46M in the T-90 is fed by an automatic loader which removes the need for a manual loader in the tank and reduces the crew to 3 (commander, gunner, and driver). The autoloader can carry 22 ready-to-fire rounds in its carousel and can load a round in 5–8 seconds.[7] It has been suggested that the automatic loaders on modern T-90 tanks have been modified to take advantage of newer ammunition such as the 3BM-44M APFSDS, which like the US M829A3 penetrates armour better than the previous shorter rounds. HEAT rounds that can be fired from the 2A46M includes the 3BK21B (with a Depleted uranium liner), 3BK29 (with a credited penetration of 800 mm RHA equivalency), and the 3BK29M (with a Triple-tandem charge warhead). Additionally the T-90 features the Ainet fuse setting system which allows the tank to detonate 3OF26 HE-FRAG rounds at a specific distance from the tank as determined by the gunners laser rangefinder, improving its performance against helicopters and infantry.[41] Accurate firing range HE-Frag-FS 10 km, APFSDS 4km[42]

Fire-control system T-90 showed the following features combat shooting during state testing. Heavily armored targets at ranges of up to 5 km tank T -90 strikes on the move (up to 30 km/h) with a high probability hit the first shot. During state testing was made 24 launch missiles at ranges of 4–5 km and they all hit the target (all missile launches were made by inexperienced professionals), an experienced gunner for 54 traffic at speeds of 25 km/h, 7 real shells hit armored targets located at ranges of 1,500–2,500.[43] Fire-control system on the T-90 includes the PNK-4S/SR AGAT day and night sighting system mounted at the commanders station which allows for night time detection of a tank sized target at ranges between 700 and 1100 meters depending on the version of the sight. Early models of the T-90 were equipped with the TO1-KO1 BURAN sight but later models (T-90S) were upgraded to use the ESSA thermal imaging sight, which allows for accurate firing to a range of 5,000–8,000 m using the CATHERINE-FC thermal camera produced by Thales Optronique. The gunner is also provided with the 1G46 day sighting system which includes a laser range finder, missile guidance channel and allows tank-sized targets to be detected and engaged at 5 to 8 kilometres (3.1 to 5.0 mi). The driver users a TVN-5 day and night sight.[7] In 2010, Russia started licensed production of Thales-developed Catherine FC thermal imaging cameras for T-90M tanks, a Russian daily said.[44] These thermal imagers are also present on T-90M "Bhishma" built in India under license.[21]

Mobility[edit]

T-90's diesel engine.

The main propulsor is the B-92C (V-92S) diesel engine, built in the ChTZ. Different models of the T-90 tank are powered by various motors in its initial models, like the V-84MS 618 kW (840 hp) four-stroke V-12 piston engine, uprated 1,000 hp (750 kW) engines and 1,250 hp (930 kW) engines made by Uralvagonzavod and are delivered by Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant. The Т-90S with 1,000 hp (750 kW) engine can attain a top speed of 60 km/h on the road and up to 45 km/h on rough terrain. T-90 tank has classic arrangement of transmission, with rear placed engine and transmission. The 1,000 hp (750 kW) engines are V-92 four stroke, 12 cylinder, multi-fuel diesel while 1,250 hp (930 kW) engine is V-96. The T-90 export version i.e. modified T-90S is fitted with increased power multi-fuel 1,000-h.p. diesel engine with turbochargers. The tank is also fitted with an air conditioning system for work in high temperature zones.[21]

Protection[edit]

T-90A fitted with third generation Kontakt-5 ERA.
T-90S Bhishma of Indian Army is fitted only with a "two-tiered" protection system: the first tier is the composite armour in the turret, second tier is third generation Kontakt-5 ERA.

The T-90 is fitted with a "three-tiered" protection system. The first tier is the composite armour in the turret, consisting of basic armour shell with an insert of alternating layers of aluminum and plastics and a controlled deformation section.[7]

The second tier is third generation Kontakt-5 ERA (explosive reactive armor) which significantly degrades the penetrating power of kinetic-energy APFSDS ammunition and also these ERA blocks give the turret its distinctive angled "clam shell" appearance. ERA bricks are also located on the turret roof and provide protection from top-attack weapons. The turret's forward armour package, in addition to the ERA and steel plating, contains a composite filler of Russian composite armour sandwiched between upper and lower steel plates. The composite armour results in a lower weight and improved protection when compared with steel-only armour.[7]

The third tier is a Shtora-1 (Russian: Штора-1 or "curtain" in English) countermeasures suite, produced by Elektromashina of Russia. This system includes two electro-optical/IR "dazzlers" on the front of the turret (which gives the distinct Red Eyes), four Laser warning receivers, two 3D6 aerosol grenade discharging systems and a computerized control system. The Shtora-1 warns the tank's crew when the tank has been 'painted' by a weapon-guidance laser and allows the crew to slew the turret to face the threat. The infrared jammer, the TShU1-7 EOCMDAS, jams the semiautomatic command to line of sight (SACLOS) guidance system of some anti-tank guided missiles. The aerosol grenades are automatically launched after Shtora detects that it has been painted. The aerosol grenades are used to mask the tank from laser rangefinders and designators as well as the optics of other weapons systems. Indian T-90S tanks are not equipped with the Shtora-1 countermeasures suite.[7] They will be equipped with the LEDS-150 Land Electronic Defence System.

In addition to the passive and active protection systems the T-90 is also fitted with nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection equipment, KMT mine sweeps and an automatic fire fighting system.[7] The EMT-7 electromagnetic-counter mine system can also be installed on the T-90.[45] EMT-7 emits an electromagnetic pulse to disable magnetic mines and disrupt electronics before the tank reaches them. The Nakidka signature reduction suite is also available for the T-90. Nakidka is designed to reduce the probabilities of an object to be detected by Infrared, Thermal, Radar-Thermal, and Radar bands.[46]

During a reported test conducted by the Russian military in 1999 the T-90 was exposed to a variety of RPG, ATGM and APFSDS munitions. When equipped with Kontakt-5 ERA the T-90 could not be penetrated by any of the APFSDS or ATGM used during the trial and outperformed a T-80U which also took part.[47][48] During combat operations in Dagestan, there were witness accounts of one T-90 sustaining seven hits from RPGs, and remaining in action.[49]


T-90MS has ERA Relict.[50][51] Relict defends against tandem warheads and reduces penetration of APFSDS rounds by over 50 percent.[52] Relict can be installed instead of Kontakt-1/Kontakt-5.[53]

Variants[edit]

T-90A Main Battle Tank competing in the 2013 Tank Biathlon.
T-90S "Bhisma" of the Indian Army
T-90SM Main Battle Tank at the 2013 Russian Arms Expo.
Derivatives

Operators[edit]

T-90A tank during the Victory Day parade in Moscow, 2009.
T-90SA and T-72UMG. Celebrating the 20th year of independence in Turkmenistan.

See also[edit]

Tanks of comparable role, performance and era[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Denial of Defense Procurement MBT T-90 is not connected with the qualitative characteristics of this sample of military equipment – Ministry of Industry of the Russian Federation". Arms-Tass. March 17, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2011. 
  2. ^ "T-90". btvt.narod.ru. Retrieved April 11, 2014. 
  3. ^ http://topwar.ru/6700-modernizirovannyy-t-90s-vo-vsey-krase.html
  4. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/t-90-specs.htm
  5. ^ Zaloga, Steven (1993). T-72 Main Battle Tank 1974–93. Reading: Osprey Publishing. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-85532-338-4. 
  6. ^ Lenta.ru: Наука и техника: Бронетехника раздора
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "T-90". globalsecurity.org. 
  8. ^ Zaloga 2000, p 3.
  9. ^ Warford, James M (September–October 1997). "The Russian T-90S: Coming into Focus". Armor (US Army). [dead link], quoting Russian newspaper sources
  10. ^ "T-90". fas.org (Federation of American Scientists). 
  11. ^ Pashin, Alexander. "Russian Army Operations and Weaponry During Second Military Campaign in Chechnya". Moscow Defense Brief (Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies) (3/2002). Retrieved May 29, 2009. 
  12. ^ a b "T-90/S MBT". 
  13. ^ "Ares Homepage". Aviationweek.com. Retrieved July 8, 2010. 
  14. ^ "Russian army to start receiving new-generation tanks in 2014". En.rian.ru. September 11, 2001. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 
  15. ^ "T-90 Main Battle Tank". Vasiliy Fofanov's Modern Russian Armor Page. 
  16. ^ Dunnigan, James. "Get the T-90s Out of the Kitchen", StrategyPage, June 24, 2006.
  17. ^ "T-90S "Bhishma"". ipcs.org. February 1, 2004. 
  18. ^ "The situation in the domestic tank building, truth and fiction Tarasenko, S. Tupitsyn". Arms and equipment yesterday, today and tomorrow, 2006 page 10-15. November 1, 2006. 
  19. ^ India changes its top defence supplier[dead link][unreliable source?]
  20. ^ Prasun K Sengupta (January 28, 2009). "TRISHUL: India's 'Born Again' T-90M MBT". Trishulgroup.blogspot.com. Retrieved September 11, 2011. [unreliable source?]
  21. ^ a b c d John Pike. "T-90 Bhisma". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved February 7, 2010. 
  22. ^ RIA Novosti Dmitry Korobeinikov (August 24, 2009). "Indian army receives first T-90 tanks made under Russian license | Top Russian news and analysis online | 'RIA Novosti' newswire". En.beta.rian.ru. Retrieved February 7, 2010. 
  23. ^ "Armor: The Frugal T-90". Strategypage.com. October 4, 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2010. 
  24. ^ a b "Army scuttles Arjun trials to push through Russian T-90 purchase". Business Standard. 2012-11-26. Retrieved 2012-11-29. 
  25. ^ Indian T-90s Get 5,000 Meter Reach - Strategypage.com, 4 September 2013
  26. ^ India has approved the manufacture of 235 T-90 main battle tanks under Russian license - Armyrecognition.com, 19 September 2013
  27. ^ "Greek-Cypriots to Buy Russian Tanks, Considering Missile Purchases", January 12, 2009.
  28. ^ "Новую оружейную сделку с Россией обнародовал Кипр" (in Russian). Kommersant. March 13, 2010. Retrieved March 17, 2010. 
  29. ^ Jack Sweeney "Venezuela buys Russian aircraft, tanks to boost power". UPI.com, October 15, 2008.
  30. ^ "Venezuela Will Load Urals Defence Plants With Work". Rus Business News. September 16, 2009. Retrieved October 10, 2009. 
  31. ^ Faulconbridge, Guy (July 15, 2008). Saudi offers Russia arms deal to curb Iran ties. Reuters. Archived from the original on July 12, 2008. 
  32. ^ "Lebanese press round-up: December 17, 2008". An-nahar Newspaper (NOW Lebanon). December 17, 2008. Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  33. ^ Ronen, Gil (December 17, 2008). "Russia to Sell Lebanon Advanced Jets 'at Discount'". IsraelNN. Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  34. ^ "Libya strikes billion-dollar Russian arms deal". AFP. January 30, 2010. 
  35. ^ "Libya, Russia agree $1.8-billion arms deal: Putin". Reuters. January 30, 2010. 
  36. ^ Peru; Main Battle Tanks- new contestants emerge - Dmilt.com, April 30, 2013
  37. ^ Peru; Future main battle tank projects lags on despite criticism - Dmilt.com, 2 September 2013
  38. ^ T-90S Russian-made main battle tank in field demonstration for the Peruvian Army - Armyrecognition.com, 27 September 2013
  39. ^ Russia to promote Pantsir-S1 air defense system to Brazil and T-90S main battle tank to Peru - Armyrecognition.com, 9 October 2013
  40. ^ Vietnam would like to buy Russian-made T-90 main battle tanks to increase its military power - Armyrecognition.com, 10 January 2014
  41. ^ "125mm APERS And Special Rounds". Fofanov.armor.kiev.ua. Retrieved July 8, 2010. 
  42. ^ http://dokwar.ru/publ/bronetekhnika/sravnenie_tankov_altay_leopard_2a_t_90/13-1-0-45
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References[edit]

External links[edit]