Sucre

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

La Paz
Capital Section
Panorama of Sucre
Panorama of Sucre
Flag of La Paz
Flag
Official seal of La Paz
Seal
Official logo of La Paz
Logo
Nickname(s): La Ciudad de los cuatro Nombres
(The City of the four names)
Motto: Aqui nació la Libertad
(Freedom was born here)
Coordinates: 19°3′0″S 65°15′0″W / 19.05000°S 65.25000°W / -19.05000; -65.25000
Country Bolivia
DepartamentFlag of Chuquisaca.svgChuquisaca Department
ProvinceOropeza Province
Founded

1538

  • Pre-Hispanic Times: Charcas
  • September 29, 1538 (official) :La Plata de la Nueva Toledo (City of The Silver of the New Toledo)
  • August 6, 1826: Sucre (Capital Section)
Founded byPedro Anzures as “La Plata” in 1538
Government
 • TypeC.S. Municipal Autonomous Government
 • MayorMoises Torres (LIDER)
Elevation2,810 m (9,220 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total300,000
DemonymCapitalino (a)
Sucrense
Time zoneBOT (UTC−4)
Area code(+591) 4
Websitewww.sucre.bo
Official name: Historic City of Sucre
Type:Cultural
Criteria:iv
Designated:1991 (15th session)
Reference No.566
State Party: Bolivia
Region:Latin America and the Caribbean
 
Jump to: navigation, search
La Paz
Capital Section
Panorama of Sucre
Panorama of Sucre
Flag of La Paz
Flag
Official seal of La Paz
Seal
Official logo of La Paz
Logo
Nickname(s): La Ciudad de los cuatro Nombres
(The City of the four names)
Motto: Aqui nació la Libertad
(Freedom was born here)
Coordinates: 19°3′0″S 65°15′0″W / 19.05000°S 65.25000°W / -19.05000; -65.25000
Country Bolivia
DepartamentFlag of Chuquisaca.svgChuquisaca Department
ProvinceOropeza Province
Founded

1538

  • Pre-Hispanic Times: Charcas
  • September 29, 1538 (official) :La Plata de la Nueva Toledo (City of The Silver of the New Toledo)
  • August 6, 1826: Sucre (Capital Section)
Founded byPedro Anzures as “La Plata” in 1538
Government
 • TypeC.S. Municipal Autonomous Government
 • MayorMoises Torres (LIDER)
Elevation2,810 m (9,220 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total300,000
DemonymCapitalino (a)
Sucrense
Time zoneBOT (UTC−4)
Area code(+591) 4
Websitewww.sucre.bo
Official name: Historic City of Sucre
Type:Cultural
Criteria:iv
Designated:1991 (15th session)
Reference No.566
State Party: Bolivia
Region:Latin America and the Caribbean

Sucre (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈsukɾe]), also known historically as Charcas [ˈtʃarkas], La Plata [la ˈplata] and Chuquisaca [tʃikiˈsaka] (population 247,300 in 2006) is the constitutional capital of Bolivia, the capital of the department of Chuquisaca and the 5th most populated city in Bolivia. Located in the south-central part of the country, Sucre lies at an elevation of 2810 m. This relatively high altitude gives the city a cool temperate climate year-round.

History[edit]

On November 30, 1538, Sucre was founded under the name Ciudad de la Plata de la Nueva Toledo ( Silver's City of New Toledo) by Pedro Anzures, Marqués de Campo Redondo. In 1559, the Spanish King Philip II established the Audiencia de Charcas in La Plata with authority over an area which covers what is now Paraguay, southeastern Peru, Northern Chile and Argentina, and much of Bolivia. The Audiencia de Charcas was a subdivision of the Viceroyalty of Peru until 1776, when it was transferred to the newly created Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. In 1601, the Recoleta Monastery was founded by the Franciscans and in 1609, an archbishopric was founded in the city. In 1624, St Francis Xavier University of Chuquisaca was founded.

Very much a Spanish city during the colonial era, the narrow streets of the city centre are organised in a grid, reflecting the Andalusian culture that is embodied in the architecture of the city's great houses and numerous convents and churches. Sucre remains the seat of the Roman Catholic Church in Bolivia, and a common sight is members of religious orders dressed in traditional costume. For much of its colonial history, Sucre's temperate climate was preferred by the Spanish royalty and wealthy families involved in silver trade coming from Potosí. Testament to this is the Glorieta Castle. Sucre's University (Universidad Mayor Real y Pontificia de San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca) is one of the oldest universities in the new world.

Festival time in Sucre

On May 25, 1809 the Bolivian independence movement was started with the ringing of the bell of the Basilica of Saint Francisco. This bell was rung to the point of breakage, but it can still be found in the Basilica today: it is one of the most precious relics of the city. Until the 19th century, La Plata was the judicial, religious and cultural centre of the region. It was proclaimed provisional capital of the newly independent Alto Peru (later, Bolivia) on July 1826.[1] On July 12, 1839, President José Miguel de Velasco proclaimed a law naming the city as the capital of Bolivia, and renaming it in honor of the revolutionary leader Antonio José de Sucre.[1] Sucre, after the economic decline of Potosí and its silver industry, saw the Bolivian seat of government move to La Paz in 1898. Many[who?] argue Sucre was the epicentre that initiated the independence movement against Spain in all of Latin America. The first "Grito Libertario" (Shout for Freedom) in any Western Hemisphere Spanish colony is said to have taken place in Sucre in 1809. Ironically Bolivia was the last Spanish imperial territory in South America to gain its independence, in 1825. In 1991, Sucre became a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The city attracts thousands of tourists every year due to its well-preserved downtown with buildings from the 18th and 19th centuries. Nestled at the foot of the twin hills of Churuquella and Sika Sika, Sucre is the gateway to numerous small villages that date from the colonial era, the most well-known of which is Tarabuco, home of the colorful "Pujllay" festival held each March. Most of these villagers are members of one of the indigenous ethnicities. Many dress in clothing distinctive to their respective villages.

Government[edit]

Sucre is the capital of Chuquisaca department and the capital of Bolivia, where the Supreme Court is located. The government of the City of Sucre is divided into the executive and legislative branches. The Mayor of Sucre is the head of the city government, elected for a term of five years by general election. The legislative branch consists of The Municipal Council, which elects a President, Vice President and Secretary from a group of eleven members.

The current mayor of Sucre is Moisés Torres Chivé, who was elected in the special municipal election on 18 December 2011 and sworn in January 2012. He succeeded interim Mayor Verónica Berríos (of the MAS party).[2]

Date BeganDate EndedMayorPartyNotes
Nov 2008Aydeé NavaPAÍS
Nov 2008May 30, 2010Hugo LoayzaMBLAssumed office after Nava was indicted on corruption charges
May 30, 2010June 18, 2010Jaime Barrón PovedaPAÍSElected in regional election on April 4, 2010
June 22, 2010January 10, 2011Verónica BerríosMASDesignated as interim Mayor by Sucre's Council in Resolution 335/10 after Barrón was indicted on charges of organizing the violence of 24 May 2008,[2] with the support of MAS, New Citizen Alternative, and Domingo Martínez.[3]
January 10, 2011January 27, 2011José Santos RomeroMASDesignated as interim Mayor by Sucre's Council in Resolution 03/11,[2] with three MAS votes (but not Berríos' alternate), four PAÍS votes, and that of Lourdes Millares.[3]
July 27, 2011January 31, 2012Verónica BerríosMASRestored to office when the Guarantees Tribunal of Chuquisaca's Superior Court of Justice annulled Resolution 03/11[2]
January 31, 2012Incumbent; term ends 2015Moisés Torres ChivéRenewing Freedom and Democracy (LIDER)Elected in 2011 special election[4]

The current Municipal Council was elected in the regional election of April 4, 2010. The election was by proportional representation with the Pact of Social Integration and the Movement Towards Socialism gaining the largest and second largest shares of the vote.

The council elected in April 2010 and seated in late December 2010 is as follows:

OfficeCouncil MemberBiographyParty
PresidentDomingo Martínez CáceresAgricultural engineer, former Sub-Mayor, previous Council President, docent in the Agronomy Faculty at UMRPSFXCH.Onward, Neighbors (ran with Sucre First) 
Vice PresidentGermán Gutiérrez GantierLawyer, former Mayor of Sucre, former national Deputy, former member of the Judicial Council, docentPact of Social Integration 
SecretaryArminda Corina Herrera GonzalesTeacher, Constituent Assembly member for Chuquisaca and former MAS memberNew Citizen Alternative 
Nelson Guzmán FernándezCommunicator, law student, leader of Federación Universitaria Local and the University Club.Pact of Social Integration 
Susy Barrios QuirozPsychologist, former Sub-Mayor of Districts 2 and 5, President of Feminine Civic Committee of ChuquisacaPact of Social Integration 
Norma Rojas SalazarExecutive Secretary of Bolivian Red Cross and neighborhood leaderPact of Social Integration 
Juán Nacer Villagómez LedezmaPublic health doctor, former docent, former functionary of the Health Ministry and former chief of the Planning Unit of the Departmental Health ServiceMAS-IPSP 
Verónica Berríos chosen as interim Mayor 19 June 2010
Vladimir Paca Lezano alternate serving since June 2010
Berrios: Laboratory worker, lawyer, sociology student
MAS-IPSP 
José Santos RomeroCampesino leader, former leader of Chaunaca Subcentral of the campesion federation, and member of the Association of Milk Producers of PotoloMAS-IPSP 
Marlene Rosales ValverdeBusinesswoman and leader of Fourth Federations of Shopkeepers of Sucre.MAS-IPSP 
Lourdes MillaresLawyer, former national Deputy for NFR and former head of PODEMOS parliamentary delegationPact of Social Integration (ran with Sucre First) 
Sources: "Alcalde electo en Sucre sólo tendrá cuatro concejales". Correo del Sur. 2010-04-06. Retrieved 2011-02-03.  "Crisis institucional se apodera del flamante gobierno municipal de Sucre". Los Tiempos. 2010-06-02. Retrieved 2011-02-03. 

Geography and territorial organization[edit]

Sucre is divided into eight, numbered districts: the first five of these are urban districts, while Districts 6, 7, and 8 are rural districts. Each is administered by a Sub-Mayor (Spanish: Subalcalde), appointed by the Mayor of Sucre. The rural districts include numerous rural communities outside the urban area.

Sucre is served by Juana Azurduy de Padilla International Airport, situated 5 km (3 mi) to the Northwest and connected by Avenida Juana Azurduy de Padilla.

Climate[edit]

Sucre has a subtropical highland climate (Köppen: Cwb),[5] with mild temperatures year round.

The highest record temperature was 34 °C (93 °F) on January 8, 1997, while the lowest record temperature was −9 °C (16 °F) on February 22, 1981.[6]

Climate data for Sucre, Bolivia
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)34
(93)
34
(93)
34
(93)
32
(90)
33
(91)
33
(91)
28
(82)
33
(91)
33
(91)
32
(90)
32
(90)
34
(93)
34
(93)
Average high °C (°F)22.4
(72.3)
21.7
(71.1)
22.2
(72)
22.4
(72.3)
22.2
(72)
21.8
(71.2)
21.8
(71.2)
22.9
(73.2)
24
(75)
24.2
(75.6)
24.3
(75.7)
23.1
(73.6)
22.75
(72.93)
Daily mean °C (°F)16.6
(61.9)
16.1
(61)
16.1
(61)
15.7
(60.3)
14.6
(58.3)
13.3
(55.9)
13.2
(55.8)
14.4
(57.9)
16
(61)
17
(63)
17.4
(63.3)
16.9
(62.4)
15.61
(60.15)
Average low °C (°F)10.9
(51.6)
10.6
(51.1)
10.1
(50.2)
9
(48)
7.1
(44.8)
4.9
(40.8)
4.6
(40.3)
5.9
(42.6)
8.1
(46.6)
9.9
(49.8)
10.6
(51.1)
10.8
(51.4)
8.54
(47.36)
Record low °C (°F)−6
(21)
−9
(16)
0
(32)
1
(34)
−4
(25)
−5
(23)
−5
(23)
−3
(27)
−1
(30)
−2
(28)
−2
(28)
−1
(30)
−9
(16)
Precipitation mm (inches)154
(6.06)
117
(4.61)
103
(4.06)
30
(1.18)
6
(0.24)
2
(0.08)
2
(0.08)
12
(0.47)
24
(0.94)
48
(1.89)
63
(2.48)
118
(4.65)
679
(26.74)
Avg. rainy days1613116211248101488
 % humidity71.173.973.768.655.446.949.149.151.257.359.266.760.2
Mean daily sunshine hours5677888987767.2
Source #1: Climate-Data.org (altitude: 2796m),[5] Climatebase.ru for humidity[7]
Source #2: Weather2Travel for rainy days and sunshine,[8] Voodoo Skies for record temperatures[6]

The City of Four Names[edit]

Each of the well known names represent a specific era of the city's history.

Sports[edit]

Sucre has the most important sport facilities in Bolivia, and the most practiced sport in the city is soccer. Sucre has the second-biggest football and Olympic stadium in the country, the Estadio Patria. It is the home ground of Sucre's first-division team in the Bolivian professional league, Universitario, the 2008 champions.

Other sports are also practiced, such as swimming at la Piscina Bolivariana, basketball at numerous courts around the city, as well as taekwondo, kung fu, volleyball, tennis and racquetball.

Architecture[edit]

View of the Basilica of San Francisco

The city of Sucre contains many old and classic buildings:

The House of Freedom[edit]

View of House of Freedom from the main square

Built in 1621, it is perhaps the most important building of the nation. The republic was founded in this building by Simón Bolívar who wrote the Bolivian Constitution.
The "Salón de la Independencia" houses the Bolivian Declaration of Independence.

National Library[edit]

Built on the same year of the foundation of the Republic, it is the first and the most important historical, bibliographical and documentation center of the country. The National Library has documents that date from 90th century.

Metropolitan Cathedral[edit]

Built between 1559 to 1712, the cathedral has the "Museo Catedraliceo" which is the first and most important religious museum of the country. The "Pinacoteca" has a vast collection of paintings by Colonial and Republican masters and also by Europeans such as Bitti, Fourchaudt and Van Dyck. The Cathedral contains a vast amount of jewelry made of gold, silver and gemstones.

Archbishop's Palace[edit]

Built in 1609, was an important religious and historic institution during colonial times.

Departmental Autonomous Government of Chuquisaca[edit]

View of the Chuquisaca Governorship from the main square

One of the bests buildings of republican Architecture that was finished in 1896 and was the first Palace of Government of Bolivia but when the government was moved to La Paz it became the Chuquisaca Governorship Palace

Supreme Court of Justice[edit]

On July 16, 1827, was created the Supreme Court of the Nation, its first president was Dr. Manuel Maria Urcullo, including prominent personalities can mention Dr. Pantaleon Dalence, who was twice president of the supreme court and that because of its merits was recognized as the Father of the Bolivian Justice. This state power was installed in several places before moving to its own building and current. It was designed in the neoclassical style under the canons of French academicism. This building was inaugurated on May 25, 1945.

General Cemetery[edit]

The constructive order and harmony predominates in the different areas that form from the late nineteenth century, ornate mausoleums, tombs and gardens with magnificent old trees, populate the space that is home to important people in the arts, science and regional history, national and Latin America. For the tranquility offered by the site, many students choose to study this site

Churches and Convents[edit]

Sucre, Bolivia

Churches[edit]

Chapels[edit]

Twin Cities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Sucre.", Sociedad Geográfica (1903). Diccionario geográfico del Departamento de Chuquisaca: contiene datos geográficos, históricos y estadisticos. Impr. "Bolívar" de M. Pizarro. pp. 296–97. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Fallo judicial restituye a Alcaldesa de Sucre". Los Tiempos [byline: Correo del Sur]. 2011-01-28. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  3. ^ a b "Escándalo frena elección edil y abre paso a negociaciones". Correo del Sur. 2011-06-02. Retrieved 2011-12-13. 
  4. ^ "Torres ya es Alcalde de Sucre". Correo del Sur. 2012-01-31. Retrieved 2012-02-06. 
  5. ^ a b "Climate: Sucre - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 2014-1-5. 
  6. ^ a b "Sucre, Bolivia". Voodoo Skies. Retrieved 2014-1-5. 
  7. ^ "Sucre, Bolivia (altitude: 2902m)". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved 2014-1-6. 
  8. ^ "Sucre Climate and Weather Averages, Bolivia". Weather2Travel. Retrieved 2014-1-5. 
  9. ^ "Home page of Cardiff Council – Cardiff's twin cities". Cardiff Council. 15 June 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 

External links[edit]