Survivor (TV series)

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Not to be confused with Survivors, a British post-apocalyptic series.
A recreation of the logo for the first U.S. Survivor season, Survivor: Borneo.

Survivor is a reality game show produced in many countries throughout the world. In the show, contestants are isolated in the wilderness and compete for cash and other prizes. The show uses a system of progressive elimination, allowing the contestants to vote off other tribe members until only one final contestant remains and wins the title of "Sole Survivor." The format for Survivor was created in 1992 by the British television producer Charlie Parsons for a United Kingdom TV production company called Planet 24, but the Swedish version, which debuted in 1997, was the first Survivor series to actually make it to television.


Survivor, through its seasons and various international versions, has maintained the basic premise of the game despite several new rules and gameplay twists introduced in later seasons. In the game, sixteen to twenty contestants, the castaways, are split into tribes and assigned separate camps at the filming's location, typically a tropical setting. As a tribe, the castaways must survive the elements, construct shelter, build fire, look for water, and scrounge for food and other necessities for the entire filming period, around 39 days. In the first half of the game, the tribes face off in challenges, some for rewards of food, shelter, or luxury items, while others are for immunity, preventing the winning tribe from having to go to the next Tribal Council. Tribes that do go to Tribal Council discuss the events of the last few days with the host asking questions, and then must vote out one of their own players, eliminating them from the game.

In the second half of the game, the tribes are merged into a single tribe. Challenges are played at an individual level for individual rewards and immunity. At subsequent Tribal Councils, those eliminated start to form the jury, who sit in on all subsequent Tribal Councils but otherwise do not participate. When only two or three castaways remain, those castaways attend a final Tribal Council, where the jury is given the opportunity to ask them questions. After this, the jury members then vote to decide which of the remaining castaways should be declared Sole Survivor.

The following description of the show is based primarily on the U.S. version of Survivor, though the general format applies to all international versions.

Castaways and tribes[edit]

The tribe camp near the end of Survivor: Borneo. Tribes must build themselves basic shelters from natural resources and through reward items earned during the competition.

Players for each season are selected through applicants and casting calls, down-selecting to between sixteen and twenty players and additional alternates. U.S. version host Jeff Probst noted that while sixteen castaways makes it easier to split the tribes with respect to age and sex, they have used eighteen and twenty to provide them "wiggle room" in case of player injury or if one should want to quit the game.[1] These players undergo physical and psychological evaluation to make sure they are physically and mentally fit for the survival endurance and will not likely quit during the filming period, replacing those that are questionable with the alternates. In one case, Fiji, on the day before filming was to start after they had dismissed their alternates, one of the castaways opted out of the competition, forcing production to start with nineteen players and adapting the activities of the first few days to accommodate the odd number of players.[2]

Tribes may be pre-determined by production before filming starts. Often this is done to equalize the sexes and age ranges within both tribes. Other season have had the tribes separated by age, gender, or race. In other cases, the tribes may be created on the spot through schoolyard picks. Most often, only two tribes are featured, but some seasons have begun with three or four tribes. Once assigned a tribe, each castaway is given a buff in their tribe color to aid the viewers in identifying tribal alliance. Tribes are then subsequently given names, inspired by the local region, and directions to their camps.

At their camps, tribes are expected to build shelter against the elements from the local trees and other resources. Tribes are typically given minimal resources, such as a machete, water canteens, cooking pots, and staples of rice and grains, though this will vary from season to season. Sometimes, tribes will be provided a water well near the camp, but require the water to be boiled to make it potable, necessitating the need for the tribe to build fire. The tribes are encouraged to forage off the land for food, including fruits, wild animals, and fish.

In some seasons, a tribal swap will occur where one or more players will shift from one tribe to another. This may occur by random draw, schoolyard picks, or some other mechanism. When these occur, those players that shift tribes are given new buffs for their new tribe and return to that tribe's camp, with any personal possessions from their former camp moved with them. In Gabon, a tribal switch occurred twice. In seasons with more than two tribes, tribes may be merged down to two, or a tribe that has lost many members may be absorbed by the other remaining tribes. Once down to around half the remaining players, all remaining tribes are merged into one, usually allowing the players to select a new tribe name. In Palau, the Ulong tribe was whittled down to one castaway, so that instead of a normal merge, that player was absorbed into Koror. In Philippines, the Matsing tribe was absorbed by Tandang and Kalabaw tribes when it was down to two members.


Tribes compete frequently in both mental and physical challenges to win rewards or immunity, such as this race to pull cannons during the first episode of Survivor: Pearl Islands.

During both pre- and post-merge segments of filming, the castaways compete in a series of challenges. Tribes are alerted to these upcoming challenges by a message, often in rhyme, delivered to camp by the production team at a basket or box on a nearby tree; this message has come to be called "treemail", playing off the word "e-mail". The message typically hints at what the challenge might be. The message may also provide props to demonstrate this, practice equipment for the players, or a sampling of the reward.

Tribal challenges[edit]

Prior to the merge, tribes compete against each other in challenges. These most often are multi-segment obstacle courses that include both physical and mental elements with the tribe that finishes first declared the winner; commonly, these start with tribe members collecting puzzles pieces that are then used to solve a puzzle by other tribe members. Other challenges may be based on winning a number of rounds of head-to-head competitions. Challenges are normally held with equal numbers of all tribes participating and in some cases equal splits of gender. Tribes with more players will be asked to sit out as many players as needed to balance the numbers, with the stipulation that those players cannot sit out in back-to-back reward and immunity challenges.[3] When one tribe has more than twice the other tribe members, then players in the larger tribe cannot participate in back-to-back challenges. Tribes are given time to strategically decide who should sit out and who will perform the various duties on a challenge.

Individual challenges[edit]

After the merge, challenges are generally performed on an individual basis. These include similar obstacle courses as for team challenges, but will often also include endurance challenges, having players maintain the balance under precarious situations for as long as possible, with the last player remaining winning the challenge. In some cases, during post-merge challenges, the individuals will be split into separate teams, with only the winning team eligible for reward or immunity.

Types of challenges[edit]

Challenges can be played for rewards, immunity, or both. Rewards include food, survival equipment like flint, tarps, or fishing gear, luxury items, and short getaways from camp. Before the merge, the entire winning tribe will enjoy these rewards. Post-merge, only one player may win the reward but will be given the opportunity to select one or more other players to bring along with them on it. Individual challenge rewards may also include an advantage that can be used at the subsequent immunity challenge, such as advancing directly into the final round of the challenge without having to participate in the first round.

Immunity challenges provide the winning tribe or team with immunity from Tribal Council. Immunity is usually represented in a form of an idol prior to the merge, and a necklace afterwards. Prior to the merge, tribes with immunity do not attend Tribal Council, allowing them to stay intact. In seasons featuring more than two tribes, immunity will be available for all but the last place finishers, forcing this one tribe to Tribal Council. With individual immunity, those castaways still attend Tribal Council with the rest of the merged tribe, but, unless they assign immunity to someone else, are ineligible to be voted for. Winning immunity is only good for one Tribal Council; at the next immunity challenge, the tribe or castaway will be asked to give up the idol or necklace, making immunity "up for grabs". There have been a few cases in which individual immunity challenges have taken place prior to the merge whereupon usually one castaway in each tribe will be given immunity, after which both tribes will attend Tribal Council, one after the other. This is used to quickly dwindle the number of remaining castaways.

Though a wide variety of challenges have been used across the Survivor '​s broadcast, several challenges are frequently reused:

Tribal Council[edit]

Tribal Council is a specially built stage located near the tribe camps; tribes sit across a fire pit from the host, while the jury members, if present, sit off to the side. A small voting alcove adjoins the structure. Events at Tribal Council are presented as the finale of each episode.

The first time a tribe attends Tribal Council, its members are each given a torch and told to light it from the fire pit, with the statement that "fire represents your life in this game". If each person from a former tribe has never been there before after the merge, then he/she is given the opportunity to get the torch and light it. After the tribe is seated, the host will call in the jury (if in the Jury phase), reminding them they are there to watch but not speak. The host will then proceed to ask the tribe questions regarding camp life and events he witnessed at the challenges over the last few days. During this process, internal strife within the tribe may be brought to light, and castaways in precarious situations may reveal information or bargain with others to keep themselves in the game. Though only a few minutes of these proceedings are shown to the viewing audience, some Tribal Councils have gone on for hours.

Subsequently, the host will ask the tribe member with the immunity necklace if they want to keep it or transfer it to someone else; whoever wears it after this possible exchange cannot be voted for. The host then asks each castaway to make their vote in the alcove. The castaway is given an opportunity to speak to a camera in a message directed to the person they are voting off and to the viewers before placing the vote in an urn. When all votes are made, the host collects the urn, tallies the votes and starts reading the votes one by one. When enough votes have been read to eliminate one player, all remaining votes are kept secret (although in most cases it is assumed that any left over vote are to the eliminated player), and that player is asked to bring the host their torch, who then snuffs it out. The player is then told "the tribe has spoken" and is instructed to leave the Tribal Council area. The remainder of the tribe is then allowed to return to camp with their torches, though in some seasons, if they have not earned or made fire yet, they have been required to douse their torches before leaving; in All-Stars seasons, any tribe(s) that have not earned or made fire yet have been asked to leave their torches at Tribal Council.

The eliminated player is given the opportunity to speak to a camera about their feelings of being eliminated before they are secluded with other eliminated castaways until the end of filming. Those players that will become jury members are sequestered until the end of the final Tribal Council, and are not allowed to discuss their voting or issues with the remaining contestants, other jury members, or the final players, in order to prevent any possible cooperation or collusion from subgroups within the jury.

Ties may occur. Normally, a second vote is held, with only the tied players eligible to be voted for. If this second vote does not break the stalemate, a tie breaker is used, the nature of which has changed throughout the seasons. The first tie breaker, used in The Australian Outback season, took into consideration the number of votes each of the tied players had accumulated in previous Tribal Councils, and the player with the most previous votes was eliminated. When this tie breaker was used again, in the Africa season, both players had an equal number of previous votes, so a trivia quiz involving questions about Africa was used to determine the winner, and the loser was eliminated from the game. In subsequent seasons, the tie-breaker mechanism has been a random drawing in which each player except those with immunity must draw a rock from a bag, and the player with the single purple rock is eliminated. The first time this mechanism was used was during the Marquesas season's "final four" Tribal Council. Host Jeff Probst later announced that using this tie breaker during the final four tribal council had been a mistake, and that it should only be used when six or more players are involved. .[5] Since that season, while tribe members have occasionally considered deliberately creating a stalemate and allowing the purple rock tie-breaker to decide who goes home, they have tended to favor avoiding tie votes that would subject each of them to the risk of being randomly eliminated. When a tie has occurred with only four or fewer players left in a tribe, the tie breaker has been a challenge, which to date has always involved a race to be the first to build a small fire high enough to burn through a rope. The rock-drawing tie breaker was played again in Blood vs. Water; in this case, after reaching the first tie from voting, those that were not voted for had a brief period to come to a consensus of who to vote off or would otherwise have to draw rocks (black with one white rock) if they were not already immune.

The Final Tribal Council occurs when there are only two—or in later seasons three—players left in the game. The move to three final players was made so that the endgame would present more of a challenge to the castaway who wins the final immunity challenge: while that person is assured of being at the Final Tribal Council, they are not able to decide alone which of the other remaining castaways they will compete against for the jury's votes.[6] At the Final Tribal Council, each remaining castaway is given time to make a statement to the jury. Then each jury member in turn addresses them, asking each a question or commenting on their behavior in the game in an effort to sway the other jury members; the castaways are free to respond to these as they see fit. The remaining castaways may be given time for a concluding speech. After this, the host has each jury member in turn go to vote in the alcove, this time for the person that they feel should be named the Sole Survivor. As with regular elimination votes, the jurors are given an opportunity to speak to the camera to explain their vote. The host then collects the urn, and in most seasons, holds on to it for a live reading of the votes on the season's final show where the Sole Survivor is announced. No tie vote for Sole Survivor has ever occurred. although in many seasons it has been a theoretical possibility. The juries that have chosen between only two finalists have in most cases had an odd number of members, making a tie vote impossible. Probst has said that the producers have a contingency plan to be used in case of a future tie, reportedly involving a "white envelope," but the exact nature of this tie breaker has not been made known.[7]

Some players have been eliminated from the game by other means. Castaways who suffer severe injuries or exhaustion are evaluated by the medical team which is always on call. The medical team may provide treatment and give the player the option to continue in the game, warning them of the health risks involved. However, if the medical doctor determines that the player is at risk of permanent injury or death and needs to be removed from the game for their own health, they will be removed and taken to a nearby hospital. Occasionally, castaways who are not in need of medical treatment have decided to quit the game, without waiting to be voted out, due to physical or emotional exhaustion—either by making an announcement at a Tribal Council, in which case they are let out of the game without any vote, or by being recovered from camp after talking with others and being interviewed by the host. When a player leaves the game without being voted off, the other tribes are notified of the departed player's removal, and the next Tribal Council may be cancelled. After the players merge into one tribe, any who have been removed from the game by medical evacuation are still eligible to participate as jury members once the medical examiners deem them healthy enough to do so. Those that have quit the game voluntarily may also still be eligible for the jury, or they may instead be replaced by a player that was voted off earlier, and, if their reasons for leaving are considered sufficient, they may also still be allowed to make a farewell speech to the camera.

Hidden immunity idols[edit]

Hidden immunity idols are pocket-sized necklaces made to fit the theme of the season—that are hidden around the tribes' camps or other locations that the castaways have access to. When a castaway finds one of the idols, they have the option of concealing the fact that they have it, or strategically revealing the fact to other castaways. The idols can provide a one-time immunity to a castaway at Tribal Council, if played—which they can be, typically, anytime before the third-to-last Tribal Council. For example, they can be played during the tribal council of the final five castaways in a season where the final tribal council will consist of three players. The rules for playing the idol have changed during the seasons. In the first season where hidden idols were used, Guatemala, the rules provided that the idol must be played before the vote; other players could not vote for that player. Later, in Panama and Cook Islands, the idol could be played after the votes were read, nullifying the votes for that player; whoever received the next-highest number of votes was then eliminated. Beginning in Fiji and in all subsequent seasons, the idol has had to be played after the votes are cast, but before they are read. If it is played, any votes cast for that player do not count. This rule forces both the voters and the player with the hidden immunity idol to make a more complicated strategic decision: the voters may have to vote without knowing whether the person they are voting for has a hidden immunity idol, or without knowing whether that person will choose to play it, and the person with the idol must decide whether to play it without knowing whether enough votes have been cast to vote them out of the game. Sometimes, a player plays the idol and it turns out someone else got more votes, in which case the idol has been wasted. Other times, a player feels safe and decides not to play the idol, intending to save it to use at a later time, but ends up getting voted out and leaves the game with the idol unplayed. According to Probst, this latest version of the rules for using hidden immunity idols has proven to be a "happy medium" relative to the two previous versions.[8] While this idol returned for Survivor: Cagayan, an additional idol that functioned under the same rules as in Panama and Cook Islands was also introduced at the merge, but with the stipulation that it could only be used by the player who found it.[9]

The idol, once found by a player, cannot be stolen from them, but other castaways can look through their possessions to see if they have it. Sometimes a castaway who has an idol re-hides the idol in a location known only to them, to avoid the risk that others will find out they have it. The idol can be willingly transferred to another player at any point in the game, including at Tribal Council; in such cases, the castaway receiving the idol can play it to protect themselves.[10] Idols, once played, may be returned to the game after being hidden at a new location. When a castaway is blindsided and voted out of the game while in possession of an idol without having played it, the idol is considered to have left the game, and is not replaced. Castaways have used the idol as a bargaining chip to align other players with them and swing pending votes in a specific direction; as a result, some players have been inspired to create fake hidden immunity idols, and either leave them the spot that the original idol was found, or carry them around, bluffing with the fake idol to attempt to alter people's voting strategies in advance of Tribal Council. If a fake idol is played at Tribal Council, the host notes that it is not the real idol and destroys it by throwing it in the fire. In the U.S. version of the show, the producers have decided that the fake idol strategy adds an interesting twist, and have therefore quietly provided materials, such as beads and paint, through normal props within the game, to better enable players to make these fake idols.[11]

To help castaways find the idol, a series of clues are given to them in succession in a number of different ways. A clue may be given to the winner of a reward challenge, hidden among the reward prizes, announced by the host to all remaining castaways, or provided to a castaway who has been sent to Exile Island or temporarily sent to live with the other tribe. Castaways are under no obligation to share the idol clues with other players. Clues continue to be provided even after a player has secretly found the idol. Each successive clue includes all the previous clues given for that location. Only once an idol has been played, at which point the producers hide a new idol in a new location, are new clues provided to the players. Clues may lead to a location on Exile Island or back at the tribes' camps. In later seasons, players have been very aware that hidden idols may be in play from the start of the game and some have started to look for them near apparent landmarks before any clues have been provided. One castaway, Russell Hantz, was able to find six idols during his three appearances on the U.S. version of the show without the aid of clues. In light of this so-called "Russell factor," producers subsequently began hiding the idols in more difficult-to-find locations.[12]

Exile Island[edit]

Exile Island is a remote location away from the tribal camps, where one or two castaways are sent to live in isolation from the rest of their tribe. Exile Island was first introduced in Survivor: Palau, when a single contestant was made to stay alone on a beach for a day as a result of being the first to drop out of an Immunity Challenge. This twist would not be used regularly until Survivor: Panama; it was also used in Cook Islands, Fiji, Micronesia, Gabon, Tocantins, and San Juan del Sur.

A selected player is exiled to a location (typically a small island) apart from the main tribe camps. Typically, the castaway is exiled after the reward challenge, leaving the challenge location for Exile Island, and usually returns immediately before the following immunity challenge. The exiled castaway is chosen as a result of the reward challenge: in the tribal phase, a member of the losing tribe is exiled (usually exiled by the winning tribe), while in the individual phase, the reward challenge winner holds the sole right to choose. Unless stated otherwise, players who win the right to decide who goes to Exile Island may also choose to go themselves. In Micronesia, Tocantins, and San Juan del Sur, one person from each tribe was sent to Exile Island. Whenever there is a tribe shuffle with an uneven number of contestants, as in Panama, Fiji, and Gabon, the leftover contestant will be treated as "tribeless" and sent to Exile Island immediately after formation. In this case, the contestant will return and join the tribe that loses the next immunity challenge.

Once selected, the exiled contestant is immediately sent there. They are given minimal survival tools, typically a water canteen, a machete, a pot, and a limited amount of shelter. The two main disadvantages of being on Exile Island are the lack of food and water, which can weaken a player and make them less effective in challenges, and the isolation from other contestants, which can cause a player to become out of the loop and weaken their position in their tribe. Contestants are often sent to Exile Island for one or both of these strategic reasons.

The exiled castaway receives a consolation prize: in all seasons with Exile Island, the exiled castaway receives a clue to the hidden immunity idol, which may or may not be located on the island. On Survivor: Gabon, the exiled castaway was given the option to give up their idol clue for "instant comfort," and in Survivor: Tocantins, the exiled castaway had the right to change tribes. Occasionally, the exiled castaway is instructed to return after the next Tribal Council, earning them automatic immunity.

Other exile twists[edit]

Two seasons of the U.S. version have used different variations on the Exile twists. In China, tribes who win reward challenges earned the right to "kidnap" a member of the losing tribe, and that person would have to stay with them until the next immunity challenge. The kidnapped person would be given a clue to the hidden immunity idol which he or she must give to one member of the winning tribe. In Samoa, a reverse version of the kidnapping rule was used, called "spy expedition" (also known as "observing"). The winning tribe would have to send one of their own to accompany the other tribe until the immunity challenge. Both of these twists were retired after the merge.

Redemption Island[edit]

Redemption Island is a twist introduced on Survivor: Redemption Island and also used on Survivor: South Pacific and Survivor: Blood vs. Water. Redemption Island is a combination of the outcast twist from Survivor: Pearl Islands and Exile Island. After being voted out, contestants will remain in the game and are sent to Redemption Island. There, they will fend for themselves like the castaways in the game proper until the next person is voted out. The day following Tribal Council, there is a duel where the winner remains on the island and the losers are eliminated for good; upon elimination, the duel loser(s) must remove their buff and throw it into a small fire pit.

Double elimination cycles, or any other disruption of the game's pattern, leads to three or four duelists instead of two. In Survivor: Redemption Island only the loser of the duel was eliminated, resulting in eight people still being in the game at the finale (four in the main game, and four in Redemption) due to two double elimination cycles, with two Tribal Councils and no duels. Jeff Probst admitted that this was a bit much, and for Survivor: South Pacific, the rules were changed so only the winner remained in the game while all others were eliminated.

At the merge, the person remaining in Redemption is entered back into the game and the twist is reset. Then, when four people remain in the main game, the winner of the Redemption duel returns to the game, and Redemption Island is retired.

Redemption Island was reintroduced for Survivor: Blood vs. Water and adapted to fit with the loved one twist. On Day 1, when the tribes were initially assembled, both tribes were immediately forced to vote someone to Redemption Island. Prior to any duel, the castaways with loved ones on Redemption Island are given the choice to replace their loved one on Redemption Island, with their loved one returning to the main game and taking their place in the tribe. In addition, the first place winner of the duel must give a clue to a hidden immunity idol to any castaway in the main game.

An alternate version of Redemption Island was used in the first season of Survivor South Africa, when eliminated contestants were exiled to Dead Man's Island and later given a chance to come back into the game. Dead Man's Island was known for its tough conditions and atmosphere of despair, as contestants had to survive there without real purpose until near the end of the game.


The Sole Survivor receives a cash prize of $1,000,000 prior to taxes,[13] and sometimes also receives a car provided by the show's sponsor. Every player receives a prize for participating on Survivor depending on how long he or she lasts in the game. In most seasons, the runner-up receives $100,000, and third place wins $85,000. All other players receive money on a sliding scale, though specific amounts have rarely been made public. Sonja Christopher, the first player voted off of Survivor: Borneo, received $2,500.[14] In Survivor: Fiji, the first season with tied runners-up, the two runners-up received US$100,000 each, and Yau-Man Chan received US$60,000 for his fourth-place finish.[15] All players also receive an additional $10,000 for their appearance on the reunion show.[16]

Most seasons between The Australian Outback and Fiji have featured a late-season reward challenge where the winner receives a car. This reward was infamous for what was later dubbed the "car curse,"[17] referring to the fact that no player who ever won the car went on to win the game.

Other additional prizes are given out post-game, usually at the live reunion that immediately follows the coronation of the winner.

Variations in the format[edit]

Aside from the U.S. version, other franchises introduced variations and twists for the game. Most of these twists and variations are used in other franchises as well:

Expeditie Robinson Belgium/Netherlands
Koh-Lanta (France)
Robinson Ekspeditionen Denmark
Robinsonid (Estonia), Robinsoni (Latvia), Robinzonai (Lithuania)
Survivor Israel
Robinsonekspedisjonen Norway
Survivor Philippines
Expedition Robinson Sweden
The title card for Expedition Robinson's 15th season, Robinson: Revanschen.
Twists with unknown origins

Game rules[edit]

Survivor series[edit]

The Survivor format has been adapted for numerous international versions of the show, some named after the original Expedition Robinson.


     Currently airing franchise
     Franchise with an upcoming season
     Franchise no longer aired
Region/CountryLocal titleNetworksWinnersGrand PrizeHosts
AfricaSurvivor AfricaM-NetSeason 1, 2006: Tsholofelo Gasenelwe$100,000Anthony Oseyemi
(Season 1)
Arab WorldSurvivor
LBCSeason 1, 2005: Hussein El-AbassSR1,000,000Tareq Mounir
(Season 1)
ArgentinaExpedición RobinsonCanal 13

Season 1, 2000: Sebastián Martino
Season 2, 2001: María Victoria Fernández

$100,000Julián Weich
(Season 1 – 2)
AustraliaAustralian SurvivorNine NetworkSeason 1, 2002: Robert DicksonA$500,000 & a carLincoln Howes
(Season 1)
Celebrity SurvivorSeven NetworkSeason 1, 2006: Guy LeechA$100,000
(For charity)
Ian Dickson
(Season 1)
Expedition RobinsonORF
Season 1, 2000: Melanie1DEM100,000
AzerbaijanExtreme Azerbaijan
(Ekstrim Azərbaycan)
Space TVSeason 1, 2011: UnknownSports carEmin Əhmədov
(Season 1)
TV3 Estonia
TV3 Latvia
TV3 Lithuania

Season 1, 2000: Zane Mukane
Season 2, 2001: Māris Šveiduks
Season 3, 2002: Rimas Valeikis

Mazda 626
(Season 1)

50,000 LT
(Season 2 – 3)
Emil Rutiku
(Season 1-3)

Pauls Timrots
(Season 1-3)
Vytautas Kernagis
(Season 1-3)
Džungļu zvaigznes
Season 1, 2004: Dagmāra Legante10,000Tenu Karks
Raimond Dombrovskis
Vytautas Kernagis
Expeditie RobinsonVT4
(Season 1 – 5)

(Season 6 – 13)

(Season 1 – 5)

(Season 6 – 7)

(Season 6 – 13)

Season 1, 2000: Karin Lindenhovius
Season 2, 2001: Richard Mackowiak
Season 3, 2002: Derek Blok
Season 4, 2003: Jutta Borms
Season 5, 2004: Frank de Meulder
Season 6, 2005: Marnix Allegaert
Season 7, 2006: Olga Urashova
Season 8, 2007: Vinncent Arrendell
Season 9, 2008: Yin Oei Sian
Season 10, 2009: Marcel Vandezande
Season 11, 2010: Regina Romeijn
Season 12, 2011: Tanja Dexters
Season 13, 2012: Fatima Moreira de Melo

(Season 3 – present)
(Season 1 – 2)
(Season 1 – 9)
Désiré Naessens
(Season 1)
Roos Van Acker
(Season 2 – 5)
Lotte Verlackt
(Season 6 – 7)
Evi Hanssen
(Season 7 – 13)
Eddy Zoey
(Season 10 – 12)
Dennis Weening
(Season 13)
Expeditie Robinson:
Season 1, 2006: Ryan van Esch
BrazilNo LimiteGlobo

Season 1, 2000: Elaine de Melo
Season 2, 2001: Léo Rassi
Season 3, 2001: Rodrigo Trigueiro
Season 4, 2009: Luciana de Araújo

R$ 500,000Zeca Camargo
(Season 1 – 4)
BulgariaSurvivor BG
(Сървайвър БГ)

Season 1, 2006: Neli Ivanova
Season 2, 2007: Georgi Kostadinov
Season 3, 2008: Nikolay Martinov
Season 4, 2009:[19] Georgi Kehaiov
Season 5, 2014: Vanja Džaferović

250,000 BGN
(Season 1-4)
100,000 BGN
(Season 5)

(Season 1)
Vladimir Karamazov
(Season 2 –)
Evtim Miloshev
(Season 4)

People's Republic of ChinaInto The Shangri-La
CCTVSeason 1, 2001: Members of Sun VillageA chance to
fulfill their dreams
ChileExpedición Robinson
(Celebrity Format)
Canal 13Season 1, 2006: Marcela Roberts$50,000,000

Sergio Lagos
(Season 1)
Karla Constant
(Season 1)

ColombiaExpedición RobinsonCaracol TV

Season 1, 2001: Rolando Patarroyo
Season 2, 2002: Cristóbal Echevarría

(Season 1)

(Season 2)

Margarita Francisco
(Season 1 – 2)
La Isla
de los Famo S.O.S.

(Celebrity Format)

Season 1, 2004: María Cecilia Sánchez
Season 2, 2005: Leonel Álvarez
Season 3, 2006: Lucas Jaramillo
Season 4, 2007: José Javier Ramírez


Guillermo Prieto
(Season 1 – 4)
Katerine Porto
(Season 1)

(Season 1)
Season 1, 2005: Vazmenko Pervanu€100,000
(Season 1)

Antonija Blaće
(Season 2)
Milan Kalinić
(Season 2)
Andrija Milošević
(Season 2)
Marijana Batinić
(Season 2)
Survivor Croatia VIPRTL Televizija
(Season 2)
Season 2, 2012: Vladimir "Vlada" Vuksanović450,000
(Season 2)

Czech RepublicTrosečníkTV PrimaSeason 1, 2006: Ingrid Golasová5,000,000 CZKMarek Vašut
(Season 1)

Season 1, 1998: Regina Pedersen
Season 2, 1999: Dan Marstrand
Season 3, 2000: Sonny Pedersen
Season 4, 2001: Malene Hasselblad
Season 5, 2002: Henrik Ørum
Season 6, 2003: Frank Quistgard
Season 7, 2004: Mette Frandsen
Season 8, 2005: Mogens Brandstrup
Season 9, 2006: Diego Tur
Season 10, 2007: Rikke Gøransson
Season 11, 2008: Daniela Hansen
Season 12, 2009: Villy Eenberg
Season 13, 2010: Søren Engelbret
Season 14, 2011: Hugo Kleister
Season 15, 2013: Jeppe Bruun Hansen

1,000,000 DKK(Season 5-9)

500,000 DKK(Season 10-Present)

250,000 DKK(Season 1-4)

Thomas Mygind
(Season 1 – 6)
Jakob Kjeldbjerg
(Season 7 – 14)

Robinson: VIPSeason 1, 2005: Tilde Fröling2Mikkel Beha
(Season 1)
EcuadorExpedición RobinsonTeleamazonasSeason 1, 2003: Tito Grefa$30,000
and a car
Marisa Sánchez
(Season 1)
FinlandSuomen RobinsonNelonen

Season 1, 2004: Marjaana Valkeinen
Season 2, 2005: Mira Jantunen


Jarmo Mäkinen
(Season 1)
Arttu Harkki
(Season 2)

Selviytyjät Suomi
(Survivor Finland)
MTV3Season 1, 2013: Jarkko Kortesoja€50,000

Heikki Paasonen
(Season 1)


Season 1, 2001: Gilles Nicolet
Season 2, 2002: Amel Fatnassi
Season 3, 2003: Isabelle Seguin and Delphine Bano
Season 4, 2004: Philippe Bordier
Season 5, 2005: Clémence Castel
Season 6, 2006: François-David Cardonnel
Season 7, 2007: Jade Handi and Kevin Cuoco
Season 8, 2008: Christelle Gauzet
Season 9, 2009: Christina Chevry
Season 10, 2010: Philippe Duron
Season 11, 2011: Gérard Urdampilleta
Season 12, 2012: Ugo Lartiche
Season 13, 2013: Cancelled
Season 14, 2015: Upcoming season

€100,000Hubert Auriol
(Season 1)

Denis Brogniart
(Season 2 – Present)

Koh-Lanta: All-Stars

Season 1, 2009: Romuald Lafite (Season 4)
Season 2, 2010: Grégoire Gorge (Season 7)
Season 3, 2012: Bertrand Bolle (Season 8)
Season 4, 2014: Laurent Maistret (Season 11)

Denis Brogniart
(Season 1 – 3)

Ukanaskneli Gmiri
Rustavi 2Season 1, 2007–2008: Tamar Chanturashvili
GermanySurvivorRTL 2
(Season 1 - 2)

(Season 3)

Season 2, 2001: Alexander Kolo1
Season 3, 2007: Volker

(Season 2)

(Season 3)
GreeceSurvivorMega TV

Season 1, 2003: Evagelina Dermetzoglou
Season 2, 2004: Konstantina Golias

(Season 1 – 2)

(Season 3)

SurvivorMega TV
Show TV

Season 1, 2006: Derya Durmuşlar3

HungarySurvivor – A SzigetRTL Klub

Season 1, 2003: Tünde Molnár
Season 2, 2004: Dávid Hankó

10,000,000 Ft
and a car
András Stohl
(Season 1 – 2)
IndiaSurvivor India – The Ultimate BattleStar PlusSeason 1, 2012 : Raj RaniINR 1 croreSameer Kochhar
Hisardut (Hebrew: Survival)
Channel 10 (Seasons 1-5)
Channel 2 (Reshet) (Season 6-)

Season 1, 2007-2008: Na'ama Kaesari
Season 2, 2008-2009: Erik Alper
Season 3, 2009: Shay Arel
Season 4, 2010: Natan Bashevkin
Season 5, 2011: Irit Rahamim Basis
Season 6, 2015: Upcoming season

1,000,000Guy Zoaretz
(Season 1 – Present)
הישרדות: VIP
(Celebrity Format)
Season 1, 2012: Itay Segev
ItalySurvivor ItaliaItalia 1Season 1, 2001: Milica Miletic€200,000

Pietro Suber
(Season 1)
Benedetta Corbi
(Season 1)

L'Isola dei Famosi
The Island Of The Famous
Rai Due
(Season 1-9)

Canale 5
(Season 10)

Season 1, 2003: Walter Nudo
Season 2, 2004: Sergio Múñiz
Season 3, 2005: Lori Del Santo
Season 4, 2006: Luca Calvani
Season 5, 2007: Manuela Villa
Season 6, 2008: Vladimir Luxuria
Season 7, 2010: Daniele Battaglia
Season 8, 2011: Giorgia Palmas
Season 9, 2012: Antonella Elia
Season 10, 2015: Upcoming season


Simona Ventura
(Season 1–8)
Marco Mazzocchi
(Season 1–3)
Paolo Brosio
(Season 4)
(Season 5)
Filippo Magnini
(Season 6)
Rossano Rubicondi
(Season 7)
Daniele Battaglia
(Season 8)
Nicola Savino
(Season 9)
Vladimir Luxuria
(Season 9)


Season 1, 2002: Eri Minoshima
Season 2, 2002: Asami Kawamura
Season 3, 2003: Yasuhito Ebisawa
Season 4, 2003: Kōshin Gunji


(Season 1 – 4)
Munehiro Tokita
(Season 1 – 4)

MexicoLa Isla, el realityAzteca 7

Season 1, 2012: María Reneé
Season 2, 2013: Cecilia Ponce
Season 3, 2014: Francisco Covarrubias
Season 4, 2015: Upcoming Season

$2,000,000Alejandro Lukini
NetherlandsExpeditie RobinsonRTL 5

Season 14, 2013: Edith Bosch
Season 15, 2014: Kay Nambiar

(Season 14)
(Season 15)
Dennis Weening
Evi Hanssen
(Season 14)
Nicolette Kluijver
(Season 15)

Season 1, 1999: Christer Falch
Season 2, 2000: Therese Andersen
Season 3, 2001: Mia Martinsen
Season 4, 2002: Ann Karene Molvig
Season 5, 2003: Emil Orderud
Season 6, 2004: Jan Stian Gundersen
Season 7, 2007: Ann-Kristin Otnes
Season 8, 2008: Tom Andre Tveitan
Season 9, 2009: Lina Iversen
Season 10, 2010: Alita Dagmar Kristensen
Season 11, 2011: Lillan Ramøy
Season 12, 2012: Elisabeth Nielsen
Season 13, 2013: Bjørn Tore Bekkeli


Nils Ole Oftebro
(Season 1)
Christer Falch
(Season 2 – Present)

Robinson: VIPSeason 1, 2005: Tilde Fröling2Mikkel Beha
(Season 1)
PakistanSurvivor PakistanPTV
Season 1, 2006: Muhammad ZiadUS$100,000
PhilippinesSurvivor PhilippinesGMA

Season 1, 2008: John Carlo "JC" Tiuseco
Season 2, 2009: Amanda Coolley Van Cooll

₱3,000,000Paolo Bediones
(Season 1 – 2)
Survivor Philippines
(Celebrity Edition)

Season 3, 2010: Akihiro Sato
Season 4, 2011-2012: Albert "Betong" Sumaya Jr.

Richard Gutierrez
(Season 3 – Present)
PolandWyprawa RobinsonTVNSeason 1, 2004: Katarzyna Drzyżdżyk100,000 Hubert Urbański
(Season 1)
PortugalSurvivorTVISeason 1, 2001: Pedro BesugoEsc10,000,000
RussiaПоследний герой
Last Hero

Season 1, 2001: Sergey Odintsov
Season 2, 2002-2003: Veronika Norkina
Season 3, 2003: Vladimir Presnyakov, Jr
Season 4, 2003-2004: Yana Volkova
Season 5, 2004: Aleksey Matveyev
Season 6, 2005: Alexander "Conan" Alexeev
Season 7, 2008-2009: Vladimir Lysenko

3,000,000 RUB

Sergei Bodrov, Jr.
(Season 1)
Dmitry Pevtsov
(Season 2)
Nikolai Fomenko
(Season 3)
(Season 4)
Vladimir Menshov
(Season 5)
Kseniya Sobchak
(Season 7)

ScandinaviaRobinson: VIP
(Celebrity Edition)
TV3 Denmark
TV3 Norway
TV3 Sweden
Season 1, 2005: Tilde Fröling2SEK500.000
to charity
Mikkel Beha
(Season 1)
SerbiaSurvivor SrbijaPrva

Season 1, 2008-2009: Nemanja Pavlov
Season 2, 2009-2010: Aleksandar Krajišnik

Nissan Patrol
(Season 1)

(Season 1)

(Season 2)

Andrija Milošević
(Season 1 - 4)
Marijana Batinić
(Season 4)
Survivor Srbija: VIPPrvaSeason 3, 2010-2011: Andrej Maričić
Season 4, 2012: Vladimir "Vlada" Vuksanović4
SlovakiaCelebrity CampTV JOJSeason 1, 2007: Aneta Paríšková5,000,000 SKKPetra Polnišová
(Season 1)
South AfricaSurvivor
South Africa

Season 1, 2006: Vanessa Marawa
Season 2, 2007: Lorette Mostert
Season 3, 2010: Perle "GiGi" van Schalkwyk
Season 4, 2011: Hykie Berg
Season 5, 2014: Graham Jenneker


Mark Bayly
(Season 1 - 2)
Nico Panagio
(Season 3 - 4)


Season 1, 2000: Xavier Monjonell
Season 2, 2001: Alfredo "Freddy" Cortina


Juan Manuel López
(Season 1 - 2)
Paco Lobaton
(Season 2)

La Isla
de los Famo S.O.S.
Antena 3

Season 3, 2003: Daniela Cardone
Season 4, 2003: Felipe López
Season 5, 2004: Jose Antonio Canales Rivera
Season 6, 2005: Víctor Janeiro


Paula Vázquez
(Season 3 - 6)
Alonso Caparrós
(Season 3)
Nuria Roca
(Season 4 - 6)


Season 7, 2006: Carmen Russo
Season 8, 2007: Nilo Manrique
Season 9, 2008: Miriam Sánchez
Season 10, 2009: Maite Zúñiga
Season 11, 2010: María José Fernández
Season 12, 2011: Rosa Benito
Season 13, 2014: Abraham García
Season 14, 2015: Upcoming season


Jesús Vázquez
(Season 7 - 11)
José María
(Season 7)
Mario Picazo
(Season 8 - 10)
Eva Gonzalez
(Season 11)
Jorge Javier
(Season 12 - 13)
Raquel Sánchez
(Season 12 - 13)

SwedenExpedition RobinsonSVT
(Season 1 - 7)

(Season 8 - 9)

(Season 10 -

(Season 15)

Season 1, 1997: Martin Melin
Season 2, 1998: Alexandra Zazzi
Season 3, 1999: Jerker Dalman
Season 4, 2000: Mattias Dalerstedt
Season 5, 2001-2002: Jan Emanuel Johansson
Season 6, 2002: Antoni Matacz
Season 7, 2003-2004: Emma Andersson
Season 8, 2004: Jerry Forsberg
Season 9, 2005: Karolina Conrad
Season 10, 2009: Ellenor Pierre
Season 11, 2009-2010: Hans Brettschneider
Season 12, 2010: Erik Svedberg
Season 13, 2011: Mats Kemi
Season 14, 2012: Mariana "Mirre" Hammarling
Season 15, 2015: Upcoming season


Harald Treutiger
(Season 1 - 2)
Anders Lundin
(Season 3 - 7)
Robert Aschberg
(Season 8 - 9)
Linda Isacsson
(Season 10)
Paolo Roberto
(Season 11 - 14)

Robinson: VIPTV3Season 1, 2005: Tilde Fröling2SEK500.000
to charity

Mikkel Beha
(Season 1)
Robert Aschberg
(Season 1)

SwitzerlandExpedition RobinsonTV3

Season 1, 1999: Andreas Widmer
Season 2, 2000: Stefanie Ledermann
Season 3, 2001: Cancelled/ Not Aired

CHF100,000Silvan Grütter
(Season 1 - 3)
TurkeySurvivor TurkeyKanal D
(Season 1)

Show TV
(Season 2 - 4)

Season 1, 2005: Uğur Pektaş
Season 2, 2006: Derya Durmuşlar3
Season 3, 2007: Taner Özdeş
Season 4, 2010: Merve Oflaz

(Season 1)
(Season 2 - 3)
(Season 4)

Acun Ilıcalı
(Season 1-4)
Survivor: Ünlüler vs. Gönüllüler
(with Celebrities)
Show TV
(Season 5-6)

Star TV
(Season 7-8)

Season 5, 2011: Derya Büyükuncu
Season 6, 2012: Nihat Altınkaya
Season 7, 2013: Hilmi Cem İntepe
Season 8, 2014: Turabi Çamkıran

(Season 5-present)

Acun Ilıcalı
(Season 5-8)
Hanzade Ofluoğlu
(Season 5)
Burcu Esmersoy
(Season 6)
Alp Kırşan
(Season 7-8)

Survivor All-Startv8
(Season 9-present)
Season 9, 2015: Upcoming season500,000TL
(Season 9-present)
Acun Ilıcalı
(Season 9-present)
UkraineOстанній герой
Last Hero

Season 1, 2011: Andrey Kovalski
Season 2, 2012: Alexei Diveyeff-Tserkovny
Season 3, 2013: Cancelled/ Not Aired

United KingdomSurvivorITV

Season 1, 2001: Charlotte Hobrough
Season 2, 2002: Jonny Gibb


Mark Austin
(Season 1)
John Leslie
(Season 1)
Mark Nicholas
(Season 2)

United StatesSurvivorCBS

Season 1, 2000: Richard Hatch
Season 2, 2001: Tina Wesson
Season 3, 2001-2002: Ethan Zohn
Season 4, 2002: Vecepia Towery
Season 5, 2002: Brian Heidik
Season 6, 2003: Jenna Morasca
Season 7, 2003: Sandra Diaz-Twine
Season 8, 2004: Amber Brkich
Season 9, 2004: Chris Daugherty
Season 10, 2005: Tom Westman
Season 11, 2005: Danni Boatwright
Season 12, 2006: Aras Baskauskas
Season 13, 2006: Yul Kwon
Season 14, 2007: Earl Cole
Season 15, 2007: Todd Herzog
Season 16, 2008: Parvati Shallow
Season 17, 2008: Robert "Bob" Crowley
Season 18, 2009: James "J.T." Thomas Jr.
Season 19, 2009: Natalie White
Season 20, 2010: Sandra Diaz-Twine
Season 21, 2010: Jud "Fabio" Birza
Season 22, 2011: Rob Mariano
Season 23, 2011: Sophie Clarke
Season 24, 2012: Kim Spradlin
Season 25, 2012: Denise Stapley
Season 26, 2013: John Cochran
Season 27, 2013: Tyson Apostol
Season 28, 2014: Tony Vlachos
Season 29, 2014: Natalie Anderson
Season 30, 2015: Upcoming season

US$1,000,000 & a Car (Season 1-12)US$1,000,000 (Season 13-)Jeff Probst
(Season 1 - Present)
La Gran Aventura

Season 1, 2001: Gabriel Pérez
Season 2, 2003: Graciela Boza

100,000,000 VEB


^1 The German Survivor created their own version after airing a co-production of Austrian-German Survivor in season 1. Austria hadn't continued its own series nor co-produced an Austrian-German Survivor after season 1.
^2 Expedition Robinson 2005 (VIP) was a pan-regional version of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.
^3 Survivor: Greece vs. Turkey is a co-production between Greek and Turkish Survivor franchises. It was the third season of the popular show Survivor to air in Greece and the second season to air in Turkey. This was the first time that either country's franchise competed with another country and because of this the major twist this season was that the tribes were divided up by country of origin.
^4 Is a season co-produced by the Croatian and Serbian franchises. It was the second season of Survivor to air in Croatia and the fourth season to air in Serbia.

Current series[edit]

     Current season
CountrySeason nameLaunch dateFinale dateDaysSurvivorsGrand prize
BulgariaSurvivor: CambodiaSeptember 15, 20145223100,000 лв
FranceKoh-Lanta All-StarsSeptember 12, 201413€100,000
ItalyL'Isola dei FamosiJanuary 2015€200,000
MexicoLa Isla, el realityJuly 14, 201418$2,000,000
NetherlandsExpeditie RobinsonSeptember 4, 2014December 18, 20143318€30,000
SwedenExpedition RobinsonSpring 2015
TurkeySurvivor TurkeyFebruary 22, 2015500,000TL
United StatesSurvivor: Worlds ApartFebruary 25, 20153918$1,000,000

Other media[edit]

Thrill ride[edit]

One of the more novel merchandising items has been the interactive Survivor: The Ride thrill ride at California's Great America in Santa Clara, California. The ride includes a rotating platform on which riders are divided into one of four "tribes." As the ride moves along an undulating track, riders can be sprayed by water guns hidden in oversized tribal masks while drums and other familiar Survivor musical accents play in the background. Other theming includes Survivor memorabilia throughout the queue line and other merchandise for sale in nearby gift shops.[20] The ride has since been rethemed as Tiki Twirl.

Online games[edit]

During the first Survivor seasons many online games based on forums were created. More specific Survivor online games appeared later.

In late 2013, a former contestant of the American version of the show, Erik Reichenbach, launched a Kickstarter campaign for a Survivor-styled online mobile app called "Islands of Chaos". It pits players from all over the world in a battle of challenges and strategy to be the last one standing. If the campaign is successful, the plan is to release the game free of charge on a range of platforms including on Apple and Android devices.[21]


Beginning on July 8, 2007, a parody of Survivor called Total Drama Island appeared on the television network "Teletoon". This animated show included 22 summer campers who signed up to stay at a 5-star resort, which actually turned out to be a cruddy summer camp on an island somewhere in Muskoka, Ontario. The host, Chris McLean, is modeled after Survivor host Jeff Probst. The campers are taken to the island on boats to meet their fellow competitors, being heartbroken at the sight of their wasted summer. The campers were separated into two teams: The "Screaming Gophers" and the "Killer Bass". Every three days there would be a challenge for the campers to face, from jumping off a 1,000-foot high cliff into a lake to survival skills. The losing team of each challenge would go to the Bonfire Ceremony the night of the challenge, and vote someone off the team, like Survivor. Each team member still in the game would receive a marshmallow, leaving one team member without one. The member who does not receive a marshmallow would have to walk the Dock of Shame and board the Boat of Losers to leave the island, and "Never ever ever ever ever" return (which turned out to be a lie in the episode "No Pain, No Game"). After 12 members of the island were voted off, the teams were merged. Two competitors were brought back into the game for another chance at the grand prize, C$100,000. When only three members are left, there is a sudden-death challenge. The person who does not accept a dare is immediately taken off the island. For the final challenge, the 20 campers voted off the island are brought back to root for one of the two survivors. The winner receives a check for the C$100,000 and the final marshmallow. The show then ends with Chris thrown off the Dock of Shame. The show aired in 188 countries and also appeared on the channels of Cartoon Network and Jetix. The show became a critical and commercial success and it spun off into a series.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Probst, Jeff (2009-10-23). "Jeff Probst blogs 'Survivor: Samoa': episode #6". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2009-10-23. 
  2. ^ "Jeff Probst Talks "Survivor: Fiji"". Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  3. ^ Probst, Jeff (2010-02-26). "Jeff Probst blogs 'Survivor: Heroes vs Villains': Episode 3". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2010-02-26. 
  4. ^ CBS Survivor: Redemption Island - Rites of Passage Video Official CBS Website - Retrieved 2011-05-17
  5. ^ Ross, Dalton (2005-02-07). "The Host Has Spoken". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2008-06-04. 
  6. ^ "Returning Shows". Retrieved 2007-09-21. 
  7. ^ Rocchio, Christopher (2008-05-12). "Exclusive: Amanda Kimmel discusses 'Micronesia,' losing 'Survivor' twice". Reality TV World. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  8. ^ "The Slug" - Jeff Probst Talks "Survivor: Fiji"
  9. ^ "Survivor: Cagayan Preview Special". CBS. February 12, 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  10. ^ Probst, Jeff (2009-03-13). "Jeff Probst blogs 'Survivor: Tocantins': episode 5". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  11. ^ Probst, Jeff (2009-04-03). "Jeff Probst blogs 'Survivor: Tocantins' (episode 6)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  12. ^ Probst, Jeff (2010-04-30). "Jeff Probst blogs 'Survivor: Heroes vs. Villains' episode 11". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2010-04-30. 
  13. ^ Richard Hatch: Tax Evader
  14. ^ Senior Women Web
  15. ^ "He lost a million, won our hearts on 'Survivor'". Retrieved 2007-05-15. 
  16. ^ Survivor's Lindsey Discusses Fame, Fortune, and the AIDS Benefit Reality News Online
  17. ^ Smith, Stephan (2006-12-09). "Car Curse In Cruise Control". CBS News. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  18. ^ "‘Survivor’ lunch lady to donate $50,000 gift". 
  19. ^ "Bulgaria Survivor contestant dies". BBC News. 2009-06-01. Retrieved 2010-03-27. 
  20. ^ "Survivor: The Ride – LoveToKnow Themeparks". 
  21. ^ "Islands of Chaos: The Strategic Adventure Mobile App". 

Further reading[edit]

United Kingdom Season #1 (2001)

United Kingdom Season #2: Survivor: Panama (2002)

United States Season #1: Survivor: Pulau Tiga, Borneo (2000)

United States Season #2: Survivor: The Australian Outback (2001)

United States Season #6: Survivor: Amazon (2003)

United States Season #9: Survivor: Vanuatu -Islands of Fire (2004)

Various Seasons, esp. United States 1–6

External links[edit]