Stone Mountain

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Stone Mountain
Stonemtn2.jpg
View of Stone Mountain
Elevation1,686 ft (514 m)
Prominence825 ft (251 m)
Location
LocationStone Mountain, Georgia, USA
RangeNone
Coordinates33°48′21.40″N 84°8′43.52″W / 33.805944°N 84.1454222°W / 33.805944; -84.1454222Coordinates: 33°48′21.40″N 84°8′43.52″W / 33.805944°N 84.1454222°W / 33.805944; -84.1454222
Topo mapUSGS Stone Mountain, GA
 
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Stone Mountain
Stonemtn2.jpg
View of Stone Mountain
Elevation1,686 ft (514 m)
Prominence825 ft (251 m)
Location
LocationStone Mountain, Georgia, USA
RangeNone
Coordinates33°48′21.40″N 84°8′43.52″W / 33.805944°N 84.1454222°W / 33.805944; -84.1454222Coordinates: 33°48′21.40″N 84°8′43.52″W / 33.805944°N 84.1454222°W / 33.805944; -84.1454222
Topo mapUSGS Stone Mountain, GA
Panoramic view from the top
The mountain and carving

Stone Mountain is a quartz monzonite dome monadnock in Stone Mountain, Georgia, United States. At its summit, the elevation is 1,686 feet (513 m) amsl and 825 feet (251.5 m) above the surrounding area. Stone Mountain granite extends underground 9 miles (14 km) at its longest point into Gwinnett County. Numerous reference books and Georgia literature have dubbed Stone Mountain as “the largest exposed piece of granite in the world". This misnomer is most likely a result of advertisement by granite companies and early park administration. Stone Mountain, though often called a pink granite dome, actually ranges in composition from quartz monzonite[1] to granite and granodiorite.[2] Stone Mountain is well-known not only for its geology, but also for the enormous bas-relief on its north face, the largest bas-relief in the world.[3] The carving depicts three figures of the Confederate States of America: Stonewall Jackson, Robert E. Lee, and Jefferson Davis.

Contents

Description

Back of Stone Mountain from the Songbird Habitat and Trail in 2009.
Summit of Stone Mountain, Kennesaw Mountain in Background

The mountain is more than five miles (8 km) in circumference at its base. The summit of the mountain can be reached by a walk-up trail on the west side of the mountain only. The trail starts near the Confederate Hall, inside the west gate entrance. Alternatively, the summit is reachable by the Skyride.

Leaves of the Georgia oak

The top of the mountain is a landscape of bare rock and rock pools, and it provides views of the surrounding area including the skyline of downtown Atlanta, often Kennesaw Mountain, and on very clear days even the Appalachian Mountains. On some days, the top of the mountain is shrouded in a heavy fog, and visibility may be limited to only a few feet. The clear freshwater pools of the summit form by rainwater gathering in eroded depressions, and are home to unusual clam shrimp and fairy shrimp. The tiny shrimp appear only during the rainy season, and it is believed[original research?] that the adult shrimp die when the pools dry up, leaving behind eggs to survive until the next rains.

The mountain's lower slopes are wooded. The rare Georgia oak was first discovered at the summit, and several specimens can easily be found along the walk-up trail and in the woods around the base of the mountain. In the fall, the extremely rare Confederate Yellow Daisy (Helianthus porteri) flowers appear on the mountain, growing in rock crevices and in the large wooded areas.

Geology

Stone Mountain is a pluton, a type of igneous intrusion. Primarily composed of quartz monzonite, the dome of Stone Mountain was formed during the formation of the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains.[citation needed] It formed as a result of the upwelling of magma from within the Earth's crust. This magma solidified to form granite within the crust five to ten miles below the surface.

The granite is composed of quartz, feldspar, microcline and muscovite, with smaller amounts of biotite and tourmaline. Embedded in the granite are xenoliths or pieces of foreign rocks entrained in the magma.

The granite intruded into the metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont region during the last stages of the Alleghenian Orogeny, which was the time when North America and North Africa collided. Over time, erosion eventually exposed the present mountain of more resistant igneous rock, in processes similar to those that have exposed Devils Tower National Monument in Wyoming. This vein of granite also gave rise to Arabia Mountain and Panola Mountain in DeKalb County, smaller outcroppings further east of Stone Mountain.

The mountain's composition was described by one political commentator—and used as such as a simile for racial segregation in the 1950s—as "soft, exfoliating rock [which] turns to dust under the hammer."[4]

Confederate Memorial

Close-up of carving

The largest bas relief sculpture in the world, the Confederate Memorial Carving depicts three Confederate leaders of the Civil War, President Jefferson Davis and Generals Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson (and their favorite horses, "Blackjack", "Traveller", and "Little Sorrel", respectively). The entire carved surface measures 3 acres (12,000 m2), about the size of two and a quarter football fields. The carving of the three men towers 400 feet (120 m) above the ground, measures 90 by 190 feet (58 m), and is recessed 42 feet (13 m) into the mountain. The deepest point of the carving is at Lee's elbow, which is 12 feet (3.7 m) to the mountain's surface.

The carving was conceived by Mrs. C. Helen Plane, a charter member of the United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC). The Venable family, owners of the mountain, deeded the north face of the mountain to the UDC in 1916. The UDC was given 12 years to complete a sizable Civil War monument. Gutzon Borglum was commissioned to do the carving.

Borglum abandoned the project in 1923 (and later went on to begin Mount Rushmore). American sculptor Augustus Lukeman continued until 1928, when further work stopped for thirty years.

In 1958, at the urging of Governor Marvin Griffin, the Georgia legislature approved a measure to purchase Stone Mountain for $1,125,000. In 1963, Walker Hancock was selected to complete the carving, and work began in 1964. The carving was completed by Roy Faulkner, who later operated a museum (now closed) on nearby Memorial Drive commemorating the carving's history. The carving was considered complete[5] on March 3, 1972.

Carving and the Ku Klux Klan

William J. Simmons founded the reborn Klan atop Stone Mountain in 1915
Atlanta Constitution clipping Nov. 28, 1915 describing the Klan re-establishment atop Stone Mountain

Ku Klux Klan activities at Stone Mountain are deep-rooted, although the original conception of the memorial pre-dates the 1915 revival of the Klan. The revival of the Ku Klux Klan was emboldened by the release of D. W. Griffith's Klan-glorifying film The Birth of a Nation,[6] and by the lynching of Leo Frank, who was convicted in the murder of Mary Phagan.[7] On November 25, 1915, a group of robed and hooded men met at Stone Mountain to create a new incarnation of the Klan. They were led by William J. Simmons, and they included a group calling itself the Knights of Mary Phagan. A cross was lit, and the oath was administered by Nathan Bedford Forrest II, the grandson of the original Imperial Grand Wizard, Gen. Nathan B. Forrest, and was witnessed by the owner of Stone Mountain, Samuel Venable.

Fundraising for the monument resumed in 1923, and in October of that year, Venable granted the Klan easement with perpetual right to hold celebrations as they desired.[8] Because of their deep involvement with the early fund-raising and their increasing political clout in Georgia,[9] the Klan, along with the United Daughters of the Confederacy, were able to influence the ideology of the carving, and they strongly supported an explicitly Confederate memorial. Of the $250,000 raised, part came directly from the Ku Klux Klan [9] but part came from the federal government, which in 1924 issued special fifty-cent coins with Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson on them.

Martin Luther King, Jr. mentioned the monument in his 1963 "I Have a Dream" speech in Washington, D.C., when he said "let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia!"[10] Granite suppliers in Georgia sent samples cut from Stone Mountain to the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Foundation to be considered for use in a planned monument in King's honor; the Foundation later chose to use granite imported from China.[3]

History

Human habitation of Stone Mountain and its surroundings date back into prehistory. When the mountain was first encountered by European explorers, its summit was encircled by a rock wall, similar to that still to be found on Georgia's Fort Mountain. The wall is believed to have been built by early Native American inhabitants of the area, although its purpose is still unclear. By the beginning of the 20th century the wall had disappeared, the rocks having been taken away by early visitors as souvenirs, rolled down the rockface, or removed by the commercial quarrying operation. The mountain was as well the eastern end of the Campbelton Trail, a Native American path that ran through what is now the Atlanta area.

Europeans first learned of the mountain in 1597, when Spanish explorers were told of a mountain further inland which was "very high, shining when the sun set like a fire." By this time, the Stone Mountain area was inhabited by the Creek and (to a lesser extent) Cherokee peoples. In 1790 the mountain was the site of a meeting initiated by President George Washington in hopes of negotiating a peace treaty with the Creek. Instead a series of wars ensued, and the Creek were forced to cede the land to the state of Georgia in 1821.

In the early 19th century, the area was known as Rock Mountain. After the founding of DeKalb County and the county seat of Decatur in 1822 Stone Mountain was a natural recreation area; it was common for young men to take their dates on horseback from Decatur to the mountain.

Entrepreneur Aaron Cloud built a 165 foot (50 m) wooden observation tower at the summit of the mountain in 1838, but it was destroyed by a storm and replaced by a much smaller tower in 1851. Visitors to the mountain would travel to the area by rail and road, and then walk up the 1.1 mile mountaintop trail to the top, where Cloud also had a restaurant and club.

Granite quarrying started at Stone Mountain in the 1830s, but became a major industry following the completion of a railroad spur to the quarry site in 1847. This line was rebuilt by the Georgia Railroad in 1869. Over the years, Stone Mountain granite was used in many buildings and structures, including the locks of the Panama Canal, the steps to the East Wing of the United States Capitol and the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo. Unfortunately, quarrying also destroyed several spectacular geological features on Stone Mountain, such as the Devil's Crossroads, which was located on top of the mountain.

In 1887 Stone Mountain was purchased for $45,000 by the Venable Brothers of Atlanta, who quarried the mountain for 24 more years, and descendents of the Venable family would retain ownership of the mountain until it was purchased by the State of Georgia in the 1950s.

Stone Mountain was the setting for the 1915 revival of the Ku Klux Klan. The mountain was the site of annual Klan rallies from 1931 until 1981.[11]

During the 1996 Summer Olympics, Stone Mountain Park provided venues for Olympic events in tennis, archery and track cycling.[12][13] The venues for archery and cycling were temporary and are now part of the songbird and habitat trail.[14]

Aviation accidents

Grist Mill at Stone Mountain

According to George Weiblen's annotated calendar for Monday, May 7, 1928: "Mail plane crashed on mountain at 8:00 P.M."

Around dusk on September 16, 2003, in clear weather, a small airplane circled the mountain five times, then crashed headlong into the south side, bursting into flames and killing the pilot. A witness testifying at the NTSB investigation stated that the pilot, a 69-year-old accountant, had threatened on multiple occasions to commit suicide by flying into the mountain. The official NTSB accident report lists the probable cause as "The pilot's intentional flight into the ground for the purpose of suicide while impaired by alcohol."[15]

Governance

Stone Mountain Park, which surrounds the Confederate Memorial, is owned by the state of Georgia and managed by the Stone Mountain Memorial Association, a Georgia state authority. The Herschend Family Entertainment Corporation currently has a long-term contract to operate park attractions while the Stone Mountain Memorial Association retains ownership and the right to reject any project deemed unfit.

Places of interest

Covered Bridge at Stone Mountain

Confederate Hall, operated directly by the Stone Mountain Memorial Association or SMMA, is a museum that educates students and park guests on the geology and ecology of Stone Mountain as well as historical aspects of the area. A small theater shows a historical documentary about the Civil War in Georgia called "The Battle for Georgia".

Stone Mountain Scenic Railroad depot (1971 photograph)
Carillon at Stone Mountain Park; January 2012

The education department is host to thousands of students each school year teaching the subjects of geology, ecology, and history. Classes are designed to meet the Georgia Performance Standards and the North American Association for Environmental Education guidelines.

Pavilion and transmitting tower at the summit of Stone Mountain

The Antebellum Plantation and Farmyard is an open air museum composed of 19 historic buildings, built between 1790 and 1875, which have been re-erected to the site to represent a pre-Civil War Georgia plantation. The historic houses have been furnished with an extensive collection of period furniture and decorations. The farm features live animals that guests can pet.

A 732-bell carillon that originated at the 1964 New York World's Fair, provides a daily concert.

A covered bridge, dating from 1892, which originally spanned the Oconee River in Athens, Georgia.

A grist mill, dating from 1869 and moved to the park in 1965.

Broadcast tower

The mountain top and Skyride

The short broadcast tower on the top of the mountain transmits two non-commercial stations: television station WGTV TV 8, and weather radio station KEC80 on 162.55 MHz. FM radio station WABE FM 90.1 was located on this tower from 1984 until 2005, when it was required to relocate to accommodate WGTV's digital conversion.[citation needed] W266BW FM 101.1 now has a permit as well.

Scenic Railroad

Stone Mountain Trails

Stone Mountain walk-up trail

Walk Up Trail: A 1.3-mile (2.1 km) trail to the top of Stone Mountain ascending 786 ft (240 m) in elevation to a height of 1,686 ft (514 m). The trail is steep, but spectacular panoramic views and cool winds await tired hikers at the top.

Cherokee Trail: A 5-mile (8.0 km) National Recreation Trail, the Cherokee Trail loops around the mountain base, with a mile section going up and over the west side of the mountain (crosses Walk Up Trail). Primarily passes through an oak-hickory forest, but views of the lakes, streams, and mountain are common. map of Cherokee Trail

Nature Garden Trail: A scenic 3/4 mile loop trail through a mature oak-hickory forest community. Excellent for viewing shade-loving native plants. A small garden with interpretive native plant signs is at the entrance to the trail.

Songbird Habitat Trails: Two loop trails each running one mile (1.6 km) in length. The field trail is an excellent birding spot and the woodland trail provides shade and numerous native plants. Dogs are not allowed.

Attractions

Stone Mountain riverboat

The Park features several attractions that are operated by Herschend Family Entertainment Corporation.

On summer evenings the mountain hosts the Stone Mountain Laser Show Spectacular, which uses popular and classic music to entertain park guests with a large fireworks and laser light display. The colorful lightshow of lasers project moving images of the Deep South as well as Georgia history onto the Confederate Memorial carving on the side of the mountain. The American Civil War is acknowledged, but the strength of a reunited country concludes the message, with Sandi Patti singing the Star Spangled Banner. There are still old favorites included with the show, “Devil Went down to Georgia”, “Celestial Soda Pop”, and “Trilogy”. There have been several additions to the show for its 25th anniversary.

The Skyride is a Swiss-built cable car to the summit of the mountain which passes by the carving on the way up.

The Riverboat offers a scenic cruise aboard a reproduction Mississippi riverboat on 363 acre (147 ha) Stone Mountain Lake. (UPDATE: The Riverboat, which used to be one of Stone Mountain Park's attractions to all guests, is now available for events only.)

Crossroads is a recreation of an 1872 southern town with several attractions including a modern 4-D movie theater, an adventure mini-golf course, a duck tour ride, stores and restaurants. Crafts demonstrators include glass blowing and candy making. Other attractions in this area include:

The Great Barn is a children's activity area that features 65 interactive games, climbing structures, trampoline floors, slides and more.

Sky Hike is a family ropes adventure course. Guests can choose their own path and level of challenge.

See also

References

  1. ^ Herrmann, L.A. 1954. Geology of the Stone Mountain-Lithonia District, Georgia. Georgia Geological Survey Bulletin 61. Atlanta, GA.
  2. ^ Grant, W.H. 1962. Field excursion, Stone Mountain-Lithonia district. Georgia Geologic Survey Guidebook 2. Atlanta, Georgia
  3. ^ "Stone Mountain." georgia.gov, retrieved February 2007.
  4. ^ "The Counter Revolution" OpEd by Howell Raines, The New York Times, January 31, 2010 (in print Feb. 1, 2010, p. A19 NY ed.).
  5. ^ "Stone Mountain History", stonemountainpark.org; retrieved February 2007
  6. ^ A Painful Present as Historians Confront a Nation's Bloody Past
  7. ^ Wade, Wyn Craig. The Fiery Cross: The Ku Klux Klan in America. New York: Simon and Schuster (1987); Horn, Stanley F. Invisible Empire: The Story of the Ku Klux Klan, 1866-1871, Patterson Smith Publishing Corporation: Montclair, NJ, 1939.
  8. ^ [1] Sims, Patsy. "The Klan". University Press of Kentucky (1978).
  9. ^ a b [2] "Stone Mountain Carving" from About North Georgia, http://ngeorgia.com
  10. ^ King, Martin Luther, Jr (28 August 1963). "I have a Dream". Lillian Goldman Law Library. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/mlk01.asp. Retrieved 8 October 2011. "let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia!" 
  11. ^ Greene, Melissa Fay (2006). The Temple Bombing. Da Capo Press. pp. 288–289. ISBN 978-0-306-81518-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=4QOhP2rvDp8C&pg=PA289&dq=%22stone+mountain%22+klan+rallies#v=onepage&q=%22stone%20mountain%22%20klanrallies&f=false. 
  12. ^ 1996 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. p. 543.
  13. ^ 1996 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 3. pp. 448, 453.
  14. ^ Driving Map: Stone Mountain Park (2009). Pamphlet. Stone Mountain, Georgia: Stone Mountain Park.
  15. ^ NTSB Accident Report: Stone Mountain, 16 September 2003.

Further reading

External links

Media related to Stone Mountain at Wikimedia Commons