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Stoning, or lapidation, is a form of capital punishment whereby a group throws stones at a person until death ensues. No individual among the group can be identified as the one who kills the subject, yet everyone involved plainly bears some degree of moral culpability. This is in contrast to the case of a judicial executioner. Slower than other forms of execution, stoning is a form of execution by torture.

Practices and methods of implementation[edit]

The methods for carrying out stoning may vary across different histories and cultures.

For example, the Penal Code of Iran details how stoning punishments are to be carried out for adultery, and even hints in some contexts that the punishment may allow for its victims to avoid death:[1]

Article 102 – An adulterous man shall be buried in a ditch up to near his waist and an adulterous woman up to near her chest and then stoned to death.

Article 103 – In case the person sentenced to stoning escapes the ditch in which they are buried, then if the adultery is proven by testimony then they will be returned for the punishment but if it is proven by their own confession then they will not be returned.

Article 104 – The size of the stone used in stoning shall not be too large to kill the convict by one or two throws and at the same time shall not be too small to be called a stone.

Depending upon the details of the case, the stoning may be initiated by the judge overseeing the matter or by one of the original witnesses to the adultery.[1] Certain religious procedures may also need to be followed both before and after the implementation of a stoning execution.[1]

In history[edit]

An Aztec adulterer being stoned to death; Florentine Codex

Stoning is an ancient form of capital punishment. There are historical reports of stoning from Ancient Greece — Herodotus reports the case of Lycidas in his Histories, Book IX. Stoning is also mentioned in Ancient Greek mythology — Oedipus asks to be stoned to death when he learns that he killed his father.

In Judaism[edit]


The Israelite Torah, which is the first five books of the Hebrew Bible (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy) contained within the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and as such serves as a common religious reference for Judaism. The Torah sentences death by stoning for the following:

Describing the stoning of apostates from Judaism, the Torah states:

If thy brother, the son of thy mother, or thy son, or thy daughter, or the wife of thy bosom, or thy friend, which [is] as thine own soul, entice thee secretly, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, which thou hast not known, thou, nor thy fathers; [Namely], of the gods of the people which [are] round about you, nigh unto thee, or far off from thee, from the [one] end of the earth even unto the [other] end of the earth; Thou shalt not consent unto him, nor hearken unto him; neither shall thine eye pity him, neither shalt thou spare, neither shalt thou conceal him: But thou shalt surely kill him; thine hand shall be first upon him to put him to death, and afterwards the hand of all the people. And thou shalt stone him with stones, that he die; because he hath sought to thrust thee away from the LORD thy God, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage.

Deuteronomy 13:6–10[2]


The Mishna gives the following list of persons who should be stoned.[3][4]

"To the following sinners stoning applies – אלו הן הנסקלין

As God alone was deemed to be the only arbiter in the use of capital punishment, not fallible people, the Sanhedrin made stoning a hypothetical upper limit on the severity of punishment.[5]

Prior to early Christianity, particularly in the Mishnah, doubts were growing in Jewish society about the effectiveness of capital punishment in general (and stoning in particular) in acting as a useful deterrent. Subsequently its use was dissuaded by the central legislators. The Mishnah states:

A Sanhedrin that puts a man to death once in seven years is called destructive. Rabbi Eliezer ben Azariah says that this extends to a Sanhedrin that puts a man to death even once in seventy years. Rabbi Akiba and Rabbi Tarfon say: Had we been in the Sanhedrin none would ever have been put to death. Rabban Simeon ben Gamaliel says: they would have multiplied shedders of blood in Israel.[6]

In the following centuries the leading Jewish sages imposed so many restrictions on the implementation of capital punishment as to make it de facto illegal. The restrictions were to prevent execution of the innocent, and included many conditions for a testimony to be admissible that were difficult to fulfill.

Philosopher Moses Maimonides wrote, "It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent one to death."[7] He was concerned that the law guard its public perception, to preserve its majesty and retain the people's respect. He saw errors of commission as much more threatening to the integrity of law than errors of omission.[8]

Mode of Judgment[edit]

In rabbinic law, capital punishment may only be inflicted by the verdict of a regularly constituted court of three-and-twenty qualified members. There must be the most trustworthy and convincing testimony of at least two qualified eye-witnesses to the crime, who must also depose that the culprit had been forewarned of the criminality and the consequences of his project.[4] The culprit must be a person of legal age and of sound mind, and the crime must be proved to have been committed of the culprit's free will and without the aid of others.

On the day the verdict is pronounced, the convict is led forth to execution. The Torah law (Leviticus 19:18) prescribes, "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself"; and the Rabbis maintain that this love must be extended beyond the limits of social intercourse in life, and applied even to the convicted criminal who, "though a sinner, is still thy brother" (Mak. 3:15; Sanh. 44a): "The spirit of love must be manifested by according him a decent death" (Sanh. 45a, 52a). Torah law provides (Deut. 24:16), "The parents shall not be put to death for the children, neither shall the children be put to death for the parents; every man shall be put to death for his own sins", and rabbinic jurisprudence follows this principle both to the letter and in spirit. A sentence is not attended by confiscation of the convict's goods; the person's possessions descend to their legal heirs.

The Talmud limits the use of the death penalty to Jewish criminals who:

In theory, the Talmudic method of how stoning is to be carried out differs from mob stoning. According to the Jewish Oral Law, after the Jewish criminal has been determined as guilty before the Great Sanhedrin, the two valid witnesses and the sentenced criminal go to the edge of a two story building. From there the two witnesses are to push the criminal off the roof of a two story building. The two-story height is chosen as this height is estimated by the Talmud to effect a quick and painless demise but is not so high that the body will become dismembered. After the criminal has fallen, the two witnesses are to drop a large boulder onto the criminal – requiring both of the witnesses to lift the boulder together. If the criminal did not die from the fall or from the crushing of the large boulder, then any people in the surrounding area are to quickly cause him to die by stoning with whatever rocks they can find.

In Islam[edit]

Islamic Sharia Law is based on the Quran, the hadith, and the biography of the prophet Muhammad, though there is no reference to stoning in the Quran. Shia and Sunni hadith collections differ because scholars from the two traditions differ as to the reliability of the narrators and transmitters and the Imamah. Shi'a sayings related to stoning can be found in Kitab al-Kafi,[10] and Sunni sayings related to stoning can be found in the Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.[11]

Based on these hadiths, in some Muslim countries, such as Afghanistan, Iran, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia, married adulterers will get capital punishment, while not-married adulterers will be flogged 100 times.

The Qur'an forbids all sexual intercourse outside the marital bond as sinful, but makes no distinction between them. The punishment is flogging 100 times for those found guilty.[12] Stoning (rajm) as a punishment for adultery is not mentioned in the Quran (though it is mentioned in Hadith[13]), so some modernist Muslim scholars, like Quran alone Scholars, hold the view that stoning to death is not an Islamic law.[14]

According to the Hanbali jurist Ibn Qudamah, "Muslim jurists are unanimous on the fact that stoning to death is a specified punishment for the married adulterer and adulteress. The punishment is recorded in number of traditions and the practice of Muhammad stands as an authentic source supporting it. This is the view held by all Companions, Successors and other Muslim scholars with the exception of Kharijites."[15]

Because the word used in the Quran, 'zina', is exactly parallel to the Hebrew 'zanah', which strictly refers to fornication and not adultery (which is 'na'aph'), the Quran may not even be speaking of adultery at all. In that case, the point could be made that the command of the Torah on the punishment of adultery, namely, stoning to death, still stands.[citation needed] However, scholars support stoning for adultery according to hadith, not to Bible as Muslims do not hold the Bible to be reliable.

In hadith (sayings)

Sahih Muslim, Book 17, Chapter 6: Stoning to Death of Jews and Other Dhimmis In Cases of Adultery, Number 4216: Jabir b.'Abdullah reported that Allah's Apostle stoned (to death) a person from Banu Aslam, and a Jew and his wife.[16]

Sahih Bukhari 6.79, Narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar
The Jews brought to the Prophet a man and a woman from among them who had committed illegal sexual intercourse. The Prophet said to them, "How do you usually punish the one amongst you who has committed illegal sexual intercourse?" They replied, "We blacken their faces with coal and beat them." He said, "Don't you find the order of Ar-Rajm (i.e. stoning to death) in the Torah?" They replied, "We do not find anything in it." 'Abdullah bin Salam (after hearing this conversation) said to them, "You have told a lie! Bring here the Torah and recite it if you are truthful." (So the Jews brought the Torah). And the religious teacher who was teaching it to them, put his hand over the Verse of Ar-Rajm and started reading what was written above and below the place hidden with his hand, but he did not read the Verse of Ar-Rajm. 'Abdullah bin Salam removed his (i.e. the teacher's) hand from the Verse of Ar-Rajm and said, "What is this?" So when the Jews saw that Verse, they said, "This is the Verse of Ar-Rajm." So the Prophet ordered the two adulterers to be stoned to death, and they were stoned to death near the place where biers used to be placed near the Mosque. I saw her companion (i.e. the adulterer) bowing over her so as to protect her from the stones.[17]

Sahih Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 50: Conditions, Number 885: Narrated Abu Huraira and Zaid bin Khalid Al-Juhani: A bedouin came to Allah's Apostle and said, "O Allah's apostle! I ask you by Allah to judge My case according to Allah's Laws." His opponent, who was more learned than he, said, "Yes, judge between us according to Allah's Laws, and allow me to speak." Allah's Apostle said, "Speak." He (i .e. the bedouin or the other man) said, "My son was working as a laborer for this (man) and he committed illegal sexual intercourse with his wife. The people told me that it was obligatory that my son should be stoned to death, so in lieu of that I ransomed my son by paying one hundred sheep and a slave girl. Then I asked the religious scholars about it, and they informed me that my son must be lashed one hundred lashes, and be exiled for one year, and the wife of this (man) must be stoned to death." Allah's Apostle said, "By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, I will judge between you according to Allah's Laws. The slave-girl and the sheep are to be returned to you, your son is to receive a hundred lashes and be exiled for one year. You, Unais, go to the wife of this (man) and if she confesses her guilt, stone her to death." Unais went to that woman next morning and she confessed. Allah's Apostle ordered that she be stoned to death.[18]

Usage today[edit]

As of September 2010, stoning is a punishment that is included in the laws in some countries including Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Iran, Yemen and some states in Nigeria[19] as punishment for zina al-mohsena ("adultery of married persons").[20]

While stoning may not be codified in the laws of Afghanistan and Somalia, both countries have seen several incidents of stoning to death.[21][22]

Many Muslim clerics, religious scholars, and political leaders—including those in the countries where stoning is practiced—have condemned stoning as “un-Islamic”, as it is not explicitly mentioned in the Quran.[20]


Before the Taliban government, most areas of Afghanistan, aside from the capital, Kabul, were controlled locally by warlords or tribal leaders and the Afghan legal system depended highly on an individual community's local culture and the political and/or religious ideology of its leaders. Stoning also occurred in lawless areas, where vigilantes committed the act for political purposes. Once the Taliban took over, stoning became the official punishment for many crimes. The U.S.-led occupation ended stoning as an official court ruling, but it still occurs unofficially.[23][24] A Taliban-ordered public stoning of a couple accused of adultery took place in Kunduz on August 15, 2010.[25]


In October 2013, the Sultan of Brunei announced that stoning, along with flogging and amputations, would be added to the country's laws in accordance with Sharia Law. [26]


On 14 September 2009, the outgoing Aceh Legislative Council passed a bylaw that called for the stoning of married adulterers.[27] However, then governor Irwandi Yusuf refused to sign the bylaw, thereby keeping it a law without legal force and, in some views, therefore still a law draft, rather than actual law.[28] In March 2013, the Aceh government removed the stoning provision from its own draft of a new criminal code.[29]


In 2007, Du'a Khalil Aswad, a Yezidi girl, was stoned by her fellow tribesmen in northern Iraq.[30]


The Iranian judiciary officially placed a moratorium on stoning in 2002.[31] In 2005, judiciary spokesman Jamal Karimirad stated, "in the Islamic republic, we do not see such punishments being carried out", further adding that if stoning sentences were passed by lower courts, they were overruled by higher courts and "no such verdicts have been carried out."[32] In 2008, the judiciary decided to fully scrap the punishment from the books in legislation submitted to parliament for approval.[33] In early 2013, Iranian parliament published official report about excluding stoning from penal code and it accused Western media for spreading "noisy propaganda" about the case.[34] On April 2013 it was announced that stoning remains on the criminal code of Iran after the Guardian Council had reviewed and rejected the law draft to scrap the punishment.[35]


In July 2012, a couple who had sex outside marriage was stoned to death by Islamists in the town of Aguelhok in northern Mali.[36]


Since the Sharia legal system was introduced in the predominantly Muslim north of Nigeria in 2000, more than a dozen Nigerian Muslims have been sentenced to death by stoning for sexual offences ranging from adultery to homosexuality. However, none of these sentences has actually been carried out. They have either been thrown out on appeal or commuted to prison terms as a result of pressure from human rights groups.[37][38][39]


Stonings in Pakistan, while rare, are relatively not that uncommon especially in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). In March 2013, Pakistani soldier Anwar Din, stationed in Parachinar, was publicly stoned to death for allegedly having a romantic affair with a girl from a village in the country's north western Kurram Agency.[40] On 11 July 2013, Arifa Bibi, a young mother of two, was sentenced by a tribal court in Dera Ghazi Khan District, in Punjab, to be stoned to death for possessing a cell phone. Members of her family were ordered to execute her sentence and her body was buried in the desert far away from her village.[41][42]

Saudi Arabia, Sudan[edit]

Stonings, with and without legal proceedings, have been reported in Sudan and Saudi Arabia.[43]

In May 2012, a Sudanese court convicted Intisar Sharif Abdallah of adultery and sentenced her to death; the charges were appealed and dropped two months later.[44] In July 2012, a criminal court in Khartoum, Sudan, sentenced 23-year-old Layla Ibrahim Issa Jumul to death by stoning for adultery.[45] Amnesty International reported that she was denied legal counsel during the trial and was convicted only on the basis of her confession. The organization designated her a prisoner of conscience, "held in detention solely for consensual sexual relations", and lobbied for her release.[44]


In October 2008, a girl, Aisha Ibrahim Duhulow, was buried up to her neck at a Somalian football stadium, then stoned to death in front of more than 1,000 people. The stoning occurred after she had allegedly pleaded guilty to adultery in a sharia court in Kismayo, a city controlled by Islamist insurgents. According to the insurgents she had stated that she wanted sharia law to apply.[46] However, other sources state that the victim had been crying, that she begged for mercy and had to be forced into the hole before being buried up to her neck in the ground.[47] Amnesty International later learned that the girl was in fact 13 years old and had been arrested by al-Shabab militia after she had reported being gang-raped by three men.[48]

In December 2009, another instance of stoning was publicised after Mohamed Abukar Ibrahim was accused of adultery by the Hizbul Islam militant group.[49]


Support for stoning[edit]

A survey carried out by the Indonesia Survey Institute found that 43% of Indonesians support Rajam or stoning for adulterers.[50]

A survey conducted by the Pew Research Center found relatively widespread popular support for stoning as a punishment for adultery in Egypt (82% of respondents in favor of the punishment), Jordan (70% in favor), Indonesia (42% in favor), Pakistan (82% favor) and Nigeria (56% in favor).[51]

Groups against stoning[edit]

Stoning has been condemned by several human rights organizations. Some groups, such as Amnesty International[52] and Human Rights Watch, oppose all capital punishment, including stoning. Other groups, such as RAWA (Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan), or the International Committee against Stoning (ICAS), oppose stoning per se as an especially cruel practice.

Specific sentences of stoning, such as the Amina Lawal case, have often generated international protest. Groups such as Human Rights Watch,[53] while in sympathy with these protests, have raised a concern that the Western focus on stoning as an especially "exotic" or "barbaric" act distracts from what they view as the larger problems of capital punishment. They argue that the "more fundamental human rights issue in Nigeria is the dysfunctional justice system."

In Iran, the Stop Stoning Forever Campaign was formed by various women's rights activists after a man and a woman were stoned to death in Mashhad in May 2006. The campaign's main goal is to legally abolish stoning as a form of punishment for adultery in Iran.[54]

Cases of stoning or attempts at stoning[edit]

The stoning of St. Stephen (1863) by Gabriel-Jules Thomas

People stoned in religious texts[edit]

In the Tanakh (Old Testament):

In the New Testament:

In the Talmud

People who were almost stoned in religious texts[edit]

In the Tanakh and Old Testament:

In the New Testament:

Historical cases not mentioned above[edit]


People who were almost stoned[edit]

In literature[edit]

In film and television[edit]

Although Islamic law prescribes stoning for married adulterers, the television series Sleeper Cell, about an underground radical Islamist group, depicts a scene where a member is stoned for treason.

See also[edit]



  1. ^ a b c
  2. ^ Deuteronomy 13:6–10
  3. ^ Sanhedrin Chapter 7, p. 53a [1], in Hebrew: [2]
  4. ^ a b "Capital Punishment". Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  5. ^ Jerusalem Talmud (Sanhedrin 41 a)
  6. ^ makkot 1:10 March 11, 2008
  7. ^ Moses Maimonides, Sefer Hamitzvot, Negative Commandment no. 290.
  8. ^ Moses Maimonides, The Commandments, Neg. Comm. 290, at 269–71 (Charles B. Chavel trans., 1967).
  9. ^ "Ask the Orthodox Rabbi – Adultery in Judaism – Capital Punishment – Death Penalty". 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ Quran (24:2)
  13. ^ Hadith Muslim 17:4192. Also, see the following: Bukhari 6:60:79, Bukhari 83:37, Muslim 17:4196, Muslim 17:4206, Muslim 17:4209, Ibn Ishaq 970.
  14. ^
  15. ^ "Stoning: Does It Have Any Basis in Shari`ah?". Retrieved 2010-07-25. 
  16. ^ Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement. "Sahih Bukhari, Book 17: Book of Punishments, Chapter 6: Stoning To Death Of Jews And Other Dhimmis In Case of Adultery". Retrieved 2010-07-25. 
  17. ^ Hadith - Sahih Bukhari 6.79, Narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar -
  18. ^ Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement. "Sahih Bukhari, Book 50: Conditions". Retrieved 2010-07-25. 
  19. ^ Handley, Paul (11 Sep 2010). "Islamic countries under pressure over stoning". AFP. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  20. ^ a b "Frequently Asked Questions about Stoning". violence is not our culture. Retrieved 14 May 2013. 
  21. ^ Sommerville, Quentin (26 Jan 2011). "Afghan police pledge justice for Taliban stoning". BBC. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  22. ^ Nebehay, Stephanie (10 Jul 2009). "Pillay accuses Somali rebels of possible war crimes". Times of India. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  23. ^ "Afghan Police Probe Woman Stoning Over Adultery". SpiritHit News via April 25, 2005. Retrieved 2010-09-23. 
  24. ^ The Hindu, "Taliban stones couple to death in northern Afghanistan", Dubai, August 16, 2010,
  25. ^ "Taliban Stone Couple for Adultery in Afghanistan". Fox News. Associated Press. August 16, 2010. Retrieved August 16, 2010. 
  26. ^
  27. ^ Katie Hamann Aceh's Sharia Law Still Controversial in Indonesia Voice of America 29 December 2009, and: In Enforcing Shariah Law, Religious Police in Aceh on Hemline Frontline Jakarta Globe, December 28, 2009
  28. ^ Aceh Stoning Law Hits a New Wall The Jakarta Globe, 12th October 2009
  29. ^ Aceh Government Removes Stoning Sentence From Draft Bylaw, Jakarta Globe 12 March 2013
  30. ^ "Iraq: Amnesty International appalled by stoning to death of Yezidi girl and subsequent killings". Amnesty International. April 27, 2007.  Archived June 6, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ "Iran 'adulterer' stoned to death". BBC News. 10 July 2007. Archived from the original on 3 December 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012. 
  32. ^ "Iran denies execution by stoning". BBC News. 11 January 2005. Retrieved 2010-09-23. 
  33. ^ "Iran to scrap death by stoning". AFP. August 6, 2008. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  34. ^ «سنگسار» در شرع حذف شدنی نیست
  35. ^ Iran aims to keep stoning as punishment for adultery, rights group says
  36. ^ "Mali unwed couple stoned to death by Islamists". BBC. 2012-07-30. 
  37. ^ Jacinto, Leela (18 Mar 2011). "Nigerian Woman Fights Stoning Death". ABC News International. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  38. ^ "Gay Nigerians face Sharia death". BBC News. 10 Aug 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  39. ^ Coleman, Sarah (Dec 2003). "Nigeria: Stoning Suspended". World Press. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  40. ^ "Pak soldier publicly stoned to death for love affair". MSNBC. 2013-03-13. 
  41. ^ Batha, Emma (29 September 2013). "Special report: The punishment was death by stoning. The crime? Having a mobile phone". The Independent. Retrieved October 4, 2013. 
  42. ^ "Woman Stoned to Death on Panchayat's Orders". Pakistan Today (Lahore). 10 July 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013. 
  43. ^ "Abolish Stoning and Barbaric Punishment Worldwide!". International Society for Human Rights. Retrieved 2010-09-23. 
  44. ^ a b "Sudan –End stoning, reform the criminal law". Sudan Tribune. 30 July 2012. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  45. ^ "Sudan: Amnesty International e Italians for Darfur mobilitati contro lapidazione di Layla" (in Italian). LiberoReporter. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. 
  46. ^ "Somali woman executed by stoning". BBC News. 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-10-31. 
  47. ^ "Stoning victim 'begged for mercy'". BBC News. 2008-11-04. Retrieved 2010-05-24. 
  48. ^ "Somalia: Girl stoned was a child of 13". Amnesty International. 2008-10-31. Retrieved 2008-10-31. 
  49. ^ "Pictured: Islamic militants stone man to death for adultery in Somalia as villagers are forced to watch". London: Daily Mail. 2009-12-14. Retrieved 2009-12-14. 
  50. ^ Trend Dukungan Nilai Islamis versus Nilai Sekular di Indonesia Lembaga Survei Indonesia 05/10/2007
  51. ^ Muslim Publics Divided on Hamas and Hezbollah Retrieved 2011-06-02
  52. ^ "Amina Lawal: Sentenced to death for adultery". Amnesty International. 2003. 
  53. ^ "Nigeria: Debunking Misconceptions on Stoning Case". Human Rights Watch. 2003. 
  54. ^ Rochelle Terman (November 2007). "The Stop Stoning Forever Campaign: A Report" (pdf). Retrieved 2010-09-23. 
  55. ^ Bruce Chilton, Craig A. Evans Studying the historical Jesus 1998 Page 447 "There are three among these that merit some attention: (1) "And it is tradition: On the eve of Passover ... And the herald went forth before him for forty days, 'Yeshu ha-Nosri is to be stoned, because he has practiced magic and enticed and led Israel astray. Any one who knows anything in his favor, let him come and speak concerning him."
  56. ^ Marisela Ortega (29 September 2010). "Man, sons convicted of stoning El Paso woman to death in Juárez". El Paso Times. Retrieved 2010-10-13. 
  57. ^ Cyntia Barrera (27 September 2007). "Small-town mayor stoned to death in western Mexico". Reuters AlertNet. Retrieved 2010-10-13. 
  58. ^ David Badash (18 March 2011). "70 Year-Old Stoned to Death Because the Bible Says to Stone Gays". The New Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved 2011-03-23. 
  59. ^ "Sharia court frees Nigerian woman", 25 March 2002, BBC News
  60. ^ Top 10 Amazing Execution Survival Stories
  61. ^ Action to prevent second stoning of Zoleykhah Kadkhoda
  62. ^ Perry, Simon (2011). All Who Came Before. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock. pp. 143–145. ISBN 978-1-60899-659-9. 
  63. ^ "Iran TV: 'Evil' Jews stoning Christians". January 5, 2005. 
  64. ^ "A Stoning in Fulham County". release date 1988. 
  65. ^ "The Lottery". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2010-09-23. 

External links[edit]