Monocalcium phosphate

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Monocalcium phosphate
Calcium dihydrogen phosphate.png
Monocalcium phosphate spoon.JPG
Identifiers
CAS number7758-23-8 YesY
PubChem24454
Properties
Molecular formulaCaH4P2O8
Molar mass234.05 g/mol
Appearancewhite powder
Density2.220 g/cm3
Melting point109 °C
Boiling point203 °C (decomposes)
Solubility in water2 g/100 mL
Solubilitysoluble in HCl, nitric acid, acetic acid
Refractive index (nD)1.5176
Structure
Crystal structuretriclinic
Hazards
EU IndexNot listed
NFPA 704
Flash pointNon-flammable
Related compounds
Other anionsCalcium pyrophosphate
Other cationsMagnesium phosphate
Dicalcium phosphate
Tricalcium phosphate
Strontium phosphate
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references
 
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Monocalcium phosphate
Calcium dihydrogen phosphate.png
Monocalcium phosphate spoon.JPG
Identifiers
CAS number7758-23-8 YesY
PubChem24454
Properties
Molecular formulaCaH4P2O8
Molar mass234.05 g/mol
Appearancewhite powder
Density2.220 g/cm3
Melting point109 °C
Boiling point203 °C (decomposes)
Solubility in water2 g/100 mL
Solubilitysoluble in HCl, nitric acid, acetic acid
Refractive index (nD)1.5176
Structure
Crystal structuretriclinic
Hazards
EU IndexNot listed
NFPA 704
Flash pointNon-flammable
Related compounds
Other anionsCalcium pyrophosphate
Other cationsMagnesium phosphate
Dicalcium phosphate
Tricalcium phosphate
Strontium phosphate
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Monocalcium phosphate is a chemical compound with the formula Ca(H2PO4)2 ("ACMP" or "CMP-A" for anhydrous monocalcium phosphate). It is commonly found as the monohydrate (""MCP" or "MCP-M"), Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O (CAS# 10031-30-8). Both salts are colourless solid that are used mainly as a leavening agent.[1]

Preparation[edit]

It is produced by treating calcium hydroxide with phosphoric acid:

Ca(OH)2 + 2 H3PO4 → Ca(H2PO4)2 + 2 H2O

Use as leavening agent[edit]

Calcium dihydrogen phosphate is used in the food industry as a leavening agent, i.e., to cause baked goods to rise. Because it is acidic, when combined with an alkali ingredient, commonly sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) or potassium bicarbonate, it reacts to produce carbon dioxide and a salt. Outward pressure of the carbon dioxide gas causes the rising effect. When combined in a ready-made baking powder, the acid and alkali ingredients are included in the right proportions such that they will exactly neutralize each other and not significantly affect the overall pH of the product. ACMP and MCP are fast acting, releasing most carbon dioxide within minutes of mixing. It is popularly used in pancake mixes. In double acting baking powders, MCP is often combined with the slow acting acid sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP).[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Klaus Schrödter, Gerhard Bettermann, Thomas Staffel, Friedrich Wahl, Thomas Klein, Thomas Hofmann "Phosphoric Acid and Phosphates" in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2008, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_465.pub3
  2. ^ John Brodie, John Godber "Bakery Processes, Chemical Leavening Agents" in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 2001, John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0308051303082114.a01.pub2

Further reading[edit]