Survivors (2008 TV series)

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Survivors
Survivors 2008 Screenshot.jpg
Survivors title sequence
GenrePost-apocalyptic drama
Created byAdrian Hodges
Terry Nation (novel)
StarringJulie Graham
Max Beesley
Freema Agyeman
Paterson Joseph
Zoe Tapper
Phillip Rhys
Robyn Addison
Nikki Amuka-Bird
Geraldine Somerville
Nicholas Gleaves
Chahak Patel
Jack Richardson
Emma Lowndes
Sacha Parkinson
Country of originUnited Kingdom
Original language(s)English
No. of series2
No. of episodes12
Production
Running time60 minutes
90 minutes (Series 1 Episode 1)
Broadcast
Original channelBBC One
BBC HD
Picture format1080p (HDTV)
Original run23 November 2008 (2008-11-23) – 23 February 2010 (2010-02-23)
Chronology
Related showsSurvivors
External links
Website
 
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Survivors
Survivors 2008 Screenshot.jpg
Survivors title sequence
GenrePost-apocalyptic drama
Created byAdrian Hodges
Terry Nation (novel)
StarringJulie Graham
Max Beesley
Freema Agyeman
Paterson Joseph
Zoe Tapper
Phillip Rhys
Robyn Addison
Nikki Amuka-Bird
Geraldine Somerville
Nicholas Gleaves
Chahak Patel
Jack Richardson
Emma Lowndes
Sacha Parkinson
Country of originUnited Kingdom
Original language(s)English
No. of series2
No. of episodes12
Production
Running time60 minutes
90 minutes (Series 1 Episode 1)
Broadcast
Original channelBBC One
BBC HD
Picture format1080p (HDTV)
Original run23 November 2008 (2008-11-23) – 23 February 2010 (2010-02-23)
Chronology
Related showsSurvivors
External links
Website

Survivors is a British science fiction television series produced by the BBC. It depicts the lives of a group of people who survived a virulent unknown strain of influenza which has wiped out most of the human species. According to the producers, the series is not a remake of the 1970s BBC television series Survivors (1975–1977), created by Terry Nation, but is loosely based on the novel of the same name that Nation wrote following the first series of the 1970s series. Two series were produced of the new series. Series 1 ran on BBC One and BBC HD in November–December 2008, and series 2 ran in January–February 2010, ending with a cliffhanger. The BBC announced on 13 April 2010 that, due to poor viewing figures and other considerations, Survivors had been cancelled.[1]

The series had its premiere in South Africa on BBC Entertainment in September 2009, in France on DTTV channel NRJ 12 on 12 January 2010,[2] and on BBC America in the United States on 13 February 2010.[3] The series' Australian premiere was on Channel Nine, on 21 March 2010.

Synopsis[edit]

Set in the present day, the series focuses on a group of ordinary people who survive the aftermath of a devastating viral pandemic – referred to as "European flu" – which kills most of the world's population due to its causing Cytokine Storms in the body's immune system.[4] The series sees the characters struggling against terrible dangers in a world with no society, no police and no law,[5] led by the de facto matriarch of the group, Abby Grant.[6]

Production[edit]

Sue Hogg, an executive producer at the BBC, had the idea of remaking Survivors following the recent increase in concerns about future pandemics and diseases such as SARS.[7] It was decided that the show would be a re-imagining of the 1970s material made by BBC Productions rather than an external production company.[5] The BBC pursued the rights for Survivors from Terry Nation's estate so that the series could be revived.[8] The agreement, which was signed in 2007, took months of negotiations.[5][9] For legal reasons, the new series is billed as being based on Nation's novelisation of material from his episodes of the 1970s series.

In remaking the series, Adrian Hodges worked to avoid criticisms of the 1970s series and he felt it was "important that a new version had a cultural and class mix that really represented the country as it is now";[10] to meet this needs, they created two new characters, Al and Najid.[11] The writers claimed that the new series retained the "spirit" of the 1970s show,[12] but Hodges concentrated on the hope and the humanity which was said to be an attempt to make it "less depressing" to watch.[13]

The city scenes in the first series were filmed in Manchester,[5] while city scenes in the second series were filmed in Birmingham.[14]

To help create a world with no people, some scenes were shot very early on a Sunday morning, including a sequence where Al Sadiq drove his car at speed around the city centre. Producer Hugh Warren said that this reduced the amount of computer-generated imagery required and allowed the budget to be spent on effects such as when the city starts to flood and fires burn.[citation needed] Other locations included a house near Helmshore in Lancashire which doubled as the survivors' main base,[7] the disused Earth Centre in the village of Denaby Main near Doncaster[15] and on the Jaguar Cars test track in Nuneaton which stood in for deserted motorways.[16]

The series is shot using 35 mm film. Warren said that this was chosen over high-definition cameras due to the low light levels that would be experienced when filming in a world without electricity and during an autumn filming period, and over Super 16 due to high-definition transmission requirements.[7]

The first series received a mixed critical reception, with some reviewers concerned that the series is too derivative and predictable[17] while others were more positive.[18] The producers were happy to have started well, survived the ratings lull in the middle and ended with an upward curve in the last two weeks. Audience breakdowns indicate that a higher proportion of younger viewers were tuning in than many other shows.[11]

Cast and characters[edit]

Main cast[edit]

Supporting cast[edit]

While some characters were emphasised in the BBC promotional material, such as Freema Agyeman, most only appeared in the first episode as perishing during the viral pandemic.

Episodes[edit]

Series 1 (2008)[edit]

#TitleDirectorWriterOriginal airdateRatings (millions)[19]
1.01"Episode 1" (90-minute episode)John AlexanderAdrian Hodges23 November 2008 (2008-11-23)6.97
As the "European Flu" virus spreads throughout the world, governments realise the scale of the problem. In just a few days, hundreds of thousands of people fall ill, including Abby Grant, Jenny Collins and her friend Patricia. The Government Minister in charge of the pandemic, Samantha Willis, is told that at least 90% of the world's population will die. The virus is extremely virulent and kills everyone except for the small percentage of humanity who are either naturally immune or have caught the virus and recovered. Civilisation comes to a stop: broadcast media goes off the air, and the National Grid shuts down, leaving the country in darkness. The final national television broadcast is from Samantha Willis, MP, who addresses the nation and urges the populace to keep calm and to wait for the Government to retake control of the situation. Beneath her calm demeanour, however, she is fully aware of the catastrophic effects of the pandemic worldwide. When Al Sadiq, Anya Raczynski, Najid Hanif and Tom Price wake, they find everyone around them dead, and struggle to find any fellow survivors. Abby wakes from her illness, to find that her husband David did not survive. She begins her search for her missing son Peter, believing he may also have survived. Eventually, the characters meet and realise they are going to have to stick together to survive. Based on The Fourth Horseman and Genesis 
1.02"Episode 2"Andrew GunnAdrian Hodges25 November 2008 (2008-11-25)5.99
When the survivors go out for supplies from the local supermarket, they are confronted by armed thugs, led by the violent Dexter, who threaten to kill them if they return. Greg finds a warehouse containing a lifetime stock of food, a young woman called Sarah and her injured companion, Bob. Al and Najid scavenge for supplies at some other shops in the area, where Al accidentally kills a surviving shopkeeper, before they return to the house with some chickens. Based on Genesis and Gone Away 
1.03"Episode 3"Andrew GunnGaby Chiappe2 December 2008 (2008-12-02)5.22
Greg and Tom encounter an uninfected family who have been isolated since the onset of the virus. When the family's daughter reaches out to them, they realise with horror that they have exposed her to the virus. They propose taking her with them so that she does not infect her family, but in the end, her father risks infection to keep her with them. In a search for her son, Abby encounters Samantha Willis, the last surviving government minister, who is now in charge of a fledgling community that has hot water, food, light, and power. Initially, the two women bond, but Abby is appalled when she sees the lengths that Samantha will go to if she thinks her community is endangered. In a research lab, scientists are trying to develop a vaccine for the virus. Based on Genesis with some elements of Gone To The Angels and possibly Garland's War 
1.04"Episode 4"Iain B. MacDonaldSimon Tyrrell9 December 2008 (2008-12-09)5.42
Abby travels to Waterhouse, a nearby manor, and inadvertently joins a land dispute between an aggressive group of teenage boys and Jimmy Garland, whose family owns the house. Tom, Al, Sarah and Najid find themselves attracted to the comfort and security within Samantha Willis' community, but Al falls foul of Samantha and is ejected. Tom struggles to prove himself to Samantha, a task complicated by his criminal past. Meanwhile, Anya and Greg confront some unwelcome visitors and learn some useful lessons about group solidarity. Based on Garland's War with possibly some elements of Gone Away 
1.05"Episode 5"Iain B. MacDonaldAdrian Hodges16 December 2008 (2008-12-16)5.62
Suspicions are aroused when visionary spiritual leader John turns up at the community's door with his ragged group of disciples. When Abby allows Linda, a pregnant woman from John's group, to stay with them until the baby is born, Anya fears that she will be forced to reveal that she is a doctor. After facing her personal demons, particularly over the death of Jenny Collins, she goes on to successfully deliver a breech birth. She becomes concerned for the group's safety after John becomes increasingly erratic. John proves to be a paranoid schizophrenic. In the research facility, the scientists tune into video messages recorded and broadcast by Samantha's group. One of them features Abby describing how she contracted the virus but survived. The scientists make it a high priority to find Abby and bring her to the facility for research. Based on A Beginning and The Future Hour with some elements of Gone To The Angels and possibly Lights of London
1.06"Episode 6"Jamie PayneAdrian Hodges23 December 2008 (2008-12-23)4.65[20]
Samantha Willis has expanded the scope of her community, employing armed thugs, including the violent Dexter. After Sarah reveals that Anya is a doctor, they kidnap her. Tom rescues her and kills one of Samantha's men, letting another one return to Samantha to bear witness. Abby and the others are forced to abandon their initial settlement, knowing that Samantha's people will come after Tom. Najid goes missing in the city, and the others look for him. While there, he meets Darren, a feral boy, and a community of other children under the protection of Craig and June, a sinister couple of adults. Greg is shot by Dexter, and Abby is kidnapped by a squad of armed men from the Lab. At episode end, a young boy is seen picking up a bag of belongings marked Peter Grant, and a horseback rider is shown looking for him. Based on some elements of Revenge, Lights of London and possibly Gone Away 

Series 2 (2010)[edit]

A second series of six episodes was commissioned and began airing in January 2010. Adrian Hodges returned to oversee the project and Julie Graham, Paterson Joseph, Zoe Tapper, Philip Rhys, Robyn Addison, Chahak Patel and Max Beesley returned to their roles for the next series.[21]

The cliffhanger is quickly resolved, while the story of the lab plays through series two, allowing more about the backstory of the virus, and the lab's direct connection with that. The production team's intention was to spend more time exploring the nitty-gritty of survival in the post-virus world, and how the various characters coped.[11]

Filming took place in various locations around Birmingham including Baskerville House (exterior) and the former ITV Central studios (interior) standing in for a fictional hospital.[22][23]

#TitleDirectorWriterOriginal airdateRatings (millions)[19]
2.01"Episode 1"Jamie PayneAdrian Hodges12 January 2010 (2010-01-12)5.16m
Abby has been kidnapped. Anya tries to remove the shotgun pellets from Greg, who is badly wounded, but she lacks medical equipment. She leads Al and Tom to a burning hospital. When the hospital collapses, Anya and Al are trapped. Tom brings Najid and Sarah to help, but they can't move the rubble. Another group of survivors arrive and offer to help. Meanwhile, Abby is interviewed by Whitaker, the leader of the laboratory scientists. Abby agrees to undergo medical experiments to help find a cure for the virus. Meanwhile, Sarah goes to see a brutal gang boss who agrees to provide lifting equipment in exchange for sexual favours. Abby is released from her confinement by a disillusioned scientist, but they are both quickly recaptured by Whitaker (who is revealed to have kept his wife, Jill, and infant son alive despite telling everyone they were dead). Anya and Al are freed from the rubble. With the medical supplies, Greg is saved. But the next day Greg says he will leave if Tom stays – as he knows Tom killed a man in cold blood. Tom leaves the group. 
2.02"Episode 2"Jamie PayneGaby Chiappe26 January 2010 (2010-01-26)3.61 (overnight)
With Abby still missing and Greg recovering from his injuries, the Family are left scavenging for survival in the city. While Naj leaves graffiti messages for Abby, Tom steals supplies from other survivors. Greg and Naj find themselves attacked by the group Tom stole from, but Tom reappears in time to help. The Family learn that more people have been abducted like Abby, and that the kidnappers' vans bear the markings of a known pharmaceutical company. In the Lab itself, Whitaker has Abby injected with a mutated strain of the virus. He will stop at nothing to find his miracle vaccine. His wife Jill, desperate to know the truth about what is going on, escapes from her locked quarters and discovers Abby. Abby explains to her that everyone outside the lab is dead, including the government, and that she is being deliberately reinfected with the virus as part of the search for a cure. Unable to cope with the news, Jill releases Abby, who escapes from the building. Jill is arrested by the guards and put under quarantine. Whitaker struggles to maintain his authority over his rebellious staff, who are infuriated by the news that he has hidden his family in the laboratory. He advises the sinister Mr. Landry (his boss) about the loss of Abby and is ordered by him to ensure she is returned promptly. Based on some elements of Spoil of War 
2.03"Episode 3"David EvansSimon Tyrrell2 February 2010 (2010-02-02)3.89 (overnight)
The Family are holed up in a cottage while Abby recovers when they meet a travelling trader called Billy. Later, at Samantha's eco-compound, Billy passes on their location and she orders her henchmen to arrest Tom, intending to put Tom on trial for killing one of her people. Abby leads Greg and Anya after them, taking on the role of defence counsel herself while the others become members of the jury. In a surprise power grab, Samantha's head thug Dexter votes "not guilty" and publicly denounces Samantha's style of leadership. Samantha overrules the jury's vote and declares Tom guilty. Tom is set to be imprisoned at an undisclosed location. Samantha visits Tom and offers him freedom if he will kill Dexter. He does, but is immediately captured by Samantha's men. Meanwhile, Greg and Al have arrived in an attempt to free Tom. Greg is captured along with Tom, but Al escapes. Based on Law and Order 
2.04"Episode 4"David EvansJimmy Gardner9 February 2010 (2010-02-09)3.82 (overnight)

Tom and Greg are enslaved alongside dozens of other men in Mr. Smithson's coal mine. Meanwhile, the Family are desperately hunting for them. They encounter Billy again, and he invites them to his home base, a roadside inn. He introduces his girlfriend, Sally, who offers them food and drink. When questioned about Tom and Greg, Billy feigns ignorance and exits under the pretence of asking around while on his trading route, leaving the Family with Sally. Sarah forms a bond with Sally, and when a carload of men arrive at the inn, Sally warns the Family to hide. She reveals that Billy brings people to the inn in order to sell them into slavery. She also reveals that Tom and Greg are being held at the nearby mine and reluctantly agrees to help free them.

Greg gets himself promoted from slave to enslaver by convincing Smithson that he is a geologist and more valuable as management than as labor. Unfortunately, Abby inadvertently exposes him. The Family is captured and enslaved, and Greg is sentenced to death. Meanwhile, Tom has escaped. He hijacks Billy's truck, ties Billy to a tree, and returns to the mine in time to save Greg. He frees the slaves, who take brutal revenge on their enslavers. The Family rescue Sally and depart. The episode ends with a young boy freeing Billy from his bonds. The boy is revealed to be Peter Grant. Based on some elements of Something of Value 
2.05"Episode 5"Farren BlackburnSimon Tyrrell16 February 2010 (2010-02-16)TBA
Reunited and on the road, the Family travel south on the lookout for a new home. They encounter a small but thriving community of survivors and accept their offer of hospitality. Al and Sarah enjoy their new romance. Tom simmers as Anya makes friends with the new community's leader, Judy. But Tom's anger is short-lived when his relationship with Anya takes a dramatic twist. Greg and Abby leave together to follow up Greg's suspicions about a mysterious postcard, which leads them to an abandoned airfield. Sarah discovers a family who are sick with a new mutant strain of the virus and quarantines herself with them. As Al keeps an anguished vigil outside the house, Sarah falls ill. Abby eventually enters the house, finds Sarah dead inside, and sets the house on fire. Concerned about the new strain of the virus, the Family visit the Lab where Abby was reinfected. They find the Lab full of dead scientists. Watching one of the security monitors, Abby sees her son approach the entrance of the Lab, and sprints outside to look for him. Based on Birth of a Hope and Greater Love 
2.06"Episode 6"Farren BlackburnAdrian Hodges23 February 2010 (2010-02-23)TBA

In mourning over the loss of one of their own, and with a new strain of the virus set to take hold, the Family find themselves battling on all fronts. They convene in the ruined Lab, discovering that Fiona has survived the outbreak of the virus. A vaccine is more important now than ever, and Fiona and Anya work to create it. But Abby's only concern is to find her son, Peter, previously glimpsed briefly outside the Lab.

Al, believing that he has nothing left to lose, volunteers himself to test the vaccine. Meanwhile, Whitaker, who has survived off the serum culled from Abby's blood, continues to hamper the Family's plans with lies and deceptions. He is eventually captured and held hostage in one of the test rooms within the ruined lab. Abby urges Tom to get him to tell her where Peter is, whatever the cost, but to no avail.

Fiona helps Whitaker escape, but as the two make their way to the caravan site where Peter is hiding, Peter inadvertently shoots and kills Fiona with the gun Whitaker gave him for protection. Whitaker takes Peter and attempts to flee but is stopped in his tracks by Tom, who tries to urge Peter to come with him by telling him his mother is looking for him. The situation is too much for Peter to bear, and he fires the gun a second time, causing a nearly fatal consequence.

Whitaker flees with Peter once again with the group hot on their trail, leading them to the abandoned airbase for a deadly showdown with the mysterious Landry, who informs the group that his pharmaceutical firm developed the genetically engineered influenza vaccine that mutated into the virus.

Peter is about to be taken on the aeroplane with Landry but Whitaker is killed and Landry leaves, with Abby and Peter reunited. While the family begin the search for Tom, he manages to sneak onto Landry's aeroplane for the closing shot. 

Series 1 DVD extras & easter egg[edit]

On disc one the easter egg can be revealed by going to the main menu, highlighting episode selection then when the grey corpuscle appears press up and the corpuscle selects. This reveals around nine to ten minutes of behind the scenes footage.

Media[edit]

Cover of re-released edition of Survivors novel

To tie in with the broadcast of the series Terry Nation's 1976 novelisation was released as a new edition by Orion Books.[24] The 2008 series is credited as being based on this novel.

Screenshot of BBC Survivors Interactive web site.

A web site was launched to tie in with the series, entitled "Survivors Interactive", which included interviews with actors, clips from the programme and original character pieces-to-camera. The interactive component was based on visitors selecting characters from the show and then answering either/or dilemma-based questions, which are then profiled by what type of survivor they would make as they travel through the post-plague environment.[25]

The first series was released by 2 Entertain Video on DVD on 26 January 2009, and includes special features such as an Easter Egg, A New World – The Making of Survivors documentary, character profiles and a Survivors Special Effects featurette.[26][27]


A new book entitled "Worlds Apart: an unofficial and unauthorised guide to the BBC's remake of Survivors" (ISBN 9780956100016) written by Rich Cross was published by Classic TV Press in March 2010, shortly after transmission of the second series completes. The book incorporates: in depth synopses and reviews for all the episodes from Series 1 and 2; insights into the making of the series; examination of the similarities and differences between the new series and the 1970s series; a photographic guide to filming locations and exclusive production shots.

Differences from the source material[edit]

In the credits, the re-imagined series is said to be based on the 1976 novel by Terry Nation; however, there are a number of differences between the series and its source material. In the novel, Jenny Richards survives, whereas her counterpart in the 2008 series, Jenny Collins, does not; this means that Greg Preston and Jenny cannot have a child as the years unfold. Abby Grant still falls in love with Jimmy Garland; however in the book, he eventually dies from septicaemia.

There is a Tom Price in the 1970s novelisation and series. However, in the novelisation, he was a Welsh tramp who witnessed the climactic accidental killing of Abby Grant by her son, Peter. In the television series, he joined Abby's community.

There are no direct counterparts to Anya Raczynski, Najid Hanif and Al Sadiq in the book. Samantha Willis does not appear in the book, either, but her characterisation incorporates and parallels some of the personality and leadership ambitions of Arthur Wormley, a "ruthless former trade union leader," who establishes a paramilitary organisation called the National Unity Force which is responsible for Abby's community's eventual decision to leave Britain for the Mediterranean in the latter chapters of the novelisation.

At the end of the book, Peter Grant, who has joined a nomadic gang of feral adolescents, accidentally shoots and kills Abby, who he has not seen for the last four years. However, at the end of the current incarnation of Survivors Series 2, Peter shoots but doesn't kill Tom and Abby is finally reunited with Peter, without her accidental death.

Sarah Boyer is probably the closest character to her portrayal in the novelisation. Her companion was named Vic, not Bob and in the 1970s series, she was named Anne Tranter. Vic's fate is not revealed in the novelization, but it can be inferred that he starved to death. In the 2008 version Bob survives his initial abandonment.[11][28][29] In the 1970s series, Anne (Sarah in the 2008 version) leaves during Episode 11 but in the 2008 version she dies from a mutated version of the virus.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Survivors: Sci-fi series axed by BBC – Yorkshire Evening Post". yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk. Retrieved 13 April 2010. 
  2. ^ "NRJ 12 s'offre une série à succès" [NRJ 12 pays for a successful TV series] (in french). www.metrofrance.com. 12 January 2010. 
  3. ^ "U.S. PREMIERE OF SURVIVORS – FEBRUARY 13, BBC AMERICA". www.thefutoncritic.com. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2009. 
  4. ^ "Survivors". Radio Times (BBC Magazines): 21. 22 November 2008. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Julie Graham, Max Beesley, Nikki Amuka-Bird & Paterson Joseph star in Survivors for BBC One". BBC. 30 May 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008. 
  6. ^ "Julie Graham Interview". Sky TV. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  7. ^ a b c Warren, Hugh (19 November 2008). "On location: Survivors". Broadcast. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  8. ^ Dowell, Ben (10 July 2006). "BBC set to revive 70s sci-fi show". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 17 January 2009. 
  9. ^ Hemley, Matthew (22 November 2007). "BBC to remake seventies cult drama Survivors". The Stage. Retrieved 7 July 2008. 
  10. ^ "Writersroom – Adrian Hodges". BBC. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f "Adrian Hodges: "You'll see more of the world collapsing"". Total SciFi. Retrieved 17 January 2009. 
  12. ^ "Writersroom – Gabby Chiappe". BBC. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  13. ^ Wilkes, Neil (1 August 2008). "Julie Graham Talks Survivors". Digital Spy. UK. Retrieved 25 August 2008. 
  14. ^ "Survivors moving to Birmingham". Broadcast Now. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  15. ^ "Survivors – Tuesday Nights on BBC 1". Screen Yorkshire. Retrieved 4 December 2008. [dead link]
  16. ^ Tim Masters (21 November 2008). "Talking Shop: Paterson Joseph". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  17. ^ Jeffries, Stuart. "The Weekend's TV". Guardian (UK). Retrieved 12 November 2008. 
  18. ^ "Review". Leicester Mercury. Retrieved 3 December 2008. 
  19. ^ a b Weekly Top 30 Programmes. See relevant week. BARB.
  20. ^ Spilsbury, Tom (4 March 2009). "Public Image". Doctor Who Magazine (Royal Tunbridge Wells, Kent: Panini Comics) (405): 15–16. 
  21. ^ Nichols, Sam (19 December 2008). "Survivors gets second series on BBC". London: Guardian Media. Retrieved 19 December 2008. 
  22. ^ "Survivors boost for Film Birmingham". Birmingham.gov.uk. 16 March 2009. Retrieved 11 August 2009. [dead link]
  23. ^ Anna Blackaby (2 August 2009). "Business – Business News – Creative industries – Filming of Survivors in Birmingham highlights city's screen potential". Birmingham Post. Retrieved 11 August 2009. 
  24. ^ "Orion Books' Survivors". Orion Publishing Group. Retrieved 4 December 2008. [dead link]
  25. ^ "Survivors Interactive". BBC. Retrieved 9 December 2008. 
  26. ^ "Survivors (2008)". amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  27. ^ "Survivors (2008)". bbc shop.com. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 
  28. ^ Terry Nation (1976). Survivors. Weidenfield and Nicolson, London. ISBN 0-297-77107-8. 
  29. ^ "Survivors characters: new series and original series". Survivors Blog. Retrieved 17 January 2009. 

External links[edit]