Supercentenarian

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A supercentenarian (sometimes hyphenated as super-centenarian) is someone who has lived to or passed his/her 110th birthday. This age is achieved by about one in 1,000 centenarians.[1] Anderson et al. concluded that supercentenarians live a life typically free of major age-related diseases until shortly before maximum human lifespan is reached between 110 and 115 years.[2]

Incidence

There are estimated to be 300-450 living supercentenarians[3] in the world, though only 69 verified cases are known.[4] A study conducted in 2010 showed that the countries with the most known supercentenarians (living and dead, in order of total) were the United States,[5] Japan, the United Kingdom, France, and Italy.[6]

The first verified supercentenarians in human history died in the late 19th century. Until the 1980s, the oldest age attained by supercentenarians was 115, but this has now been surpassed.

Etymology

The term "supercentenarian" has been in existence since at least the 1970s (Norris McWhirter, editor of Guinness World Records, used the word in correspondence with age claims researcher A. Ross Eckler, Jr. in 1976), and was further popularised in 1991 by William Strauss and Neil Howe in their book entitled Generations. Early references tend to mean simply "someone well over 100", but the 110-and-over cutoff is the accepted criterion of demographers. In the 19th century, the term "ultracentenarian" was used to describe someone well over 100, the cutoff being age 110.[citation needed]

Morbidity

Research on the morbidity of supercentenarians has found that they remain free of major age-related diseases (e.g., stroke, cardiovascular disease, dementia, cancer, Parkinson’s disease and diabetes) until the very end of life when they die of exhaustion of organ reserve, which is the ability to return organ function to homeostasis.[2] About 10% of supercentenarians survive until the last 3 months of life without major age-related diseases as compared to only 4% of semisupercentenarians (age range 105–109 years) and 3% of centenarians.[2]

History

While claims of extreme age have persisted from the earliest times in history, the earliest supercentenarian accepted by Guinness World Records is Dutchman Thomas Peters (reportedly 1745–1857). Scholars such as French demographer Jean-Marie Robine, however, consider Geert Adriaans Boomgaard, also of the Netherlands, who turned 110 in 1898, to be the first verifiable case, as the alleged evidence for Peters has apparently been lost. The evidence for the 112 years of Englishman William Hiseland (reportedly 1620–1733) does not meet the standards required by Guinness World Records. Norwegian Church records, the accuracy of which is subject to dispute, also show what appear to be several supercentenarians who lived in the south-central part of present-day Norway during the 16th and 17th centuries, including Johannes Torpe (1549–1664), and Knud Erlandson Etun (1659–1770), both residents of Valdres, Oppland, Norway.

In 1902, Margaret Ann Neve, born in 1792, became the first verified female supercentenarian.

Jeanne Calment, who died in 1997 aged 122 years, 164 days, had the longest human lifespan documented. The oldest verified man ever recorded is Jiroemon Kimura of Japan, who died in 2013 aged 116 years and 54 days.

Over 1,500 supercentenarians have been documented in history.[7] It is likely that more have lived, but the majority of claims to have lived to this age do not have sufficient documentary support to be validated. This is slowly changing as those born after birth registration was standardized in more countries and parts of countries attain supercentenarian age.

Verified supercentenarians over 115 years old

For a more comprehensive list, see List of the verified oldest people.

      Deceased       Living

RankNameGenderBirth dateDeath dateAge
(as of 4 October 2014)
Country
1Jeanne CalmentF21 February 18754 August 1997122 years, 164 daysFrance
2Sarah KnaussF24 September 188030 December 1999119 years, 97 daysUnited States
3Lucy HannahF16 July 187521 March 1993117 years, 248 daysUnited States
4Marie-Louise MeilleurF29 August 188016 April 1998117 years, 230 daysCanada
5María CapovillaF14 September 188927 August 2006116 years, 347 daysEcuador
6Misao OkawaF5 March 1898Living116 years, 213 daysLiving in Japan
7Tane IkaiF18 January 187912 July 1995116 years, 175 daysJapan
8Elizabeth BoldenF15 August 189011 December 2006116 years, 118 daysUnited States
9Besse CooperF26 August 18964 December 2012116 years, 100 daysUnited States
10Gertrude WeaverF4 July 1898Living116 years, 92 daysLiving in United States
11Jiroemon KimuraM19 April 189712 June 2013116 years, 54 daysJapan
12Maggie BarnesF6 March 188219 January 1998115 years, 319 daysUnited States
13Dina ManfrediniF4 April 189717 December 2012115 years, 257 daysborn Italy
died in United States
14Christian MortensenM16 August 188225 April 1998115 years, 252 daysborn Denmark
died in United States
15Charlotte HughesF1 August 187717 March 1993115 years, 228 daysUnited Kingdom
16Edna ParkerF20 April 189326 November 2008115 years, 220 daysUnited States
17Mary Ann RhodesF12 August 18823 March 1998115 years, 203 daysCanada
18Margaret SkeeteF27 October 18787 May 1994115 years, 192 daysUnited States
19Gertrude BainesF6 April 189411 September 2009115 years, 158 daysUnited States
20Emiliano Mercado del ToroM21 August 189124 January 2007115 years, 156 daysPuerto Rico
21Bettie WilsonF13 September 189013 February 2006115 years, 153 daysUnited States
22Jeralean TalleyF23 May 1899Living115 years, 134 daysLiving in United States
23Julie Winnefred BertrandF16 September 189118 January 2007115 years, 124 daysCanada
24Maria de JesusF10 September 18932 January 2009115 years, 114 daysPortugal
25Susie GibsonF31 October 189016 February 2006115 years, 108 daysUnited States
26Susannah Mushatt JonesF6 July 1899Living115 years, 90 daysLiving in United States
27Augusta HoltzF3 August 187121 October 1986115 years, 79 daysborn Germany
died in United States
28Bernice MadiganF24 July 1899Living115 years, 72 daysLiving in United States
29Hendrikje van Andel-SchipperF29 June 189030 August 2005115 years, 62 daysNetherlands
30Maude Farris-LuseF21 January 188718 March 2002115 years, 56 daysUnited States
31Marie BrémontF25 April 18866 June 2001115 years, 42 daysFrance
32Koto OkuboF24 December 189712 January 2013115 years, 19 daysJapan
33Chiyono HasegawaF20 November 18962 December 2011115 years, 12 daysJapan
34Annie JenningsF12 November 188420 November 1999115 years, 8 daysUnited Kingdom

References

  1. ^ Maier, H., Gampe, J., Jeune, B., Robine, J.-M., Vaupel, J. W. (Eds.) (2010). Supercentenarians. Germany: Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research. p. 325. ISBN 978-3-642-11519-6. 
  2. ^ a b c Anderson, Stacy L.; Sebastiani, Paola; Dworkis, Daniel A.; Feldman, Lori; Perls, Thomas T. (2012). "Health Span Approximates Life Span Among Many Supercentenarians: Compression of Morbidity at the Approximate Limit of Life Span". The Journals of Gerontology: Series A 67A: 395–405. doi:10.1093/gerona/glr223. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  3. ^ Validated living supercentenarians
  4. ^ http://supercentenarian-research-foundation.org/TableE.aspx
  5. ^ Rosenwaike, Ira; Stone, Leslie F. (2003). "Verification of the Ages of Supercentenarians in the United States: Results of a Matching Study". Demography 40 (4): 727–739. doi:10.1353/dem.2003.0038. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  6. ^ The 2010 study of countries with most supercentenarians
  7. ^ Gerontology Research Group: Verified Supercentenarians (Ranked By Age) as of January 1, 2014

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