The Sukhoi Superjet 100 (Russian: Сухой Суперджет 100) is a modern fly-by-wireregional jet with 8 (VIP) to 108 (all Y) passenger seats. With development initiated in 2000, the airliner was designed and spearheaded by Sukhoi, a division of the Russian civil aerospace company (UAC), in co-operation with several foreign partners. Its maiden flight was conducted on 19 May 2008. On 21 April 2011, the Superjet 100 undertook its first commercial passenger flight, on the Armavia route from Yerevan to Moscow.
Designed to compete internationally with its An-158, Embraer and Bombardier counterparts, the Superjet 100 claims substantially lower operating costs, at a lower purchase price of $35 million.
Development of the Sukhoi Superjet 100 began in 2000. On 19 December 2002, Sukhoi Civil Aircraft and Boeing signed a medium-term Cooperation Agreement to work together on the design. Boeing consultants had already been advising Sukhoi on marketing, design, certification, manufacturing, program management and aftersales support for a year. On 10 October 2003, the technical board of the project selected the suppliers of major subsystems. The project officially passed its third stage of development on 12 March 2004, meaning that Sukhoi could now start selling the Superjet 100 to customers. On 13 November 2004, the Superjet 100 passed the fourth stage of development, implying that the Superjet 100 was now ready for commencing of prototype production. In August 2005, a contract between the Russian government and Sukhoi was signed. Under the agreement, the Superjet 100 project would receive 7.9 billion rubles of research and development financing under the Federal Program titled Development of Civil Aviation in Russia in 2005–2009.
On July 2008, testing continued successfully. By October 2008, the first stage of Sukhoi Superjet 100's factory-based flight testing program was successfully completed. The second SSJ100 prototype had also been flown and the certification process was started. In December 2008, the second of four SSJ100 prototypes SN95003 took to the skies. The aircraft performed standard stability and handling quality tests as well as systems checks in accordance with the first flight assignment. Flight test engineers and pilots were pleased with the overall performance of the second prototype.
The deliveries were first scheduled to begin in late 2008, and Sukhoi predicted that 3 units of all variations of the Superjet 100 would be delivered by the end of 2016. On 7 July 2008, Sukhoi officially confirmed that the original schedule was too optimistic, and first deliveries would begin in December 2009.
As of January 2009, the first two aircraft had completed over 80 flights, totaling around 2,300 hours in flight and ground tests. On 1 April 2009, two Superjet 100 prototypes, 95001 and 95003, successfully completed the first long-distance flight for this aircraft, covering a distance of 3,000 kilometers from Novosibirsk to Moscow. On 17 April 2009, EASA pilots performed the first test flights on the two prototypes. According to EASA pilot feedback, the aircraft was easy to fly. On 26 July 2009, the third of four SSJ100 prototypes (SN95004) flew.
At the Paris Air Show 2009, Malév Hungarian Airlines said that it would purchase 30 Superjets worth $1 billion, providing a welcome boost to sales as it made its international debut at the 2009 Paris Air Show.
Sukhoi Superjet 100 at Tolmachevo (Novosibirsk) airport during test flights.
As of June 2009, 13 aircraft were under construction with the first four scheduled to be handed over to clients by the end of 2010. After 2012, the company will build 70 Superjets per year. Armenian Armavia would receive the first two aircraft, followed by Aeroflot, which has ordered a total of 30 aircraft with an option for 15 more. Other customers include Russia's Avialeasing company, Swiss Ama Asset Management Advisor and Indonesian Kartika Airlines.
On 29 December 2009, United Aircraft Corporation head Alexei Fyodorov said that deliveries of the Superjet 100 have been indefinitely delayed because the engines were not ready. On 4 February 2010, the fourth prototype SSJ flew. Owing to delays in production of the engines, including quality problems at the NPO Saturn factory, it used the engines removed from the first prototype. On 28 May 2010, all engine tests necessary for certification were completed. The final trial was a simulation of an encounter with a flock of birds.
On 6 July 2010, Deputy Industry and Trade Minister Denis Manturov, who heads the commission to monitor the implementation of the Sukhoi Superjet program, wrote to Industry and Trade Minister Viktor Khristenko about the progress of the aircraft's certification in early June. Data from 28 May 2010 showed that the certification process was getting behind schedule with most of the problems related to the SaM146 engine, developed by PowerJet, which is a joint project between the Russian Saturn and the French Snecma. Work on its final design had been almost completed and certification was more than 90 percent completed, but problems remain, noted Manturov.
In September 2010, the CEO of SuperJet International said that certification was expected in November 2010. In October 2010, the Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SN95004) passed noise testing carried out under the auspices of Russian and European certification authorities (AR IAC and EASA respectively). On 4 November 2010, the first production Superjet (SN95007) intended for Armavia was test flown.
By November 2010, the SSJ test fleet had flown 2,245 hours during 948 flights.
On 21 December 2010, Superjet 100 passed emergency evacuation and interrupted takeoff tests at Ramenskoye Airport near Zhukovsky, near Moscow, under the supervision of the Interstate Aviation Committee Aviation Register (AR IAC) and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The first test required 98 volunteers of different age groups and five crew members to evacuate the aircraft in 90 seconds during an emergency landing. They made it in 73 seconds. The interrupted takeoff test probed the wheels, tires and brakes at maximum possible braking speed. In full compliance with the certification requirements, the test was performed without a thrust reverser. The aircraft loaded to its maximum takeoff weight (45,880 kg) performed emergency braking at a speed of over 300 km/h and came to a stop after running 700 meters, within the required parameters.
On 3 February 2011, the Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC IR) granted a Type Certificate for Sukhoi Superjet 100. The Type Certificate confirms compliance of the SSJ100 with the airworthiness regulations and it authorizes the commercial operation of the airliner.
On 3 February 2012, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) issued Type Certificate A-176 for the Sukhoi Superjet 100 (model RRJ-95B), confirming that the aircraft complies with the EASA airworthiness and environmental requirements. The certification also makes it possible for airlines operating in countries using EASA rules to accept and operate the aircraft. The extensive validation program included several dedicated flight and ground tests.
3+2 standard cabin seating of the SJ100
In the Russian domestic market, the Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SSJ) is intended to replace the aging TupolevTu-134 and YakovlevYak-42 aircraft. Internationally, the new Superjet 100 will compete against the Embraer E-Jets and the Bombardier CRJ programs. The SSJ aims for lower operating costs than its competitors for the price of $23–25 million. According to Sukhoi, ongoing certification tests confirmed that the aircraft's direct operating costs are 6–8% lower than those of its key competitor, the Embraer 190/195. In terms of total fuel burn per sector, the SSJ is on a par with the Antonov An-148 but can accommodate 22 more passengers.
The aircraft's design meets the specific requirements of airlines in Russia, the CIS, the USA and the EU, and conforms to the Aviation Rules AP-25, FAR-25, JAR-25 requirements and to the ground noise level requirements under ICAO Chapter 4 and FAR 36 Section 4 standards entering into force during 2006. From the beginning, the SSJ has been designed to meet all Western aviation standards.
The Superjet uses PowerJet SaM146turbofan engines developed by PowerJet that provide 60 to 78 kilonewtons (13,000 to 18,000 lbf) of thrust. The noise and emissions levels satisfy the existing ICAO requirements.
The Superjet 100 has been described as the most important and successful civil aircraft program of the Russian aerospace industry. It enjoys considerable support from the Russian Ministry of Industry and Trade, which regards it as a top priority project. Excluding the SaM146 engine, development of the Superjet 100 cost about $1.4 billion, with 25% of this amount funded from the federal budget. The Superjet 100 is the first new civil non-amphibious jet aircraft developed in post-Soviet Russia.
Over 30 foreign partnership companies are involved in the project. Development, manufacturing and marketing of the aircraft's SaM146 jet engine is being done by the PowerJet company, a joint-venture between the French Snecma and Russia's NPO Saturn. SuperJet International, a joint venture between Alenia Aermacchi and Sukhoi is responsible for marketing in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Japan and Oceania.
August 2005 at MAKS-2005 – Finance Leasing Company and Sukhoi Civil Aircraft sign a sales contract for 10 aircraft of the new RRJ family for $262 million.
December 2005 – Aeroflot signs the contract for the delivery of 30 Sukhoi Superjet 100s, thus becoming the program's launch customer. The total deal is valued at approximately $820 million.
December 2006 – Sukhoi Civil Aircraft wins a $170 million order from Dalavia Far East Airways.
May 2007 – Aeroflot and Sukhoi Civil Aircraft Company announces the signature of the Letter of Intent to purchase 15 aircraft of Sukhoi Superjet 100 family. Earlier, Aeroflot had already signed the contract for delivery of 30 SSJ-100s. According to the letter, the airline will purchase 15 SSJ100/95s in basic configuration with deliveries to start in May 2011. The airline also holds an option for another five aircraft of the family. The deal amounts at over $400 million.
September 2007 – Armavia signs a multimillion-dollar agreement to buy four SSJ-100-95LR Superjets for regional flights.
July 2008 – Avia Leasing acquires 24 Sukhoi Superjet 100 aircraft in basic configuration with an option for 16 additional aircraft on the second day of the 2008 Farnborough Airshow. The order has a total value of over $630 million. Order firmed at Paris Airshow on 16 June 2009.
July 2008 – SuperJet International announces an order by an undisclosed renowned European customer for a fleet of 20 new Sukhoi Superjet 100 aircraft valued at approximately $600 million.
5 December 2008, Jakarta – Sukhoi Civil Aircraft Company and Kartika Airlines sign the Heads of Agreement for 15 Sukhoi Superjet 100s and another 15 optional aircraft. The order is valued at $448 million. Kartika Airlines is the first SSJ100 customer in Southeast Asia.
17 June 2009, Paris Airshow – Gazprom orders 10 Superjet 100 aircraft.
1 September 2010 – Aeroflot announced that as part of its plan to order additional domestic aircraft it planned to purchase an additional 10 aircraft in addition to its 30 prior orders.
2 September 2010 – SuperJet International signs agreement up to US $300 million.
24 November 2010 – Thailand's Orient Thai Airlines announced the purchase of 12 Sukhoi Superjet-100/95Bs civilian aircraft.
17 January 2011 – Mexico's third largest airline Interjet signed a $650 million deal for 15 Sukhoi Superjet-100 civilian aircraft, with an option to purchase five more. It is the North American launch customer and is the first and, so far, the only airline of the Americas to order a Sukhoi Superjet 100.
3 February 2011 – Sukhoi Superjet 100 obtained IAC AR Type Certificate
19 April 2011 – The first production aircraft was delivered to Armavia, celebrated with a ceremony in the Armenian capital Yerevan.
9 October 2011 - Comlux becomes the launching customer of SuperJet International for this new type of VIP aircraft
19 March 2012 - All seven SuperJet planes in service grounded to have landing gear defect repaired. "Within a week the whole fleet will have repairs conducted," said a company spokesperson, three days after an Aeroflot SuperJet made an unscheduled landing at Moscow’s Sheremetyevo Airport.
9 May 2012 - Crash during a demonstration flight in Indonesia, with 45 fatalities and no survivors.
10 May 2012 - Pakistan's Air Indus allegedly showed an interest in buying 8 SSJ-100 planes.
The first production Sukhoi Superjet was delivered to Armavia on 19 April 2011. The handover ceremony was held at Zvartnots International Airport in Yerevan on the same day. The aircraft was named "Yuri Gagarin", after the first man to venture into space almost exactly 50 years before. Armavia planned to operate its Superjet 100 on flights between Yerevan, Sochi and Ukrainian cities, including Odessa and Simferopol. The airline had expected to receive its second Superjet in June 2011.
On December 16, 2012, Mikhail Baghdasarov, owner of bankrupt Armavia, stated that both of its ordered airplanes had been returned to Sukhoi Civil Aircraft company. He was also quoted as saying "that the SSJ-100 is not operated by the company anymore, Sukhoi Civil Aircraft has possession of the jet, and Armavia had decided not to receive any aircraft."
Armavia's website did not show that it is not operating Sukhoi Superjet 100s as of February 2013. However it ceased operations in March 2013
Armavia used the Airbus A319 on its Yerevan to Moscow (SVO) route and had a plan to switch to the Superjet 100. In August 2012 Armavia announced that they had returned both of its SSJ-100s to the manufacturer.
The president of United Aircraft Corporation and general director of SukhoiMikhail Pogosyan hailed the event as a key milestone for the Superjet 100 project, saying that it opened "a new stage of the program — the beginning of commercial operation and full-scale serial production."
The aircraft was put into commercial operation within an unprecedented short time after delivery. For the first week of service the SSJ-100 accumulated 24 flights, flying to Moscow, Athens, Donetsk, Aleppo, Tehran, Tel Aviv and Astrakhan. On 1 May, the Superjet made its first regular flight to Venice (2800 km, approx 3:45-minute flight).
In March 2012, the deputy chief engineer of the Department of Aviation and Technical Support of "Aeroflot" Constantine Mohniit revealed in the Russian daily newspaper Vedomosti, that Aeroflot was asking Sukhoi for compensation since the six Superjet 100s it operates are in the air only 3.9 hours/day on average instead of the standard 8 to 9 hours. Breakdowns "... were caused by failures due to technical problems and delayed delivery of parts."
In February 2013, SCA stated in a press release that such problems are usual in newly operational and recently introduced airliners and minimized the claims.
At the end of October 2013, Interjet confirmed outstanding results in terms of operations. As of October 31, the two Interjet SSJ100 have completed almost 600 flight hours, over 580 flight cycles during their commercial operations, with an average daily utilization of 9.74 block hours, and a dispatch reliability of 99.03%. Dispatch reliability of Interjet's fleet of seven SSJ100 increased to 99.7% as of June 2014.
On 12 September 2014 Interjet started regular passenger flights to USA, on Monterrey – San Antonio route, previously obtaining FAA certificate for SSJ100.
The three variants were originally called the RRJ-60, RRJ-75 and RRJ-95, with the numbers designating the average passenger capacity of each type. However, with the renaming of the project to Superjet 100 (or SSJ100 for short), the RRJ-75 was re-labelled the Superjet 100/75, while the RRJ-95 became known as the Superjet 100/95. The smallest variants were postponed, and efforts are currently concentrating on the Superjet 100/95. The Long Range variant is about to be certified with a VIP-variant, based on SSJ100/95LR to follow.
It is unlikely that the Superjet 100/75 will be developed, but stretched versions, seating 115 - 145 passengers (SuperJet Stretch and Superjet NG), are planned.
On 9 May 2012 a Russian Sukhoi Superjet 100 airliner, on a demonstration flight with 37 passengers and eight Russian crew members on board, crashed after it took off from the Halim Perdanakusuma Airport in Jakarta, Indonesia. About twenty minutes after the take-off, the crew requested permission to descend to 1,800 metres (5,900 ft), which was granted. This was the last contact that Air Traffic Control had with the aircraft, which was then about 139 kilometres (75 nmi) south of Jakarta, in the vicinity of the 2,211-metre-high (7,254 ft) Mount Salak, a mountain higher than the requested flight level. After an extensive search, rescuers concluded, based on the widespread debris field on the side of a ridge, that the aircraft directly struck the rocky side of Mount Salak and there was "no chance of survival".
An official inquiry into the crash found that the plane's automatic collision avoidance system was working, but had been ignored by the pilot, who was possibly distracted by his conversation with a potential customer for the aircraft.
On 21 July 2013, a Russian Sukhoi Superjet 100 airliner, prototype aircraft 95005, landed gear-up at the Keflavík International Airport near Keflavík, Iceland when, during evaluation of the automatic landing system, the landing gear had not been extended. The aircraft was repaired and it flew again on 27 December 2013.