Stryker

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

IAV Stryker
Stryker ICV front q.jpg
M1126 Stryker ICV
TypeArmored fighting vehicle
Place of originUnited States[1]
Service history
In service2002-present
Used byUnited States
Production history
ManufacturerGeneral Dynamics Land Systems – Canada[2][3]
Unit costUS$ 4.9 million (2012)[4]
Specifications
WeightICV: 16.47 tonnes (18.16 short tons; 16.21 long tons)
MGS: 18.77 tonnes (20.69 short tons; 18.47 long tons)
Length6.95 m (22 ft 10 in)
Width2.72 m (8 ft 11 in)
Height2.64 m (8 ft 8 in)
CrewVaries, usually 2
PassengersVaries

Armor14.5 mm resistant[5]
Main
armament
M2 .50 cal. machine gun or MK19 40 mm grenade launcher mounted in a Protector (RWS) remote weapon station
Secondary
armament
.50-cal M2 MG and M240 7.62 mm MG (MGS)
EngineCaterpillar C7
260 kW (350 hp)
Power/weightICV: 15.8 kW/t (19.3 hp/sh tn)
Suspension8×8 wheeled
Operational
range
500 km (310 mi)
Speed100 km/h (62 mph)[5]
 
Jump to: navigation, search
IAV Stryker
Stryker ICV front q.jpg
M1126 Stryker ICV
TypeArmored fighting vehicle
Place of originUnited States[1]
Service history
In service2002-present
Used byUnited States
Production history
ManufacturerGeneral Dynamics Land Systems – Canada[2][3]
Unit costUS$ 4.9 million (2012)[4]
Specifications
WeightICV: 16.47 tonnes (18.16 short tons; 16.21 long tons)
MGS: 18.77 tonnes (20.69 short tons; 18.47 long tons)
Length6.95 m (22 ft 10 in)
Width2.72 m (8 ft 11 in)
Height2.64 m (8 ft 8 in)
CrewVaries, usually 2
PassengersVaries

Armor14.5 mm resistant[5]
Main
armament
M2 .50 cal. machine gun or MK19 40 mm grenade launcher mounted in a Protector (RWS) remote weapon station
Secondary
armament
.50-cal M2 MG and M240 7.62 mm MG (MGS)
EngineCaterpillar C7
260 kW (350 hp)
Power/weightICV: 15.8 kW/t (19.3 hp/sh tn)
Suspension8×8 wheeled
Operational
range
500 km (310 mi)
Speed100 km/h (62 mph)[5]

The IAV Stryker is a family of eight-wheeled,[6] armored fighting vehicles derived from the Canadian LAV III and based on the Swiss Piranha III 8x8. Stryker vehicles are produced by General Dynamics Land Systems for the United States Army. It has 4-wheel drive (8x4) and can be switched to all-wheel drive (8x8).[7]

The vehicle is named for two American servicemen who posthumously received the Medal of Honor: Private First Class Stuart S. Stryker, who died in World War II and Specialist Four Robert F. Stryker, who died in the Vietnam War.[8]

Development history[edit]

Background[edit]

In October 1999, General Eric Shinseki, then U.S. Army Chief of Staff, outlined a transformation plan for the army that would allow it to adapt to post-Cold War conditions. The plan, named "Objective Force", would have the army adopt a flexible doctrine that would allow it to deploy quickly, and equipped for a variety of operations.[9] An early phase of the plan called for the introduction of an 'Interim Armored Vehicle' which was intended to fill the capability gap between heavy and lethal, but not easily deployable vehicles (such as the M2 Bradley), and easily deployed, but lightly armed and protected vehicles (such as the Humvee).[10] A variant of the Canadian LAV III offered by the General Dynamics-General Motors Defence Canada team was ultimately awarded the contract in November 2000 to produce 2,131 Stryker vehicles of all variants for equipping six rapid deployment Brigade Combat Teams.[citation needed] On 27 February 2002, the Army formally renamed the Interim Armored Vehicle as the Stryker.[11] It was called the "Interim" Armored Vehicle because it was initially supposed to be a temporary measure until light air-mobile vehicles from the Future Combat Systems program came online, none of which did before FCS was cancelled.[12]

Production[edit]

The Stryker MGS moved into low-rate initial production in 2005 for evaluation.[13] General Dynamics Land Systems-Canada assembles the Stryker for the U.S. Army in a plant in London, Ontario.[14]

The vehicle is employed in Stryker Brigade Combat Teams, light and mobile units based on the Brigade Combat Team Doctrine that relies on vehicles connected by military C4I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence) networks.

The Stryker has come under intense scrutiny from military experts since its introduction in the US Army; this has also been the subject of mass media coverage.

General Dynamics's Robotic Systems division was developing autonomous navigation for the Stryker and several other vehicles with a $237 million contract until the program was cut in July 2011.[15] Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) has also tested an active magneto rheological suspension, developed by MillenWorks for the Stryker, at the Yuma Proving Ground, which resulted in greater vehicle stability.[16]

Upgrades[edit]

Because of the wear and tear of battle, over 1000 Stryker vehicles have been rebuilt by Anniston Army Depot and returned to operations.[17]

The US Army plans to improve its fleet of Stryker vehicles with the introduction of improved semi-active suspension, modifications reshaping the hull into a shallow V-shaped structure, to protect against improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Also included are additional armor for the sides, redesigned hatches to minimize gaps in the armor, blast absorbing mine resistant seating, non-flammable tires, an upgrade to the remote weapon station that allows it to fire on the go, increased 500 amp power generation, a new solid state power distribution system and data bus, and the automotive and power plant systems improvements to support a 25% Gross Vehicle Weight increase. The upgraded V-hull will be part of the new StrykShield situational awareness kit, which will address many of these upgrades. Allegheny Technologies' ATI 500-MIL armor steel was designated the primary armored plating for the StrykShield package in 2008.[18]

The upgrade incorporating lessons learned from combat in Afghanistan is designated LAV-H and General Dynamics had a technology demonstrator displayed at the 2007 Association of the United States Army (AUSA) Exposition.[19] In March 2010, it was reported that General Dynamics and Army were working to incorporate a double V-hull into the Stryker design.[20][21][22][23] In July 2010 the Army awarded a $30 million contract to GDLS to start production of the new hull.[24]

On 9 March 2011, the Department of Defense's director of operational test and evaluations testified that the new V-hull design was "not suitable" for long missions in Afghanistan's terrain. The issues are due to the tight driver's compartment and difficulty releasing the seat to extract an incapacitated driver. General Dynamics stated these issues would be corrected before the new Stryker version deploys.[25] The upgrade also adds significant weight to the vehicle, which can cause it to sink into soft ground.[26]

In July 2011, 450 Double V-Hull (DVH) variants of the Stryker vehicle were ordered; the total was increased to 742 a few months later and then to 760 in 2012. DVH Strykers include a new hull configuration, increased armor, upgraded suspension and braking systems, wider tires, blast –attenuating seats, and a height management system.[27][28][29]

By August 2012, the Army's Stryker fleet included over 4,187 vehicles, with 10 flat-bottom variants and 7 in double V-hull designs. In Afghanistan, it retains a 96 percent readiness rate. To upgrade the existing fleet, the Army has implemented an Engineering Change Proposal (ECP) program with the goals of providing a stronger engine, improved suspension, more on-board electrical power, and next-generation networking and computing technology. Phase 1 of the ECP includes an electrical power upgrade to replace the current 570 amp alternator with a higher current 910 amp alternator. The existing 350 horsepower engine will be replaced with a 450 horsepower engine of a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) design. It will also have a stronger suspension system to improve mobility at higher weights and an in-vehicle network to improve data and video sharing between crew stations in the vehicle. The in-vehicle network will allow more secure and reliable data sharing between systems on the vehicle. This will reduce size, weight, and power consumption of future components. A demonstrator vehicle is to be constructed by summer 2013.[30] On 28 May 2013, Kongsberg Integrated Tactical Systems was awarded a contract from General Dynamics to supply the commander's and driver's smart displays for the Stryker ECP program. The Driver's Situational Awareness Display (DSAD) and the Commander's Situational Awareness Display (CSAD) feature an on-board processor and additional I/O ports for both data and video.[31]

As of January 2014, the U.S. Army has two Stryker Brigades that completed the DVH upgrade with a third brigade, the 2nd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, to be fully upgraded by the end of FY 2016. The Army seeks to have all nine Stryker Brigades equipped with DVH vehicles, but upgrade of the remaining six brigades is unfunded in the FY 2016-2020 budget projections. The 2016 timeframe also coincides with the end of U.S. Army Stryker orders, after which time the manufacturing facilities for the vehicles will be put in a layaway mode and only revived for Foreign Military Sales or domestic orders to replace battle damage losses.[32]

Future[edit]

The U.S. Army is seeking replacement of the M113 APC and derivatives by Stryker, MRAP, and Bradley Fighting Vehicle vehicles starting in 2017. In the long term the army is tentatively pursuing replacement with the 50+ ton Ground Combat Vehicle family of vehicles concept.[33][34]

Design[edit]

View into the rear compartment

The Stryker is based on the LAV III light-armored vehicle, which in turn was based on the Swiss MOWAG Piranha III 8x8.

The vehicle comes in several variants with a common engine, transmission, hydraulics, wheels, tires, differentials and transfer case. The M1130 Command Vehicle and M1133 Medical Evacuation Vehicle have an air conditioning unit mounted on the back. The medical vehicle also has a higher-capacity generator. A recent upgrade program provided a field retrofit kit to add air conditioning units to all variants, and production started in 2005 on the Mobile Gun System mounting an overhead GDLS 105 mm automatic gun.

Engine and mechanical features[edit]

For its powerpack the Stryker uses a Caterpillar diesel engine common in U.S. Army medium-lift trucks, eliminating additional training for maintenance crews and allowing the use of common parts.[35] Because of obsolescence concerns, the Caterpillar 3126 engine was recently replaced by a Caterpillar C7 engine and the Allison 3200SP transmission.[36]

Pneumatic or hydraulic systems drive almost all of the vehicle's mechanical features; for example, a pneumatic system switches between 8x4 and 8x8 drive.

Designers strove to ease the maintainer's job, equipping most cables, hoses, and mechanical systems with quick-disconnecting mechanisms. The engine and transmission can be removed and reinstalled in approximately two hours, allowing repairs to the turbocharger and many other components to be done outside the vehicle.[citation needed]

Command, control, and targeting[edit]

Remote weapon system screen

Extensive computer support helps soldiers fight the enemy while reducing friendly fire incidents. Each vehicle can track friendly vehicles in the field as well as detected enemies. The driver and the vehicle commander (who also serves as the gunner) have periscopes that allow them to see outside the vehicle without exposing themselves to outside dangers. The vehicle commander also has access to a day-night thermal imaging camera which allows the vehicle commander to see what the driver sees. The vehicle commander has almost a 360-degree field of vision; the driver, a little more than 90 degrees.

Soldiers can practice training with the vehicles from computer training modules inside the vehicle.

General Dynamics Land Systems is developing a new Power and Data Management Architecture to handle computer upgrades.[37]

Protection[edit]

Stryker with slat armor, full Hull Protection Kit and commander's ballistic shield

The Stryker's hull is constructed from high-hardness steel which offers a basic level of protection against 14.5 mm rounds on the frontal arc, and all-around protection against 7.62 mm ball ammunition.[38] In addition to this, Strykers are also equipped with bolt-on ceramic armor which offers all-around protection against 14.5 mm, armor-piercing ammunition, and artillery fragments from 152 mm rounds.[35][39] Problems were encountered with the initial batch of ceramic armor when it was found that a number of panels failed in tests against 14.5 mm ammunition. Army officials determined that this was due to changes in the composition and size of the panels introduced by their manufacturer, IBD Deisenroth. A stopgap solution of adding an additional 3 mm of steel armor was introduced until a permanent solution could be found.[40] The issue was eventually resolved later in 2003 when DEW Engineering was selected as the new, exclusive supplier for the ceramic armor.[41]

Stryker rolled over by a buried IED in 2007. All crew survived, but the vehicle required a factory rebuild before returning to service.[42]

In addition to the integral ceramic armor, optional packages have been developed. These include slat armor[43] and Stryker reactive armor tiles (SRAT) for protection against rocket propelled grenades and other projectiles, the hull protection kit (HPK), armored skirts for additional protection against improvised explosive devices, and a ballistic shield to protect the commander's hatch.[38]

The Stryker also incorporates an automatic fire-extinguishing system with sensors in the engine and troop compartments that activate one or more halon fire bottles, which can also be activated by the driver, externally mounted fuel tanks, and a CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear) Warfare system which will keep the crew compartment airtight and positively pressurized.

Reports from military personnel and analysts state that the Stryker is superior to other light military vehicles regarding survivability against IEDs (improvised explosive devices).[44][45]

Armament[edit]

Protector (RWS) with a M2 heavy machine gun on an M1126 Stryker ICV variant.

With the exception of some specialized variants, the primary armament of the Stryker is a Protector M151 Remote Weapon Station with .50-cal M2 machine gun, 7.62 mm M240 machine gun, or Mk-19 automatic grenade launcher. The choice of armament was driven by many factors. The US Army wanted a vehicle that could rapidly transport and protect infantry to and around battlefields.

While the Stryker MGS gives light brigades heavy firepower, the baseline infantry carrier vehicle has a light armament. Stryker program officials are working to mount a 30 mm cannon to the ICV's remote weapons station. With the number of MGS vehicles per brigade being reduced, individual ICVs are to be up-gunned. The cannon would give greater firepower without needing to add a turret. The plan is to purchase and test a company set of 30 mm cannons and also determine if they should be issued for every Stryker of have one per company.[46] The Army will test stabilized 30 mm cannons in early 2014, including Kongsberg Protech Systems' Medium Caliber Remote Weapons Station. Kongsberg (which makes the M151 RWS on the Stryker) joined with General Dynamics (which makes the Stryker) for the MCRWS in 2008. The MCRWS is not a true turret, which would extend into the crew compartment and take up space. It can be loaded from inside the vehicle, but does eliminate one of the four roof hatches.[47]

Mobility[edit]

Strategic and operational[edit]

Stryker unloading from a C-130

One of the key objectives outlined as part of the army transformation plan was the ability to deploy a brigade anywhere in the world within 96 hours, a division in 120 hours, and five divisions within 30 days. Operational mobility requirements dictated that the vehicle be transportable by C-130 aircraft and that it would be able to roll-off manned and ready to fight.[9]

The Stryker's suitability for C-130 transport has lead to criticism that the aircraft's range may not meet the 1,000-mile goal. The aircraft's range depends variables such as on C-130 variant and conditions at the departure airport.[48] In a demonstration conducted in April 2003, a Stryker infantry company, with 21 Stryker vehicles, was transported by C-130s to another airport 70 miles away.[48] Thus proving the vehicle can be transported by C-130, but this demonstration did not address the concern regarding range and airport departure conditions. In addition, the slat armor, when installed, makes the vehicle too large to fit on a C-130, but RPG protection was not a requirement for C-130 transport.

The Stryker is too heavy (19–26 tons, depending on variant and add-on features) to be lifted by existing helicopters.

In August 2004, the US Air Force successfully air dropped an up-weighted Stryker Engineering Support Vehicle from a C-17.[49] This test was to determine the feasibility of air dropping a Stryker MGS. Even though this test was a success, none of the Stryker variants have been certified for airdrop. As of 2013 work continues in this area with the capability assumed for the Unified Quest war game.[50]

Tactical[edit]

The Stryker can alter the pressure in all eight tires to suit terrain conditions: highway, cross-country, mud/sand/snow, and emergency. The system warns the driver if the vehicle exceeds the recommended speed for its tire pressure, then automatically inflates the tires to the next higher pressure setting. The system can also warn the driver of a flat tire, although the Stryker is equipped with run-flat tire inserts that also serve as bead-locks, allowing the vehicle to move at reduced speeds for several miles before the tire completely deteriorates.

U.S. Army and Indian Army troops with Stryker IFV during a bilateral training exercise

Some criticism of the Stryker continues a decades-long ongoing debate concerning whether tracked or wheeled vehicles are more effective.[51] Conventional tracks have superior off-road mobility, greater load capacity, can pivot a vehicle in place, and are more resistant to battle damage. Wheeled vehicles are easier to maintain, and have higher road speeds. The US Army chose the Stryker over tracked vehicles due to these advantages.[52]

An additional issue is that rollover is a greater risk with the Stryker relative to other transport vehicles, due to its higher center of gravity. The high ground clearance, however, is likely to reduce the damage caused by land mines and improvised explosive devices on the vehicle.[53]

While not amphibious, the Stryker's watertight combat hatch seals allow it to ford water up to the tops of its wheels.

Cost[edit]

The unit cost to purchase the initial Stryker ICVs (without add-ons, including the slat armor) was US$3 million in April 2002.[54] By May 2003, the regular production cost per vehicle was US$1.42 million.[55] In February 2012, the cost had risen to US$4.9 million.[4]

Mission[edit]

Stryker team members deploying from the rear ramp

The Stryker family of vehicles fill a role in the United States Army that is neither heavy nor light, but rather an attempt to create a force that can move infantry to the battlefield quickly and in relative security. Brigades that have been converted to Strykers have primarily been light, or, in the case of the 2nd Cavalry Regiment, unarmored Humvee-based cavalry scouts. For these units, the addition of Strykers has increased combat power by providing armor protection, a vehicle-borne weapon system to support each dismounted squad, and the speed and range to conduct missions far from the operating base.

Stryker units seem to be especially effective in urban areas, where vehicles can establish initial security positions near a building and dismount squads on a doorstep.[56]

The Stryker relies on its speed and communications for the majority of its defense against heavy weapon systems. It is not capable of engaging heavily armored units, relying on communication and other units to control threats outside of its classification. One variant is armed with anti-tank missiles.

Brigades equipped with the Stryker are intended to be strategically mobile (i.e., capable of being rapidly deployed over long distances). As such, the Stryker was intentionally designed with a lower level of protection compared to tracked vehicles like the M2 Bradley, but with much lower logistic requirements.


Service history[edit]

Deployments[edit]

M1126 Stryker ICV on patrol near Mosul, Iraq, 2005
U.S. Army soldiers unload humanitarian aid from their Strykers in the town of Rajan Kala, Afghanistan, 2009

Field reports[edit]

Since the Strykers have been in the current Iraqi conflict, many reports have come back on their performance.

An article by Defense Industry Daily addresses both a negative Washington Post article and the surprise of Project On Government Oversight (POGO) at the positive reviews Stryker got from soldiers who had used it in combat.[58] It includes extensive additional quotes and experiences from soldiers and reporters who have served with Strykers in Iraq, and even a Russian analyst review. It concludes by discussing the broader lessons from these experiences that apply beyond the Stryker itself.[59]

Soldiers and officers who use Strykers defend them as very effective vehicles;[60] a 2005 Washington Post article states that "commanders, soldiers and mechanics who use the Stryker fleet daily in one of Iraq's most dangerous areas unanimously praised the vehicle. The defects outlined in the report were either wrong or relatively minor and did little to hamper the Stryker's effectiveness." In the same article, Col. Robert B. Brown, commander of the 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (Stryker Brigade Combat Team), said that the Strykers saved the lives of at least 100 soldiers deployed in northern Iraq.[61]

The article also states that the bolt-on slat armor is effective ballistic protection, which, at the time of the article, was the main flaw cited by critics. A 2003 GAO report to Congress acknowledges that the suspension is a mobility limitation in wet conditions, especially with the added weight of the slat armor.[62]

Reports from military personnel and analysts indicate the Stryker is superior to other light military vehicles of US Army regarding survivability against IEDs (improvised explosive devices).[63][64] Although soldiers have anecdotally referred to Strykers as "Kevlar Coffins," blogger James Hasik believes that this nickname does not reflect poorly on the vehicle's protection.[65][66]

In 2013 media reports stated that the Stryker Project Management Office had ordered almost $900 million in unneeded or outdated parts due to a failure to control of its inventory during the War on Terror.[67][68]

Variants[edit]

The Stryker chassis' modular design supports a wide range of variants. The main chassis is the Infantry Carrier Vehicle (ICV). There have been no proposals yet for an Air Defense variant along the lines of LAV-25 LAV-AD Blazer turret, M6 Linebacker or AN/TWQ-1 Avenger vehicles.

The Stryker vehicles have the following configurations:[69]

Mobile Gun System
120 mm mortar fired from Stryker MCV-B variant
Interior of Medical Evacuation Vehicle
Anti-Tank Guided Missile Vehicle

Double V-Hull[edit]

In response to poor performance against IEDs, the Army began manufacturing and retrofitting Stryker vehicles with a more survivable double v-hull designed underside. Seven Stryker versions are being produced in this configuration; the M1126 and versions M1129 - M1134. Three variants are not receiving the new hull and will retain their current flat-bottom configuration: the M1127 Reconnaissance Vehicle, the M1128 Mobile Gun System, and the M1135 NBC Reconnaissance Vehicle.[27]

Experimental[edit]

Operators[edit]

Current operator[edit]

Potential operators[edit]

Failed bids[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1 http://www.gdlscanada.com/ full development and manufacturing in Canada bid and shipped to U.S.
  2. ^ Products / LAVs, General Dynamics Land Systems – Canada 
  3. ^ Facilities, General Dynamics Land Systems 
  4. ^ a b United States Department of Defense, Program Acquisition Costs By Weapon System, Office of the Under-Secretary of Defense, 2012, p. 3-6
  5. ^ a b "Army Fact File - Stryker". Retrieved 16 April 2008. 
  6. ^ http://www.tanknutdave.com/component/content/article/101
  7. ^ "Stryker". Eaton.com. Retrieved 2012-08-09. 
  8. ^ "Army Announces Name For Interim Armored Vehicle". U.S. Army. Retrieved 15 August 2007.
  9. ^ a b "Stryker". ArmedForces-int.com. 6 March 2006. 
  10. ^ Captain S. Lucas (8 February 2005), HELL ON WHEELS: The U.S. Army’s Stryker Brigade Combat Team, pp. 1–2 
  11. ^ Army Announces Name For Interim Armored Vehicle
  12. ^ U.S. Army Combat Vehicle Plans Careen From Heavy GCV To “Stryker Lite” - LexingtonInstitute.org, 30 January 2014
  13. ^ "General Dynamics Delivers First Production Stryker MGS Vehicles". generaldynamics.com. Retrieved 13 July 2008. 
  14. ^ http://www.gdlscanada.com/index.php/about-us/locations
  15. ^ Autonomous Navigation System (ANS)
  16. ^ Suspension test report, MillenWorks
  17. ^ Bacchus, Jennifer. "Anniston Army Depot resets 1,000th Stryker." AMC, November 22, 2011.
  18. ^ U.S. Army Stryker Combat Vehicles to be Equipped with Allegheny Technologies' ATI 500-MIL Armor Steel
  19. ^ US Army Outlines Future Improvements for the Stryker. defense-update.com
  20. ^ Brannen, Kate. "U.S. Army 'Moving Rapidly' To Add V-Hull to Strykers". Defense News, 3 March 2010.
  21. ^ Rutherford, Emelie. "Army Weighing Quick Fielding of V-Hull Kits For IED-Prone Strykers". Defense Daily, 4 March 2010. subscription article.
  22. ^ "U.S. Army pushes Stryker modification". UPI, 11 March 2010.
  23. ^ Lee, Richard. "W-Shaped Hull Patent Application Publication".
  24. ^ "US Army Awards GD $30 M For Stryker Double-V Hull Production"
  25. ^ Tiron, Roxana. "Pentagon Tester Says General Dynamics’ New Stryker Needs Fix." Bloomberg News, March 9, 2011.
  26. ^ Ashton, Adam. "JBLM soldiers get experience with new, safer Stryker vehicles." The Olympian, 24 March 2012.
  27. ^ a b c "US Army Moves Ahead with V-Hull Strykers"
  28. ^ "AUSA 2012: US Army Quantifies Stryker Double-V Hull"
  29. ^ "Army to field more 'double-V hull' Strykers"
  30. ^ a b Stryker ECP upgrades - Armyrecognition.com, August 1, 2012.
  31. ^ KONGSBERG Awarded Contract from GDLS Supporting US Army Stryker ECP Program - Kongsberg.com, 9 July 2013
  32. ^ "Army plans radical upgrade of Stryker brigades" - Militarytimes.com, 12 January 2014.
  33. ^ Brannen, Kate. "Chiarelli: GCV usually will not weigh its max". Army Times Publishing Company. Retrieved 21 May 2010. 
  34. ^ 11 by 17.fm
  35. ^ a b "Stryker Armored Vehicle". globalsecurity.org. 
  36. ^ US Army Outlines Future Improvements for the Stryker. defense-update.com
  37. ^ "Stryker Armored Personnel Carrier". defense-update.com. 
  38. ^ a b "M1126 Stryker Infantry Carrier Vehicle". inetres.com. 
  39. ^ Staff Sgt. Marcia Triggs (9 March 2002). "Stryker gets new armor, decreases in weight". US Army. Archived from the original on 23 June 2004. 
  40. ^ Ray Rivera; Hal Bernton (16 September 2003). "Some Stryker tiles fail under fire Maker rushes to fortify vehicles before deployment". Seattle Times. 
  41. ^ "GDLS-C provides $39.5 Million order to DEW for Stryker Armour" (Press release). DEW Engineering. 15 January 2010. 
  42. ^ Bradford, SPC. Lindsey M. (6 June 2008), General Lee rides again, US Army 
  43. ^ "Slat Armour for Stryker". defense-update.com. 
  44. ^ Clay Wilson (25 September 2006), Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress 
  45. ^ "Stryker increases troops’ survivability". U.S. Army 40th Public Affairs Detachment, 3 Jan. 2007.
  46. ^ Army Looks to Mount 30mm Cannons on Strykers - Military.com, 20 September 2013
  47. ^ Army to Test Kongsberg’s New Gun on Stryker - Defensetech.org, 21 October 2013
  48. ^ a b "Fielding of Army's Stryker Vehicles Is Well Under Way, but Expectations for Their Transportability by C-130 Aircraft Need to Be Clarified". GAO. August 2004. Retrieved 9 August 2004. 
  49. ^ "Stryker airdrop test". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 12 July 2008. 
  50. ^ "War Game Exposes Gaps for U.S. Army."
  51. ^ Paul Hornback (March/April 1998). The Wheel versus Track dilemma. Armor. pp. 33–34. 
  52. ^ "GAO Denies protest in choosing the Stryker over the M113 and M8". GAO. Retrieved 13 July 2008. 
  53. ^ "GDELS briefs on evaluation of the PIRANHA armoured wheeled vehicle system at EUROSATORY 2008" (Press release). General Dynamics European Land Systems. 16 June 2008. p. 2. 
  54. ^ Jeffrey St. Clair: the General, GM and the Stryker
  55. ^ "GAO Compares Stryker to M113A3". GAO. p. 20. Retrieved 13 July 2008. 
  56. ^ Army of Dude: Three Sixty Five
  57. ^ Hal Bernton and Nancy A. Youssef. "8 U.S. troops die in Afghanistan, making October worst month". Miami Herald
  58. ^ Tell all the Truth but tell it...slat, Project On Government Oversight, 24 June 2005 
  59. ^ "M1126 Strykers in Combat: Experiences & Lessons", Defense Industry Daily, 11 October 2005 
  60. ^ Gittler, Juliana (10 November 2004), Stryker: Bulky Fighting Vehicle Is Winning Over Once-Skeptical Soldiers, retrieved 10 October 2010 
  61. ^ Fainaru, Steve (2 April 2005). "Soldiers Defend Faulted Strykers". Washington Post. Retrieved 9 October 2010. 
  62. ^ Military Transformation: Army’s Evaluation of Stryker and M-113A3 Infantry Carrier Vehicles Provided Sufficient Data for Statutorily Mandated Comparison, GAO, May 2003 
  63. ^ Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures, Congressional Research Service, Sept. 25 2006.
  64. ^ Stryker increases troops’ survivability, U.S. Army 40th Public Affairs Detachment, Jan. 3, 2007.
  65. ^ Carter, Sara A., "'Kevlar Coffin' A Dangerous Ride: Armored troop carriers unsuited for Afghan duty". Washington Times, 5 November 2009, p. 1.
  66. ^ Hasik, James, "Some real numbers on Stryker performance in Afghanistan", 5 November 2009
  67. ^ Ashton, Adam (April 2, 2013). "DOD Inspector General finds $900M stockpile of Stryker parts". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved December 7, 2013. 
  68. ^ "Stryker audit finds muddy repair spending.". The News Tribune, 22 July 2013.
  69. ^ "US Army SBCT Project Management Office". 
  70. ^ J.C. Mathews (12 August 2005). "Latest Stryker variant arrives for duty". Army News Service. 
  71. ^ Stryker Self Propelled (SP) 105mm Indirect Fire. GlobalSecurity.org.
  72. ^ GD develops tracked Stryker - DoDBuzz.com, 25 October 2012.
  73. ^ General Dynamics Tweaks Vehicle Lineup for Cost-Conscious Army - NationalDefenseMagazine.org, 23 October 2012.
  74. ^ Turretless Bradley vs Tracked Stryker - Defense.AOL.com, November 2, 2012
  75. ^ Jane's International Defence Review, June 2006, p. 64-5
  76. ^ General Dynamics Awarded Contract for Stryker Production
  77. ^ a b Iraq Seeks Up to 30 General Dynamics Stryker Vehicles - Bloomberg.com, November 19, 2012
  78. ^ Army to switch 2 heavy brigades to Strykers, 3 October 2009.
  79. ^ Army cutting a Stryker brigade at JBLM - Militarytimes.com, 25 June 2013
  80. ^ http://fbmonitor.com/2011/01/19/%E2%80%98ready-first%E2%80%99-becomes-first-stryker-bct-at-bliss/
  81. ^ "Iraqi military plans major arms purchase". 12 December 2008. 
  82. ^ "Iraq – Light Armored Vehicles" (Press release). Defense Security Cooperation Agency. 10 December 2008. 
  83. ^ "Iraq Buys What It Knows". strategypage.com. 18 December 2008. 
  84. ^ Looking for LAVs in All the Right Places - Defenseindustrydaily.com, December 11, 2008
  85. ^ DSCA news release - DCSA.mil, 25 July 2013
  86. ^ "Dossier". Naval Forces. February 2011. 
  87. ^ Chile: Marines on a look out for new AFV - Dmilt.com, January 16, 2010
  88. ^ A Soldier's Guide to Army Transformation - Building a Direct Fire Unit -
  89. ^ CBC News In Depth, Equipment: Mobile Gun System vs. Leopard tank, Oct 30 2003
  90. ^ Army might buy surplus tanks from Germans, Swiss. CTV News, Oct 31 2006
  91. ^ Arieh O'Sullivan (19 July 2004). "Stryker APC deal tabled for two years". Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 22 July 2004. 

External links[edit]

Official U.S. Army web pages
Other web pages