Syrian opposition

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Jump to: navigation, search

The Syrian opposition (Arabic: المعارضة السوريةAl-Mu'aradah Al-Suriyah) is an umbrella term for groups and individuals calling for regime change in Syria and who oppose its Ba'athist government. Opposition groups in Syria took a new turn in 2011 after the Syrian civil war as they united to form the Syrian National Council that has managed to get international support and recognized as partner for dialogue. The SNC is recognized by at least one country, Libya.

Syria was under Emergency Law since 1963 when the Ba'ath Party took power in a coup. The head of state since 1971 has been a member of the Assad family. Under Hafez's time as a president of Syria, from 1980 onward opposition to the Ba'athist regime had been prohibited. Five principal security agencies served primarily to monitor political dissent. The state of emergency meant military courts apply martial law and special courts try political cases with no regard for human rights or due process. Prisoners were routinely tortured and held in appalling conditions. Following the death of Hafez al-Assad in June 2000 his son, Bashar, took over as new president of Syria. When the Arab Spring broke out, Syrian protesters began consolidating opposition councils.


Syrian National Council

The "independence flag" of Syria, used before the Ba'athist coup in 1963, has been widely used by protestors as an opposition flag and has been adopted officially by the Syrian National Council and the Free Syrian Army.[1][2][3][4]

SNC is a coalition of Syrian opposition groups based in Istanbul, Turkey that was formed in 2011 during the Syrian civil war.[5][6] Key people are current chairman Abdulbaset Sieda as well as ex chairman Burhan Ghalioun.

Other opposition groups

The NCC is isolated within the Syrian opposition, and is not recognized by the Syrian Revolution General Commission, the Local Coordination Committees of Syria or the Supreme Council of the Syrian Revolution[41] The NCC has failed to come to any agreement with the Syrian National Council. Despite recognizing the Free Syrian Army on 23 September 2012, the FSA has rebuffed any association with the NCC.[42] The NCC differs from the SNC on two main points of strategy:
1) The NCC refuses to accept foreign military intervention, although it does accept various forms of support for the opposition and supports Arab League involvement in the conflict.
2) It tries to maintain a pacifist stance in relationship to the Syrian regime, despite recently endorsing the Free Syrian Army.

Kurdish Supreme Committee

The Kurdish flag flies over cities in the Kurdish statelet that has emerged in north-eastern Syria.[44][45]

The Kurdish Supreme Committee is a governing body of Kurdish-held regions in Syria founded by the Kurdish Democratic Union Party and Kurdish National Council following cooperation agreement between the two sides, signed on 12 July, in Erbil under auspice of the Iraqi Kurdistan president Massoud Barzani.[46] Its member board consist of equal number of PYD and KNC members.[47]

Parliamentary opposition


This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of

Portal icon Politics portal

The regime itself is divided, with several factions calling for either a change of direction under Assad, or for the replacement of Assad and the continuation of the Ba'athist regime.

List of opposition figures

See also


  1. ^ "A member of Syrian opposition shouts slogans in Antalya". AFP. 3 July 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2011. 
  2. ^ Zeinab Mohamed (26 April 2011). "The old flag with the new revolutionary slogans". Flickr. Retrieved 3 July 2011. 
  3. ^ Adem Altan (26 April 2011). "Members of Syrian opposition kiss a former Syrian flag to protest against President Bashar al-Assad after their meetings in the Turkish coastal city of Antalya on June 2, 2011, aiming at a plan for the demise Bashar Assad.". AFP/Getty Images. Retrieved 3 July 2011. 
  4. ^ Adem Altan (26 April 2011). "Syrian opposition members and Turkish activists hold placards, posters and former Syrian flag as they demonstrate outside the Syrian embassy to condemn Syrian regime in Ankara on June 3, 2011.". AFP/Getty Images. Retrieved 3 July 2011. 
  5. ^ Yezdani, Ipek (23 August 2011). "Syrian dissidents form national council". World Wires (Miami Herald Media). Retrieved 24 August 2011. [dead link]
  6. ^ Yezdani, İpek (23 August 2011). "Syrian dissidents form national council". The Edmond Sun. Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ [3]
  10. ^ a b Syria's Muslim Brotherhood rise from the ashes| By Khaled Yacoub Oweis| 6 May 2012
  11. ^ Syria’s Muslim Brotherhood is gaining influence over anti-Assad revolt By Liz Sly, Washington Post 12 May 2012
  12. ^
  13. ^ Wright, Robin, Dreams and shadows, the Future of the Middle East, Penguin Press, 2008, p.232-4
  14. ^ Opposition Groups Issue 'Damascus Declaration' for a Regime Change
  16. ^ "Syrian woman activist wins human rights award". Amnesty International. 7 October 2011. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  17. ^ Basil, Yousuf; Richard Roth, Mick Krever, Salma Abdelaziz, Mohamed Fadel Fahmy (5 February 2012). "Opposition group calls for strike as Syrian violence grows". CNN. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2012. 
  18. ^ "Syrian Local Coordinating Committees on Taking Up Arms and Foreign Intervention". Jadaliyya. Arab Studies Institute. 31 August 2011. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2012. 
  19. ^ Shadid, Anthony; Hwaida Saad (30 June 2011). "Coalition of Factions From the Streets Fuels a New Opposition in Syria". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2012. 
  20. ^ "Syrian coalition against Assad formed". Agence France-Presse. 19 August 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  21. ^ Albayrak, Ayla (4 October 2011). "Turkey Plans Military Exercise on Syrian Border". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 October 2011. 
  22. ^ "Syria Army Defectors Press Conference – 9–23–11". Syria2011archives. Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  23. ^ Bearing Witness in Syria: A Correspondent’s Last Days. NYTimes (4 March 2012)
  24. ^ a b 1 week with the "free syrian army" – February 2012 – Arte reportage 1 of 2. YouTube. Retrieved on 23 March 2012.
  25. ^ Landis, Joshua (29 July 2011). "Free Syrian Army Founded by Seven Officers to Fight the Syrian Army". Syria Comment. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  26. ^ "Defecting troops form 'Free Syrian Army', target Assad security forces". World Tribune. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  27. ^ "Syrian Army Colonel Defects forms Free Syrian Army". Asharq Alawsat. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  28. ^ "Syrian rebels desperate for weapons". CBS. 
  29. ^ "Syrian rebels are losing faith in the West". The Telegraph. 
  30. ^ "Les partis d'opposition laïcs syriens unissent leurs forces à Paris", Agence France-Presse, 18 September 2011.
  31. ^ "UN: Syria death toll tops 2,700", Al Jazeera, 19 September 2011.
  32. ^ "Répression en Syrie: Al Assad seul contre tous ?", France 24, 11 January 2012.
  33. ^ "Entretien avec Randa Kassis, opposante et intellectuelle syrienne porte-parole de la Coalition des Forces Laïques et membre du Conseil National Syrien", France Soir, 11 November 2011.
  34. ^ Alexandre Del Valle (2 June 2011) "Syrie: Pourquoi Assad reste au pouvoir", France Soir.
  35. ^ Julien Peyron (11 January 2012) Discours de Bachar al-Assad: "Comme d’habitude, il ressort le complot de l’étranger", France 24.
  36. ^ "Randa Kassis est membre du comité directeur de la Coalition des forces laïques et démocratiques syriennes.", Radio France International, 18 September 2011.
  37. ^ Carnegie Middle East Center: The Syrian Democratic People’s Party
  38. ^ Carnegie Middle East Center: George Sabra
  39. ^ "National Coordinating Body for Democratic Change names Executive Committee_Syrian opposition must avoid splits". 11 October 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  40. ^ "Meet Syria's Opposition". 1 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  41. ^ "Meet Syria's Opposition". Foreign Policy. 01 November 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  42. ^ "Damascus meeting calls for peaceful change in Syria". Reuters UK. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  43. ^ "Exiled Assad’s uncle wants to lead Syria transition". Al Arabiya. 14 November 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  44. ^ "Kurds' ambitions add explosive element to Syria equation". CNN. 14 August 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  45. ^ "Analysis: Syrian Kurds sense freedom, power struggle awaits". Reuters. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012. 
  46. ^ Kurdish Supreme Committee in Syria Holds First Meeting
  47. ^ Syrian Kurdish Official: Now Kurds are in Charge of their Fate
  48. ^ "PYD Leader Salih Muslim: Syrian Government Has Lost Control in Kurdish Areas". Rudaw. 10 July 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  49. ^ "The Kurdish National Council in Syria". Carnegie Middle East Center. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  50. ^ Russia Bids to Unite Syria’s Fractured Opposition, RIA Novosti, 26 April 2012
  51. ^ Why reforming Syria's public institutions is the 11th Five-Year Plan's top priority., Syria Today, January 2011
  52. ^ Syrian candidate says parliamentary elections marred with violations, Xinhua, 9 May 2012
  53. ^ a b Syrian Parliamentary Elections: Cynicism Wins The Day, Al Akhbar (Lebanon), 7 May 2012
  54. ^ "Assad says Syria 'able' to get out of crisis". Al Jazeera. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  55. ^ "Syria envoy says Assad resignation is up for discussio". BBC News. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  56. ^
  57. ^ Syria's Kilo pledges to continue struggle
  58. ^ Wright, Robin (2008), Dreams and Shadows: The Future of the Middle East, New York: Penguin Press, p. 232, ISBN 978-1-59420-111-0 .