Sugar Ray Robinson

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Sugar Ray Robinson
Sugar Ray Robinson 1966.jpg
Robinson in Madison Square Garden in 1966.
Statistics
Nickname(s)Sugar
Rated atMiddleweight
Height6 ft 4 in (1.93 m)
Reach92.5 in (235 cm)
NationalityAmerican
Born(1921-05-03)May 3, 1921
Ailey, Georgia
DiedApril 12, 1989(1989-04-12) (aged 67)
Los Angeles, California
StanceOrthodox
Boxing record
Total fights200
Wins173
Wins by KO108
Losses19
Draws6
No contests2
 
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Sugar Ray Robinson
Sugar Ray Robinson 1966.jpg
Robinson in Madison Square Garden in 1966.
Statistics
Nickname(s)Sugar
Rated atMiddleweight
Height6 ft 4 in (1.93 m)
Reach92.5 in (235 cm)
NationalityAmerican
Born(1921-05-03)May 3, 1921
Ailey, Georgia
DiedApril 12, 1989(1989-04-12) (aged 67)
Los Angeles, California
StanceOrthodox
Boxing record
Total fights200
Wins173
Wins by KO108
Losses19
Draws6
No contests2

Sugar Ray Robinson (born Walker Smith Jr.; May 3, 1921 – April 12, 1989) was an American professional boxer. Frequently cited as the greatest boxer of all time, Robinson's performances in the welterweight and middleweight divisions prompted sportswriters to create "pound for pound" rankings, where they compared fighters regardless of weight. He was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990.

Robinson was 85–0 as an amateur with 69 of those victories coming by way of knockout, 40 in the first round. He turned professional in 1940 at the age of 19 and by 1951 had a professional record of 128–1–2 with 84 knockouts. From 1943 to 1951 Robinson went on a 91 fight unbeaten streak, the third longest in professional boxing history.[1][2] Robinson held the world welterweight title from 1946 to 1951, and won the world middleweight title in the latter year. He retired in 1952, only to come back two and a half years later and regain the middleweight title in 1955. He then became the first boxer in history to win a divisional world championship five times, a feat he accomplished by defeating Carmen Basilio in 1958 to regain the middleweight championship. Robinson was named "fighter of the year" twice: first for his performances in 1942, then nine years and over 90 fights later, for his efforts in 1951.

Renowned for his flamboyant lifestyle outside the ring, Robinson is credited with being the originator of the modern sports "entourage". After his boxing career ended, Robinson attempted a career as an entertainer, but struggled, and lived in poverty until his death in 1989. In 2006, he was featured on a commemorative stamp by the United States Postal Service.

Early life[edit]

Robinson was born Walker Smith Jr. in either Ailey, Georgia (according to his birth certificate) or Detroit, Michigan (according to his autobiography),[3] to Walker Smith Sr. and Leila Hurst.[4] Robinson was the youngest of three children; his older sister Marie was born in 1917 and his older sister Evelyn was born in 1919. His father was a cotton, peanut, and corn farmer in Georgia, who moved the family to Detroit where he initially found work in construction.[4] According to Robinson, Smith Sr. later worked two jobs to support his family—cement mixer and sewer worker. "He had to get up at six in the morning and he'd get home close to midnight. Six days a week. The only day I really saw him was Sunday...I always wanted to be with him more."[5]

His parents separated and he moved with his mother to the New York City neighborhood of Harlem at the age of twelve. Robinson originally aspired to be a doctor, but after dropping out of De Witt Clinton High school in ninth grade he switched his goal to boxing.[6] When he was 14, he attempted to enter his first boxing tournament but was told he needed to first obtain an AAU membership card. However, he could not procure one until he was sixteen years old. He received his name when he circumvented the AAU's age restriction by borrowing a card from his friend Ray Robinson.[3] Subsequently told that his style was "sweet as sugar" by future manager George Gainford, Smith Jr. became known as "Sugar" Ray Robinson.[7][8]

Robinson idolized Henry Armstrong and Joe Louis as a youth, and actually lived on the same block as Louis in Detroit when Robinson was 11 and Louis was 17.[7] Outside of the ring, Robinson got into trouble frequently as a youth, and was involved with a violent street gang.[7] He married at 16. The couple, who had one son, Ronnie, and divorced when Robinson was 19.[7] He finished his amateur career with an 85–0 record with 69 knockouts—40 coming in the first round.[9] He won the Golden Gloves featherweight championship in 1939, and the organization's lightweight championship in 1940.[3]

Boxing career[edit]

Early career[edit]

Robinson made his professional debut on October 4, 1940, winning via second-round knockout over Joe Echevarria.[10] Robinson fought five more times in 1940, winning each time, with four wins coming by way of knockout.[10] In 1941, he defeated world champion Sammy Angott, future champion Marty Servo and former champion Fritzie Zivic. The Robinson-Angott fight was held above the lightweight limit, since Angott did not want to risk losing his lightweight title. Robinson defeated Zivic in front of 20,551 at Madison Square Garden—one of the largest crowds in the arena to that date.[11] Robinson won the first five rounds according to The New York Times Joseph C. Nichols, before Zivic came back to land several punches to Robinson's head in the sixth and seventh rounds.[11] Robinson controlled the next two rounds, and had Zivic wobbly in the ninth. After a close tenth round, Robinson was announced as the winner on all three scorecards.[11]

In 1942, Robinson knocked out Zivic in the tenth round in a January rematch.[10] The knockout loss was only the second of Zivic's career in more than 150 fights.[12] Robinson knocked him down in the ninth and tenth rounds before the referee stopped the fight. Zivic and his corner protested the stoppage; James P. Dawson of The New York Times stated "[t]hey were criticizing a humane act. The battle had been a slaughter, for want of a more delicate word."[12] Robinson then won four consecutive bouts by knockout, before defeating Servo in a controversial split decision in their May rematch.[10] After winning three more fights, Robinson faced Jake LaMotta, who would become one of his more prominent rivals, for the first time in October.[10] He defeated LaMotta via unanimous decision. Robinson weighed 145 lb (66 kg) compared to 157.5 for LaMotta, but he was able to control the fight from the outside for the entire bout, and actually landed the harder punches during the fight.[13] Robinson then won four more fights, including two against Izzy Jannazzo, from October 19 to December 14.[10] For his performances, Robinson was named "Fighter of the Year". He finished 1942 with a total of 14 wins and no losses.[10]

Robinson built a record of 40–0 before losing for the first time to LaMotta in a 10 round re-match.[10][14] LaMotta, who had a 16 lb (7.3 kg) weight advantage over Robinson, knocked Robinson out of the ring in the eighth round, and won the fight by decision.[10] The fight took place in Robinson's former home town of Detroit, and attracted a record crowd.[14] After being controlled by Robinson in the early portions of the fight, LaMotta came back to take control in the later rounds.[14] After winning the third LaMotta fight less than three weeks later,[10] Robinson then defeated his childhood idol: former champion Henry Armstrong. Robinson only fought Armstrong because Armstrong was in need of money. By now Armstrong was an old fighter, and Robinson later stated that he carried Armstrong.

On February 27, 1943, Robinson was inducted into the United States Army, where he was again referred to as Walker Smith.[15] Robinson had a short 15 month military career. Robinson served with Joe Louis, and the pair went on tours where they performed exhibition bouts in front of US troops. Robinson got into trouble several times while in the military. He argued with superiors who he felt were discriminatory against him, and refused to fight exhibitions when he was told African American soldiers were not allowed to watch them.[7][16] In late March, 1944, Robinson was stationed at Fort Hamilton in Brooklyn, waiting to ship out to Europe, where he was scheduled to perform more exhibition matches. But on March 29, Robinson disappeared from his barracks. When he woke up on April 5 in Fort Jay Hospital on Governor's Island, he had missed his sailing for Europe and was under suspicion of deserting. He himself reported falling down the stairs in his barracks on the 29th, but said that he had complete amnesia, and he could not remember any events from that moment until the 5th. According to his file, a stranger had found him in the street on 1 April and helped him to a hospital. In his examination report, a doctor at Fort Jay concluded that Robinson's version of events was sincere.[17] He was examined by military authorities, who claimed he suffered from a mental deficiency.[18] Robinson was granted an honorable discharge on June 3, 1944. He later wrote that unfair press coverage of the incident had "branded" him as a "deserter".[19] Robinson maintained his close friendship with Louis from their time in military service, and the two went into business together after the war. They planned to start a liquor distribution business in New York City, but were denied a license due to their race.[20]

Besides the loss in the LaMotta rematch, the only other mark on Robinson's record during this period was a 10 round draw against Jose Basora in 1945.[10]

Welterweight Champion[edit]

By 1946, Robinson had fought 75 fights to a 73–1–1 record,[10] and beaten every top contender in the welterweight division. However, he refused to cooperate with the Mafia, which controlled much of boxing at the time, and was denied a chance to fight for the welterweight championship.[21] Robinson was finally given a chance to win a title against Tommy Bell on December 20, 1946.[10] Robinson had already beaten Bell once via decision in 1945. The two fought for the title vacated by Servo, who had himself lost twice to Robinson in non-title bouts. In the fight, Robinson, who only a month before had been involved in a 10 round brawl with Artie Levine, was knocked down by Bell.[10] The fight was called a "war," but Robinson was able to pull out a close 15 round decision, winning the vacant welterweight title.

In June 1947, after four non-title bouts, Robinson was scheduled to defend his title for the first time in a bout against Jimmy Doyle.[10] On June 25, Robinson dominated Doyle and scored a decisive knockout in the eighth round that knocked Doyle unconscious and resulted in Doyle's death later that night.[22] Robinson said that the impact of Doyle's death was "very trying." [A]

In 1948, Robinson fought five times, but only one bout was a title defense. Among the fighters he defeated in those non-title bouts was future world champion Kid Gavilan in a close, controversial 10 round fight. Gavilan hurt Robinson several times in the fight, but Robinson controlled the final rounds with a series of jabs and left hooks.[23] In 1949, he boxed 16 times, but again only defended his title once. In that title fight, a rematch with Gavilan, Robinson again won via decision. The first half of the bout was very close, but Robinson took control in the second half. Gavilan would have to wait two more years to begin his own historic reign as welterweight champion. The only boxer to match Robinson that year was Henry Brimm, who fought him to a 10-round draw in Buffalo.

Robinson fought 19 times in 1950.[10] He successfully defended his welterweight title for the last time against Charley Fusari. Robinson won a lopsided 15 round decision, knocking Fusari down once.[10] Robinson donated all but $1 of his purse for the Fusari fight to cancer research.[24] In 1950, Robinson fought George Costner, who had also taken to calling himself "Sugar" and stated in the weeks leading up to the fight that he was the rightful deserver of the name. "We better touch gloves, because this is the only round," Robinson said as the fighters were introduced at the center of the ring. "Your name ain't Sugar, mine is."[25] Robinson then knocked Costner out in 2 minutes and 49 seconds.[10]

Middleweight Champion[edit]

Robinson stated in his autobiography that one of the main considerations for his move up to middleweight was the increasing difficulty he was having in making the 147 lb (67 kg) welterweight weight limit.[26] However, the move up would also prove beneficial financially, as the division then contained some of the biggest names in boxing. Vying for the Pennsylvania state middleweight title in 1950, Robinson defeated Robert Villemain.[10] Later that year, in defense of that crown, he defeated Jose Basora, with whom he had previously drawn. Robinson's 50-second first round knockout of Basora set a record that would stand for 38 years. In October 1950, Robinson knocked out Bobo Olson a future middleweight title holder.[10]

On February 14, 1951, Robinson and LaMotta met for the sixth time. The fight would become known as The St. Valentine's Day Massacre. Robinson won the undisputed world middleweight title with a 13th round technical knockout.[10] Robinson outboxed LaMotta for the first 10 rounds, then unleashed a series of savage combinations on LaMotta for three rounds,[7] finally stopping the champion for the first time in their legendary six-bout series—and dealing LaMotta his first legitimate knockout loss in 95 professional bouts.[27] LaMotta had lost by knockout to Billy Fox earlier in his career. However, that fight was later ruled to have been fixed and LaMotta was sanctioned for letting Fox win. That bout, and some of the other bouts in the six-fight Robinson-LaMotta rivalry, was depicted in the Martin Scorsese film Raging Bull. "I fought Sugar Ray so often, I almost got diabetes," LaMotta later said.[8] Robinson won five of his six bouts with LaMotta.[10]

After winning his second world title, he embarked on a European tour which took him all over the Continent. Robinson traveled with his flamingo-pink Cadillac, which caused quite a stir in Paris,[28] and an entourage of 13 people, some included "just for laughs".[29] He was a hero in France due to his recent defeat of LaMotta—the French hated LaMotta for defeating Marcel Cerdan in 1949 and taking his championship belt (Cerdan died in a plane crash en route to a rematch with LaMotta).[7] Robinson met President of France Vincent Auriol at a ceremony attended by France's social upper crust; following the ceremony he kissed the President's blushing wife once on each cheek, then repeated the two kisses at the request of press photographers.[30] During his fight in Berlin against Gerhard Hecht, Robinson was disqualified when he knocked his opponent with a punch to the kidney: a punch legal in the US, but not Europe.[22] The fight was later declared a no-contest.[10] In London, Robinson lost the world middleweight title to British boxer Randolph Turpin in a sensational bout.[31] Three months later in a rematch in front of 60,000 fans at the Polo Grounds,[22] he knocked Turpin out in ten rounds to recover the title. In that bout Robinson was leading on the cards but was cut by Turpin. With the fight in jeopardy, Robinson let loose on Turpin, knocking him down, then getting him to the ropes and unleashing a series of punches that caused the referee to stop the bout.[32] Following Robinson's victory, residents of Harlem danced in the streets.[33] In 1951, Robinson was named Ring Magazine's "Fighter of the Year" for the second time.[34]

In 1952, he fought a rematch with Olson, winning by a decision.[10] He next defeated former champion Rocky Graziano by a third-round knockout, then challenged world light heavyweight champion Joey Maxim. In the Yankee Stadium bout with Maxim, Robinson built a lead on all three judges' scorecards, but the 103 °F (39 °C) temperature in the ring took its toll.[8] The referee, Ruby Goldstein, was the first victim of the heat, and had to be replaced by referee Ray Miller. The fast-moving Robinson was the heat's next victim – at the end of round 13, he collapsed and failed to answer the bell for the next round,[8] suffering the only knockout of his career.[10]

On June 25, 1952 after the Maxim bout, Robinson gave up his title and retired with a record of 131-3-1-1. He began a career in show business, singing and tap dancing. After about three years, the decline of his businesses and the lack of success in his performing career made him decide to return to boxing. He resumed training in 1954.

Comeback[edit]

In 1955, Robinson returned to the ring. Although he had been inactive for two and a half years, his work as a dancer kept him in peak physical condition: in his autobiography, Robinson states that in the weeks leading up to his debut for a dancing engagement in France, he ran five miles every morning, and then danced for five hours each night. Robinson even stated that the training he did in his attempts to establish a career as a dancer were harder that any he undertook during his boxing career.[35] He won five fights in 1955, before losing a decision to Ralph 'Tiger' Jones. He bounced back, however, and defeated Rocky Castellani by a split decision, then challenged Bobo Olson for the world middleweight title. He won the middleweight championship for the third time via a second round knockout—his third victory over Olson. After his comeback performance in 1955, Robinson expected to be named fighter of the year. However, the title went to welterweight Carmen Basilio. Basilio's handlers had lobbied heavily for it on the basis that he had never won the award, and Robinson later described this as the biggest disappointment of his professional career. "I haven't forgotten it to this day, and I never will" Robinson wrote in his autobiography.[36] They fought for the last time in 1956, and Robinson closed the four fight series with a fourth round knockout.[10]

In 1957, Robinson lost his title to Gene Fullmer.[10] Fullmer used his aggressive, forward moving style to control Robinson, and knocked him down in the fight.[37] Robinson, however, noticed that Fullmer was vulnerable to the left hook. Fullmer headed into their May rematch as a 3–1 favorite.[38] In the first two rounds Robinson followed Fullmer around the ring, however in the third round he changed tactics and made Fullmer come to him.[38] At the start of the fourth round Robinson came out on the attack and stunned Fullmer, and when Fullmer returned with his own punches, Robinson traded with him, as opposed to clinching as he had done in their earlier fight. The fight was fairly even after four rounds.[38] But in the fifth, Robinson was able to win the title back for a fourth time by knocking out Fullmer with a lightning fast, powerful left hook.[38] Boxing critics have referred to the left-hook which knocked out Fullmer as "the perfect punch".[39] It marked the first time in 44 career fights that Fullmer had been knocked out, and when someone asked Robinson after the fight how far the left hook had travelled, Robinson replied: "I can't say. But he got the message."[38]

Later that year, he lost his title to Basilio in a rugged 15 round fight in front of 38,000 at Yankee Stadium,[40] but regained it for a record fifth time when he beat Basilio in the rematch. Robinson struggled to make weight, and had to go without food for nearly 20 hours leading up to the bout. He badly damaged Basilio's eye early the fight, and by the seventh round it was swollen shut.[41] The two judges gave the fight to Robinson by wide margins: 72–64 and 71–64. The referee scored the fight for Basilio 69–64, and was booed loudly by the crowd of 19,000 when his decision was announced.[41] The first fight won the "Fight of the Year" award from The Ring magazine for 1957 and the second fight won the "Fight of the Year" award for 1958.[10]

Decline[edit]

Robinson knocked out Bob Young in the second round in Boston in his only fight in 1959.[10] A year later, he defended his title against Paul Pender. Robinson entered the fight as a 5–1 favorite, but lost a split decision in front of 10,608 at Boston Garden.[42] The day before the fight Pender commented that he planned to start slowly, before coming on late. He did just that and outlasted the aging Robinson, who, despite opening a cut over Pender's eye in the eighth round, was largely ineffective in the later rounds.[42] An attempt to regain the crown for an unheard of sixth time proved beyond Robinson. Despite Robinson's efforts, Pender won by decision in that rematch. On December 3 of that year, Robinson and Fullmer fought a 15-round draw for the WBA middleweight title, which Fullmer retained.[10] In 1961, Robinson and Fullmer fought for a fourth time, with Fullmer retaining the NBA middleweight title by a unanimous decision.[10] The fight would be Robinson's last title bout.

Robinson spent the rest of the 1960s fighting 10-round contests. In October 1961, Robinson defeated future world champion Denny Moyer via unanimous decision. A 12–5 favorite, the 41 year old Robinson defeated the 22 year old Moyer by staying on the outside, rather than engaging him.[43] In their rematch four months later, Moyer defeated Robinson on points, as he pressed the action and made Robinson back up throughout the fight. Moyer won 7–3 on all three judges scorecards.[44] Robinson lost twice more in 1962, before winning six consecutive fights against mostly lesser opposition.[10] In February 1963, Robinson lost via unanimous decision to former world champion and fellow Hall of Famer Joey Giardello. Giardello knocked Robinson down in the fourth round, and the 43 year old took until the count of nine to rise to his feet.[45] Robinson was also nearly knocked down in the sixth round, but was saved by the bell. He rallied in the seventh and eight rounds, before struggling in the final two.[45] Robinson then embarked on an 18-month boxing tour of Europe.

Robinson's second no-contest bout came in September, 1965 in Norfolk, Virginia in a match with an opponent who turned out to be an impostor. Boxer Neil Morrison, at the time a fugitive and accused robber, signed up for the fight as Bill Henderson, a capable club fighter. The fight was a fiasco, with Morrison being knocked down twice in the first round and once in the second before the disgusted referee, who said "Henderson put up no fight", walked out of the ring. Robinson was initially given a TKO in 1:20 of the second round after the "obviously frightened" Morrison laid himself down on the canvas. Robinson fought for the final time in 1965. He lost via unanimous decision to Joey Archer.[46] Famed sports author Pete Hamill mentioned that one of the saddest experiences of his life was watching Robinson lose to Archer. He was even knocked down and Hamill pointed out that Archer had no knockout punch at all; Archer admitted afterward that it was only the second time he had knocked an opponent down in his career.[10] The crowd of 9,023 at the Civic Arena in Pittsburgh gave Robinson several standing ovations, even while he was being thoroughly outperformed by Archer.[46]

On November 11, 1965, Robinson announced his retirement from boxing, saying: "I hate to go too long campaigning for another chance."[47] Robinson retired from boxing with a record of 173-19-6 (2 no contests) with 108 knockouts in 200 professional bouts,[10] ranking him among the all-time leaders in knockouts.

After retiring as a boxer[edit]

In his autobiography, Robinson states that by 1965 he was broke, having spent all of the $4 million in earnings he made inside and out the ring in his career.[48] A month after his last fight, Robinson was honored with a Sugar Ray Robinson Night on December 10, 1965 in New York's Madison Square Garden. During the ceremony, he was honored with a massive trophy. However, there was not a piece of furniture in his small Manhattan apartment with legs strong enough to support it. Robinson was elected to the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1967, two years after he retired. In the late 60s he acted in some television shows. An episode of Land of the Giants called "Giants and All That Jazz" had Sugar as a washed up boxer opening a nightclub.[49] In 1969 he founded the Sugar Ray Robinson Youth Foundation for inner-city Los Angeles area. The foundation does not sponsor a boxing program.[50] He was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus that was treated with insulin.[51] In Robinson's last years, he was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease.[51] He died in Los Angeles at the age of 67 and was interred in the Inglewood Park Cemetery, Inglewood, California.

Personal life[edit]

Robinson married Marjorie Joseph in 1938; the marriage was annulled the same year. Their son, Ronnie Smith, was born in 1939. Robinson met his second wife Edna Mae Holly, a noted dancer who performed at the Cotton Club and toured Europe with Duke Ellington and Cab Calloway, in 1940.[52] According to Robinson, he met her at a local pool he frequented after his boxing workouts. In an attempt to get her attention he pushed her into the pool one day, and claimed it was an accident.[53] After this attempt was met with disdain, he appeared at the nightclub she danced at and introduced himself. Soon the couple were dating and they married in 1943. They had one son, Ray Robinson Jr. (born 1949) and divorced in 1960.[52] She appeared on the first cover of Jet magazine in 1951.[54] In April 1959, Robinson's eldest sister Marie died of cancer at the age of 41.[55]

In 1965, Robinson married Millie Wiggins Bruce and the couple settled in Los Angeles.[22] When Robinson was sick with his various ailments, his son accused Robinson's wife of keeping him under the influence of medication to manipulate him. According to Ray Robinson Jr., when Sugar Ray's mother died, Sugar Ray could not attend his mother's funeral because Millie was drugging and controlling him.[56] However, Robinson had been hospitalized the day before his mother's death due to agitation which caused his blood pressure to rise. Robinson Jr. and Edna Mae also claimed that they were kept away from Robinson by Millie during the last years of his life.[56]

He was a Free Mason, a membership shared with a number of other improbable athletes, including fellow boxer Jack Dempsey." [57][58] See List of Freemasons.

Boxing style[edit]

Rhythm is everything in boxing. Every move you make starts with your heart, and that's in rhythm or you're in trouble.

—Ray Robinson[59]

Robinson was a fluid boxer who possessed a quick jab and knockout power.[60] He possessed tremendous versatility—according to boxing analyst Bert Sugar, "Robinson could deliver a knockout blow going backward."[61] Robinson was efficient with both hands, and he displayed a variety of effective punches—according to a TIME magazine article in 1951, "Robinson's repertoire, thrown with equal speed and power by either hand, includes every standard punch from a bolo to a hook—and a few he makes up on the spur of the moment."[7] Robinson commented that once a fighter has trained to a certain level, their techniques and responses become almost reflexive. "You don't think. It's all instinct. If you stop to think, you're gone."[62]

Legacy[edit]

Robinson being held aloft by Gene Fullmer and Carmen Basilio in 1965.

Robinson has been ranked as the greatest boxer of all time by sportswriters, fellow boxers, and trainers.[3][63][64] The phrase "pound for pound", was created by sportswriters for him during his career as a way to compare boxers irrespective of weight,[8][25] and Hall of Fame fighters such as Muhammad Ali, Joe Louis, Roberto Duran and Sugar Ray Leonard have ranked Robinson as the greatest pound for pound boxer in history.[61][65][66] In 1997, The Ring ranked him as the best pound for pound fighter in history,[8] and in 1999, he was named "welterweight of the century," "middleweight of the century," and overall "fighter of the century" by the Associated Press.[67] In 2007, ESPN.com featured the piece "50 Greatest Boxers of All Time", in which it named Robinson the top boxer in history.[63] In 2003, The Ring magazine ranked him number 11 in the list of all-time greatest punchers.[68] Robinson was also ranked as the #1 welterweight and the #1 pound for pound boxer of all-time by the International Boxing Research Organization.[69]

Robinson was one of the first African Americans to establish himself as a star outside sports. He was an integral part of the New York social scene in the 1940s and 1950s.[8] His glamorous restaurant, Sugar Ray's, hosted stars such as Frank Sinatra, Jackie Gleason, Nat "King" Cole, Joe Louis, and Lena Horne among others.[70] Robinson was known as a flamboyant personality outside the ring. He combined striking good looks,[71] with charisma, and a flair for the dramatic: He drove a flamingo-pink Cadillac, and was an accomplished singer and dancer, who once pursued a career in the entertainment industry.[72] According to ESPN.com's Ron Flatter: "He was the pioneer of boxing's bigger-than-life entourages, including a secretary, barber, masseur, voice coach, a coterie of trainers, beautiful women, a dwarf mascot and lifelong manager George Gainford."[8] When Robinson first traveled to Paris, a steward referred to his companions as his "entourage". Although Robinson said he did not like the word's literal definition of "attendants", since he felt they were his friends, he liked the word itself and began to use it in regular conversation when referring to them.[73] In 1962, when Robinson returned to Paris—where he was still a national hero—in order to persuade him to make the trip, the French promised to bring over his masseur, his hairdresser, a guy who whistled while he trained, and his trademark Cadillac.[74] This larger than life persona made him the idol of millions of African American youths in the 1950s. Robinson inspired several other fighters who took the nickname "Sugar" in homage to him such as Sugar Ray Leonard, Sugar Shane Mosley, and MMA fighter "Sugar" Rashad Evans.[75][76][77]

Professional boxing record[edit]

Res.RecordOpponentTypeRd., TimeDateLocationNotes
Loss173–19–6United States Joey ArcherUD101965-11-10United States Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Win173–18–6Belize Rudolph BentKO3 (10), 2:201965-10-20United States Community Arena, Steubenville, Ohio
Win172–18–6Canada Peter SchmidtUD101965-10-01United States Cambria County War Memorial Arena, Johnstown, Pennsylvania
Win171–18–6United States Harvey McCulloughUD101965-09-23United States Philadelphia A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
NC170–18–6United States Neil MorrisonNC2 (10), 1:201965-09-15United States The Arena, Norfolk, Virginia
Loss170–18–6United States Stan HarringtonUD101965-08-10United States Hawaii International Center, Honolulu, Hawaii
Win170–17–6United States Harvey McCulloughUD101965-07-27United States Richmond Arena, Richmond, Virginia
Loss169–17–6United States Ferd HernandezSD101965-07-12United States Hacienda Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada
Win169–16–6United States Harvey McCulloughUD101965-06-24United States Washington Coliseum, Washington, District of Columbia
Loss168–16–6United States Stan HarringtonUD101965-06-01United States Hawaii International Center, Honolulu, Hawaii
Loss168–15–6Mexico Memo AyonSD101965-05-24Mexico Memorial Auditorium, Tijuana, Baja California
Win168–14–6United States Rocky RandellKO3 (10)1965-04-28United States Norfolk Municipal Auditorium, Norfolk, Virginia
Win167–14–6United States Earl BastingsKO1 (10), 2:341965-04-03United States Sports Center, Savannah, Georgia
Win166–14–6United States Jimmy BeechamKO2 (10), 1:481965-03-06Jamaica National Stadium, Kingston
Draw165–14–6France Fabio BettiniPTS101964-11-27Italy Palazzetto dello Sport, Rome, Lazio
Win165–14–5France Jean BeltrittiPTS101964-11-14France Palais des Sports, Marseille, Bouches-du-Rhône
Win164–14–5France Jean Baptiste RollandPTS101964-11-07France Helitas Stadium, Caen, Calvados
Win163–14–5France Jackie CailleauPTS101964-10-24France Palais des Sports, Nice, Alpes-Maritimes
Win162–14–5Nigeria Johnny AngelTKO6 (8)1964-10-12England Hilton Hotel (Anglo American SC), Mayfair, London
Win161–14–5France Yoland LevequePTS101964-09-28France Palais des Sports, Paris, Île-de-France
Loss160–14–5England Mick LeahyPTS101964-09-03Scotland Paisley Ice Rink, Glasgow
Draw160–13–5United States Art HernandezPTS101964-07-27United States Omaha Civic Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska
Win160–13–4United States Clarence RileyTKO6 (10)1964-07-08United States Wahconah Park, Pittsfield, Massachusetts
Win159–13–4United States Gaylord BarnesUD101964-05-19United States Portland Exposition Building, Portland, Maine
Win158–13–4France Armand VanucciPTS101963-12-09France Palais des Sports, Paris, Île-de-France
Win157–13–4France Andre DavierPTS101963-11-29France Palais des Sports, Grenoble, Isère
Win156–13–4Belgium Emiel SarensKO8 (10)1963-11-16Belgium Palais des Sports, Brussels, Bruxelles-Capitale
Draw155–13–4France Fabio BettiniPTS101963-11-09France Palais des Sports, Lyon, Rhône
Win155–13–3France Armand VanucciPTS101963-10-14France Palais des Sports, Paris, Île-de-France
Loss154–13–3United States Joey GiardelloUD101963-06-24United States Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win154–12–3Algeria Maurice RolbnetKO3 (10)1963-05-05Canada Palais des Sports, Sherbrooke, Quebec
Win153–12–3United States Billy ThorntonKO3 (10)1963-03-11United States Lewiston Armory, Lewiston, Maine
Win152–12–3United States Bernie ReynoldsKO4 (10)1963-02-25Dominican Republic Estadio Quisqueya, Santo Domingo
Win151–12–3United States Ralph DupasSD101963-01-30United States Miami Beach Convention Center, Miami Beach, Florida
Win150–12–3France Georges EstatoffTKO6 (10)1962-11-10France Palais des Sports, Lyon, Rhône
Win149–12–3Spain Diego InfantesTKO2 (10), 1:151962-10-17Austria Stadthalle, Vienna
Loss148–12–3England Terry DownesPTS101962-09-25England Empire Pool, Wembley, London
Loss148–11–3United States Phil MoyerSD101962-07-09United States Los Angeles Sports Arena, Los Angeles, California
Win148–10–3United States Bobby LeeKO2 (10), 2:381962-04-27Trinidad and Tobago National Stadium, Port-of-Spain
Loss147–10–3United States Denny MoyerUD101962-02-17United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win147–9–3Canada Wilf GreavesKO8 (10), 0:431961-12-08United States Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Win146–9–3United States Al HauserTKO6 (10), 1:591961-11-20United States Providence Auditorium, Providence, Rhode Island
Win145–9–3United States Denny MoyerUD101961-10-21United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win144–9–3Canada Wilf GreavesSD101961-09-25United States Convention Arena, Detroit, Michigan
Loss143–9–3United States Gene FullmerUD151961-03-04United States Las Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nevada
Draw143–8–3United States Gene FullmerPTS151960-12-03United States Los Angeles Sports Arena, Los Angeles, California
Loss143–8–2United States Paul PenderSD151960-06-10United States Boston Garden, Boston, MassachusettsFor World Middleweight title.
Win143–7–2United States Tony BaldoniKO1 (10), 1:401960-04-02United States Baltimore Coliseum, Baltimore, Maryland
Loss142–7–2United States Paul PenderSD151960-01-22United States Boston Garden, Boston, MassachusettsLost World Middleweight title.
Win142–6–2United States Bob YoungKO2 (10), 1:181959-12-14United States Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts
Win141–6–2United States Carmen BasilioSD151958-03-25United States Chicago Stadium, Chicago, IllinoisWon World Middleweight title.
The Ring magazine's "Fight of the Year" (1958)
Loss140–6–2United States Carmen BasilioSD151957-09-23United States Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New YorkLost World Middleweight title.
The Ring magazine's "Fight of the Year" (1957)
Win140–5–2United States Gene FullmerKO5 (15), 1:271957-05-01United States Chicago Stadium, Chicago, IllinoisWon World Middleweight title.
Loss139–5–2United States Gene FullmerUD151957-01-02United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New YorkLost World Middleweight title.
Win139–4–2United States Bob ProvizziUD101956-11-10United States New Haven Arena, New Haven, Connecticut
Win138–4–2United States Bobo OlsonKO4 (15), 2:511956-05-18United States Wrigley Field, Los Angeles, CaliforniaRetained World Middleweight title.
Win137–4–2United States Bobo OlsonKO2 (15), 2:511955-12-09United States Chicago Stadium, Chicago, IllinoisWon World Middleweight title.
Win136–4–2United States Rocky CastellaniSD101955-07-22United States Cow Palace, San Francisco, California
Win135–4–2United States Garth PanterUD101955-05-04United States Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan
Win134–4–2United States Ted OllaTKO3 (10), 2:151955-04-14United States Milwaukee Arena, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Win133–4–2United States Johnny LombardoSD101955-03-29United States Cincinnati Gardens, Cincinnati, Ohio
Loss132–4–2United States Ralph JonesUD101955-01-19United States Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois
Win132–3–2United States Joe RindoneKO6 (10), 1:371955-01-05United States Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan
Loss131–3–2United States Joey MaximTKO14 (15)1952-06-25United States Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New YorkFor World Light Heavyweight title.
Win131–2–2United States Rocky GrazianoKO3 (15), 1:531952-04-16United States Chicago Stadium, Chicago, IllinoisRetained World Middleweight title.
Win130–2–2United States Bobo OlsonUD151952-03-13United States San Francisco Civic Auditorium, San Francisco, CaliforniaRetained World Middleweight title.
Win129–2–2United Kingdom Randy TurpinTKO10 (15)1951-09-12United States Polo Grounds, New York, New YorkWon World Middleweight title.
Loss128–2–2United Kingdom Randy TurpinPTS151951-07-10England Earls Court Arena, Kensington, LondonLost World Middleweight title.
Win128–1–2Belgium Cyrille DelannoitRTD3 (10)1951-07-01Italy Palazzetto dello Sport, Torino, Piemonte
NC127–1–2Germany Gerhard HechtNC2 (10)1951-06-24Germany Waldbühne, Westend, Berlin
Win127–1–2France Jean WalzackTKO6 (10)1951-06-16Belgium Palais des Sports, Liège, Liège
Win126–1–2Netherlands Jan de BruinTKO8 (10)1951-06-10Belgium Sportpaleis, Antwerpen, Antwerpen
Win125–1–2France Jean WanesUD101951-05-26Switzerland Sports Center, Zurich
Win124–1–2Algeria Kid MarcelTKO5 (10)1951-05-21France Palais des Sports, Paris, Île-de-France
Win123–1–2United States Don EllisKO1 (10), 1:361951-04-09United States Municipal Auditorium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Win122–1–2United States Holly MimsUD101951-04-05United States Miami Stadium, Miami, Florida
Win121–1–2United States Jake LaMottaTKO13 (15), 2:041951-02-14United States Chicago Stadium, Chicago, IllinoisWon World Middleweight title.
Win120–1–2Germany Hans StretzTKO5 (10)1950-12-25Germany Haus der Technik, Frankfurt, Hessen
Win119–1–2France Robert VillemainTKO9 (10)1950-12-22France Palais des Sports, Paris, Île-de-France
Win118–1–2France Jean WalzackUD10)1950-12-16Switzerland Pavillion Des Sports, Geneva
Win117–1–2Netherlands Luc van DamKO4 (10)1950-12-09Belgium Palais des Sports, Brussels, Bruxelles-Capitale
Win116–1–2France Jean StockTKO2 (10)1950-11-27France Palais des Sports, Paris, Île-de-France
Win115–1–2United States Bobby DykesMD101950-11-08United States Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois
Win114–1–2United States Bobo OlsonKO12 (15), 1:191950-10-26United States Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win113–1–2United States Joe RindoneTKO6 (10), 0:551950-10-16United States Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts
Win112–1–2United States Billy BrownUD101950-09-04United States Coney Island Velodrome, Brooklyn, New York
Win111–1–2Puerto Rico José BasoraKO1 (15), 0:551950-08-25United States Scranton Stadium, Scranton, Pennsylvania
Win110–1–2United States Charley FusariPTS151950-08-09United States Roosevelt Stadium, Jersey City, New JerseyRetained World Welterweight title.
Win109–1–2France Robert VillemainUD151950-06-05United States Philadelphia Municipal Stadium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win108–1–2United States Ray BarnesUD101950-04-28United States Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan
Win107–1–2Canada Cliff BeckettTKO3 (10), 1:451950-04-21United States Memorial Hall, Columbus, Ohio
Win106–1–2United States George CostnerKO1 (10), 2:491950-03-22United States Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win105–1–2France Jean WalzackUD101950-02-27United States Saint Louis Arena, Saint Louis, Missouri
Win104–1–2United States Aaron WadeKO3 (10)1950-02-22United States Municipal Auditorium, Savannah, Georgia
Win103–1–2United States Al MobleyTKO6 (10)1950-02-13United States Coliseum Arena, Miami, Florida
Win102–1–2United States George LaRoverTKO4 (10)1950-01-30United States New Haven Arena, New Haven, Connecticut
Win101–1–2United States Vern LesterKO5 (10), 0:121949-11-13United States Coliseum Arena, New Orleans, Louisiana
Win100–1–2United States Don LeeUD101949-11-09United States Denver Auditorium Arena, Denver, Colorado
Win99–1–2United States Charley DodsonKO3 (10), 0:201949-09-12United States City Auditorium, Houston, Texas
Win98–1–2United States Benny EvansKO5 (10), 2:561949-09-09United States Omaha Civic Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska
Win97–1–2United States Steve BelloiseTKO7 (10)1949-08-24United States Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York
Win96–1–2Cuba Kid GavilanUD151949-07-11United States Philadelphia Municipal Stadium, Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaRetained World Welterweight title.
Win95–1–2United States Cecil HudsonKO5 (10)1949-06-20United States Rhode Island Auditorium, Providence, Rhode Island
Win94–1–2United States Freddie FloresTKO3 (10), 2:411949-06-07United States Page Arena, New Bedford, Massachusetts
Win93–1–2United States Earl TurnerTKO8 (10), 1:511949-04-20United States Oakland Auditorium, Oakland, California
Win92–1–2United States Don LeeUD101949-04-11United States Omaha Civic Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska
Win91–1–2United States Bobby LeeUD101949-03-25United States Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois
Draw90–1–2United States Henry BrimmPTS101949-02-15United States Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, Buffalo, New York
Win90–1–1United States Young Gene BuffaloKO1 (10)1949-02-10United States West Side Armory, Kingston, Pennsylvania
Win89–1–1United States Bobby LeeUD101948-11-15United States Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win88–1–1Cuba Kid GavilanUD101948-09-23United States Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York
Win87–1–1United States Bernard DocusenUD151948-06-28United States Comiskey Park, Chicago, IllinoisRetained World Welterweight title.
Win86–1–1United States Henry BrimmUD101948-03-16United States Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, Buffalo, New York
Win85–1–1United States Ossie HarrisUD101948-03-04United States Toledo Sports Arena, Toledo, Ohio
Win84–1–1United States Chuck TaylorTKO6 (15), 2:071947-12-19United States Olympia Stadium, Detroit, MichiganRetained World Welterweight title.
Win83–1–1United States Billy NixonTKO6 (10), 2:101947-12-10United States Elizabeth Armory, Elizabeth, New Jersey
Win82–1–1United States California Jackie WilsonTKO7 (10), 1:351947-10-28United States Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California
Win81–1–1Philippines Flashy SebastianKO1 (10), 1:021947-08-29United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win80–1–1United States Sammy SecreetKO1 (10), 1:021947-08-21United States Rubber Bowl, Akron, Ohio
Win79–1–1United States Jimmy DoyleTKO8 (15), 1:021947-06-24United States Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, OhioRetained World Welterweight title.
Doyle died as a result of injuries sustained during the fight.
Win78–1–1United States Georgie AbramsSD101947-05-16United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win77–1–1United States Eddie FinazzoTKO4 (10), 2:301947-04-08United States Memorial Hall, Kansas City, Kansas
Win76–1–1United States Freddie WilsonKO3 (10)1947-04-03United States Akron Armory, Akron, Ohio
Win75–1–1United States Bernie MillerTKO3 (10), 1:321947-03-27United States Dorsey Park, Miami, Florida
Win74–1–1United States Tommy BellUD151946-12-20United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New YorkWon World Welterweight title.
Win73–1–1United States Artie LevineKO10 (10), 2:411946-11-06United States Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio
Win72–1–1United States Cecil HudsonKO6 (10), 2:581946-11-01United States Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan
Win71–1–1United States Ossie HarrisPTS101946-10-07United States Duquesne Gardens, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Win70–1–1United States Sidney MillerKO3 (10), 1:521946-09-25United States Twin City Bowl, Elizabeth, New Jersey
Win69–1–1United States Vinnie VinesKO6 (10), 2:461946-08-15United States Hawkins Stadium, Albany, New York
Win68–1–1United States Joe CurcioKO2 (10), 0:101946-07-12United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win67–1–1United States Norman RubioPTS101946-06-25United States Roosevelt Stadium, Union City, New Jersey
Win66–1–1United States Freddie WilsonKO2 (10), 2:001946-06-12United States Worcester Auditorium, Worcester, Massachusetts
Win65–1–1United States Freddie FloresKO5 (10), 2:521946-03-21United States Golden Gate Arena, New York, New York
Win64–1–1United States Izzy JannazzoUD101946-03-14United States Fifth Regiment Armory, Baltimore, Maryland
Win63–1–1United States Sammy AngottUD101946-03-04United States Duquesne Gardens, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Win62–1–1Canada Cliff BeckettKO4 (10)1946-02-27United States Saint Louis Arena, Saint Louis, Missouri
Win61–1–1United States O'Neill BellKO2 (10), 1:011946-02-15United States Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan
Win60–1–1United States Tony RiccioTKO4 (10), 2:161946-02-05United States Elizabeth Armory, Elizabeth, New Jersey
Win59–1–1United States Dave ClarkTKO2 (10), 2:221946-01-14United States Duquesne Gardens, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Win58–1–1United States Vic DellicurtiUD101945-12-04United States Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts
Win57–1–1United States Jake LaMottaSD121945-09-26United States Comiskey Park, Chicago, Illinois
Win56–1–1United States Jimmy MandellTKO5 (10), 1:311945-09-18United States Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, Buffalo, New York
Win55–1–1United States Jimmy McDanielsTKO2 (10), 1:231945-06-15United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Draw54–1–1Puerto Rico José BasoraPTS101945-05-14United States Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win54–1United States Jake LaMottaUD101945-02-23United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win53–1United States George CostnerKO1 (10), 2:551945-02-14United States Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois
Win52–1United States Tommy BellUD101945-01-16United States Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio
Win51–1United States Billy FurroneTKO2 (10), 2:281945-01-10United States Uline Arena, Washington, District of Columbia
Win50–1United States George MartinTKO8 (10)1944-12-22United States Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts
Win49–1United States Sheik RangelTKO2 (10), 2:501944-12-12United States Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win48–1United States Vic DellicurtiUD101944-11-24United States Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan
Win47–1United States Lou WoodsTKO9 (10)1944-10-27United States Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois
Win46–1United States Izzy JannazzoTKO2 (10), 1:101944-10-13United States Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts
Win45–1United States Henry ArmstrongUD101943-08-27United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win44–1United States Ralph ZannelliUD101943-07-01United States Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts
Win43–1United States Freddie CabralKO1 (10), 2:201943-04-30United States Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts
Win42–1United States Jake LaMottaUD101943-02-26United States Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan
Win41–1United States California Jackie WilsonMD101943-02-19United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Loss40–1United States Jake LaMottaUD101943-02-05United States Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan
Win40–0United States Al NettlowTKO3 (10)1942-12-14United States Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win39–0United States Izzy JannazzoTKO8 (10), 2:431942-12-01United States Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio
Win38–0United States Vic DellicurtiUD101942-11-06United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win37–0United States Izzy JannazzoUD101942-10-19United States Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win36–0United States Jake LaMottaUD101942-10-02United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win35–0United States Tony MotisiKO1 (10), 2:411942-08-27United States Comiskey Park, Chicago, Illinois
Win34–0United States Reuben ShankKO2 (10), 2:261942-08-21United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win33–0United States Sammy AngottUD101942-07-31United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win32–0United States Marty ServoSD101942-05-28United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win31–0United States Dick BannerKO2 (10)1942-04-30United States Minneapolis Armory, Minneapolis, Minnesota
Win30–0Canada Harvey DubsTKO6 (10)1942-04-17United States Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan
Win29–0United States Norman RubioTKO8 (12)1942-03-20United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win28–0Canada Maxie BergerTKO2 (12), 1:431942-02-20United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win27–0United States Fritzie ZivicTKO10 (12), 0:311942-01-16United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win26–0United States Fritzie ZivicUD101941-10-31United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win25–0United States Marty ServoUD101941-09-25United States Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win24–0United States Maxie ShapiroTKO3 (10), 2:041941-09-19United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win23–0France Maurice ArnaultTKO1 (8), 1:291941-08-29United States Atlantic City Convention Hall, Atlantic City, New Jersey
Win22–0United States Carl GugginoTKO3 (8), 2:471941-08-27United States Queensboro Arena, Queens, New York
Win21–0United States Sammy AngottUD101941-07-21United States Shibe Park, Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaAngott's World Lightweight title not on the line.
Win20–0United States Pete LelloTKO4 (8), 1:481941-07-02United States Polo Grounds, New York, New York
Win19–0United States Mike EvansKO2 (8), 0:521941-06-16United States Shibe Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win18–0United States Nick CastiglioneKO1 (10), 1:211941-05-19United States Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win17–0United States Victor TroiseTKO1 (8), 2:391941-05-10United States Ridgewood Grove, Brooklyn, New York
Win16–0United States Joe GhnoulyTKO3 (8), 2:071941-04-30United States Uline Arena, Washington, District of Columbia
Win15–0United States Charley BurnsKO1 (10)1941-04-24United States Waltz Dream Arena, Atlantic City, New Jersey
Win14–0United States Jimmy TyghTKO1 (10), 1:511941-04-14United States Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win13–0United States Jimmy TyghKO8 (10), 1:131941-03-03United States Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win12–0United States Gene SpencerTKO5 (6)1941-02-27United States Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan
Win11–0United States Bobby McIntireUD61941-02-21United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win10–0United States Benny CartagenaKO1 (6), 1:331941-02-08United States Ridgewood Grove, Brooklyn, New York
Win9–0United States George ZengarasPTS61941-01-31United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win8–0United States Frankie WallaceTKO1 (6), 2:101941-01-13United States Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win7–0United States Harry LaBarbaKO1 (6), 0:401941-01-04United States Ridgewood Grove, Brooklyn, New York
Win6–0United States Oliver WhiteTKO3 (4)1940-12-13United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New York
Win5–0United States Norment QuarlesTKO4 (8), 0:561940-12-09United States Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win4–0United States Bobby WoodsKO1 (6), 1:311940-11-11United States Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win3–0Greece Mitsos GrisposUD61940-10-22United States New York Coliseum, Bronx, New York
Win2–0United States Silent StaffordTKO2 (4)1940-10-08United States Municipal Auditorium, Savannah, Georgia
Win1–0Puerto Rico Joe EchevarriaTKO2 (4), 0:511940-10-04United States Madison Square Garden, New York, New YorkProfessional Debut

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Before that fight, Robinson had a dream that he was going to accidentally kill Doyle in the ring. As a result, he decided to pull out of the fight. However, a priest and a minister convinced him to go ahead with the bout."Sugar Ray Robinson - Dreams Come True". youtube.com. Retrieved March 3, 2013. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Sugar Ray Robinson's record". at BoxRec.com. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  2. ^ Jackson, Ron. "Most consecutive unbeaten streak". Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d Sugar Ray Robinson Returns to the Ring to a 'Stamping Ovation' of 100 Million, usps.com, April 7, 2006, accessed June 5, 2007.
  4. ^ a b Robinson and Anderson, pg. 7.
  5. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pgs. 8–9.
  6. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pg. 5.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Businessman Boxer, TIME, June 25, 1951, available online via time.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Flatter, Ron. The sugar in the sweet science, espn.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
  9. ^ Schwartz, Larry. "ESPN.com: "A brooding genius"". ESPN. Retrieved September 12, 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Sugar Ray Robinson, boxrec.com, accessed June 4, 2007.
  11. ^ a b c Nichols, Joseph C.Harlem Fighter Still Unbeaten, The New York Times, November 1, 1941, accessed June 6, 2007.
  12. ^ a b Dawson, James P. Robinson Knocks Out Zivic in Tenth Round to Score 27th Victory in Row, The New York Times, January 17, 1942, accessed June 6, 2007.
  13. ^ Nichols, Joseph C. Robinson Takes Unanimous Decision Over La Motta in Garden 10-Round Bout,The New York Times, October 3, 1942, accessed June 6, 2007.
  14. ^ a b c Associated Press. Robinson's Streak Ended by LaMotta, The New York Times, February 6, 1943, accessed June 6, 2007.
  15. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pg. 110.
  16. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pgs. 120-129.
  17. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pgs. 126-130.
  18. ^ Ray Robinson, fbi.gov, accessed June 6, 2007.
  19. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pg. 130.
  20. ^ Boyd and Robinson II. pgs. 94
  21. ^ Sugar: Too sweet for Raging Bull, bbc.co.uk, July 13, 2001, accessed June 6, 2007.
  22. ^ a b c d Sugar Ray Robinson, Contemporary Black Biography, The Gale Group, 2006 ISBN 0-7876-7927-5, available online via Answers.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
  23. ^ Boyd and Robinson II. pg. 93
  24. ^ Boyd and Robinson II. pgs. 105–06
  25. ^ a b Anderson, Dave. Sports of the Times; The Original Sugar Ray 'Never Lost', The New York Times, April 13, 1989, accessed April 10, 2008.
  26. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pg. 165.
  27. ^ Jake LaMotta, boxrec.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
  28. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pgs. 187–88.
  29. ^ Dethroned in London, The New York Times, July 15, 1951, accessed June 6, 2007.
  30. ^ Sugar Ray Gives Mme. Auriol Kiss; Boxer as Cancer Fund 'Envoy,' Busses French Chief's Wife Twice on Each Cheek, The New York Times, May 17, 1951, accessed June 6, 2007.
  31. ^ Sugar's Lumps, TIME, July 23, 1951, available online at time.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
  32. ^ Daley, Arthur. Sports of The Times; For the Championship, The New York Times, September 12, 1951, accessed June 6, 2007.
  33. ^ Harlem Hails Robinson; More Than 10,000 Cheer Verdict, Sing and Dance in Street, The New York Times, September 13, 1951, accessed June 6, 2007.
  34. ^ Sugar Ray Robinson Named Fighter Of Year, St. Petersburg Times, December 27, 1951, accessed October 14, 2010.
  35. ^ Robinson and Anderson. pg. 227
  36. ^ Robinson and Anderson. pg. 266
  37. ^ Nichols, Joseph C. Utah 160-Pounder to Defend Crown, The New York Times, May 1, 1957, accessed June 6, 2007.
  38. ^ a b c d e Nichols, Joseph C. Robinson Knocks Out Fullmer in Fifth Round to Regain Middleweight Crown, The New York Times, May 2, 1957 accessed June 6, 2007.
  39. ^ Fitzgerald and Hudson. pg. 40
    *Gene Fullmer, ibhof.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
  40. ^ Basilio Takes Title By Beating Robinson, The New York Times, September 24, 1957, accessed June 6, 2007.
  41. ^ a b Nichols, Joseph C. Robinson Outpoints Basilio and Wins World Middleweight Title Fifth Time.The New York Times, March 26, 1958, accessed June 6, 2007.
  42. ^ a b nichols, Joseph C. 5-1 Choice Loses A Split Decision, The New York Times, January 23, 1960, accessed June 6, 2007.
  43. ^ Conkilin, William R. Robinson Beats Moyer in Ten-Rounder Here, The New York Times, October 22, 1961, accessed June 6, 2007.
  44. ^ Teague, Robert L. Denny Moyer Defeats Robinson, The New York Times, February 18, 1962, accessed June 6, 2007.
  45. ^ a b Left Hook Floors Sugar Ray in 4th, The New York Times, June 25, 1963, accessed June 6, 2007.
  46. ^ a b Associated Press. Robinson Beaten in Archer Fight, The New York Times, November 11, 1965, accessed June 6, 2007.
  47. ^ Associated Press. Robinson Declares Bout With Archer Was His Last Fight, The New York Times, November 12, 1965, accessed June 6, 2007.
  48. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pg. 4.
  49. ^ Mission Impossible, accessed October 14, 2010.
  50. ^ Wiley. pg. 223
  51. ^ a b Pace, Frank. Keeping Pace with Sugar Ray Robinson, LA Sports Magazine, August 1976, available online via hofmag.com, accessed June 5, 2007.
  52. ^ a b Edna Mae Robinson, ex-wife of boxing champ Sugar Ray Robinson, dies, JET, May 27, 2002, available online via findarticles.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
  53. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pp. 91-2.
  54. ^ Chenault. pg. 31
  55. ^ Ray Robinson's' Sister Dies, The New York Times, April 21, 1959, accessed June 6, 2007.
  56. ^ a b Wiley. pg. 221
  57. ^ "Famous Free Masons: Athletes". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved February 13, 2013. 
  58. ^ "Well Known Freemasons". Grand Lodge of British Columbia A.F. & A. M. Retrieved February 13, 2013. 
  59. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pg. 75.
  60. ^ Boyd and Robinson II. pg. 271
  61. ^ a b Sugar Ray Robinson quotes, cgmworldwide.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
  62. ^ Hauser. pg. 29
  63. ^ a b Mulvaney, Kieran. Who's the Greatest?, espn.com, accessed March 18, 2009.
  64. ^ Sugar Ray Bio, cgmworldwide.com, accessed June 4, 2007.
    *Review Joe and Teddy Pick Their Top Fighters, espn.com, accessed June 4, 2007.
    * Smith, Michael David. ESPN Greatest Boxers List: Sugar Ray Robinson No. 1, aolsports.com, May 13, 2007, accessed June 6, 2007.
    * Wiley. pg. 226
    *Anderson, Dave. Sugar Ray Robinson, Boxing's 'Best,' Is Dead, The New York Times, April 13, 1989, accessed April 10, 2008.
    * Trickett, Alex, and Dirs, Ben. Who is the greatest of them all?, bbc.co.uk, June 13, 2005, accessed June 6, 2007.
  65. ^ Kehoe, Patrick. Ray Robinson: The champions’ champion. secondsout.com, accessed June 4, 2007.
  66. ^ Hauser. pg. 212
  67. ^ Associated Press. Sugar Ray named century's best, espn.com, December 8, 1999, accessed March 4, 2009.
  68. ^ Ring Magazine's 100 Greatest Punchers, The Ring, (2003), available online at about.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
  69. ^ "IBRO Rankings". Retrieved 2012-02-12. 
  70. ^ Boyd and Robinson II. pg. 105
  71. ^ Goldman, Albert. Sugar Ray: Is He a Black Gable?, The New York Times, October 8, 1968, accessed June 6, 2007.
    * Sammons. pg. xii
    *The Man Who Comes Back, TIME, April 7, 1958, available via time.com accessed June 6, 2007.
  72. ^ Fitzgerald and Hudson. pgs. 205–06
  73. ^ Robinson and Anderson, pg. 169.
  74. ^ Daley, Robert. Sugar Ray Is Still Young in Paris; Age Hasn't Dimmed Robinson's Skills in Frenchmen's Eyes, The New York Times, May 13, 1962, accessed June 6, 2007.
  75. ^ Anderson, Dave For Some People there is only One Sugar Ray, The New York Times, reprinted in The Miami News, June 18, 1980, accessed August 24, 2010.
  76. ^ Schuyler, Ed. Article: Sugar Shane wants to look sweet for Sugar Ray, Associated Press online, September 21, 1998, accessed August 24, 2010.
  77. ^ Iole, Kevin. Few pegged Rashad Evans’ main-event status, mmajunkie.com, September 06, 2008, accessed August 24, 2010.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Achievements
Preceded by
Marty Servo
Vacated
World Welterweight Champion
20 Dec 1946 – 14 Feb 1951
Vacated
Succeeded by
Johnny Bratton
Recognized by NBA
Preceded by
Jake LaMotta
World Middleweight Champion
14 Feb 1951 – 10 Jul 1951
Succeeded by
Randy Turpin
Preceded by
Randy Turpin
World Middleweight Champion
12 Sep 1951 – Dec 1952
Retired
Succeeded by
Carl (Bobo) Olson
Preceded by
Carl (Bobo) Olson
World Middleweight Champion
9 Dec 1955 – 2 Jan 1957
Succeeded by
Gene Fullmer
Preceded by
Gene Fullmer
World Middleweight Champion
1 May 1957 – 23 Sep 1957
Succeeded by
Carmen Basilio
Preceded by
Carmen Basilio
World Middleweight Champion
25 Mar 1958 – 22 Jan 1960
Only recognized by New York and
Massachusetts at time of title loss
Succeeded by
Paul Pender
Awards
Preceded by
Joe Louis
Ring Magazine Fighter of the Year
1942
Succeeded by
Fred Apostoli
Preceded by
Ezzard Charles
Ring Magazine Fighter of the Year
1951
Succeeded by
Rocky Marciano
Preceded by
Ezzard Charles
Edward J. Neil Trophy
(BWAA Fighter of the Year)

1950
Succeeded by
Jersey Joe Walcott