Steven M. Wise

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Steven M. Wise (born 1952) is an American legal scholar who specializes in animal protection issues, primatology, and animal intelligence. He teaches animal rights law at Harvard Law School, Vermont Law School, John Marshall Law School, Lewis & Clark Law School, and Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine. He is a former president of the Animal Legal Defense Fund, and founder and president of the Nonhuman Rights Project.[1] The Yale Law Journal has called him "one of the pistons of the animal rights movement."[2]

Wise is the author of An American Trilogy (2009), in which he tells the story of how a piece of land in Tar Heel, North Carolina, was first the home of Native Americans until they were driven into near-extinction, then a slave plantation, and finally the site of factory hog farms and the world's largest slaughterhouse. Though the Heavens May Fall (2005), recounts the 1772 trial in England of James Somersett, a black man rescued from a ship heading for the West Indies slave markets, which gave impetus to the movement to abolish slavery in Britain and the United States (see Somersett's Case). Drawing the Line (2002), which describes the relative intelligence of animals and human beings. And Rattling the Cage (2000), in which he argues that certain basic legal rights should be extended to chimpanzees and bonobos.[1]


Wise received his undergraduate education at the College of William & Mary. While at William & Mary, Wise first became interested in politics through his involvement in the anti-Vietnam War movement.[3] Wise was awarded his J.D from Boston University in 1976, and became a personal injury lawyer. He was inspired to move into the area of animal rights after reading Peter Singer's Animal Liberation (1975),[4] often referred to as the bible of the animal liberation movement. A practicing animal protection attorney, he is president of the nonprofit Nonhuman Rights Project, where he directs its Nonhuman Rights Project, the purpose of which is to obtain basic common law rights for at least some nonhuman animals. He lives in Coral Springs, Florida.

Animal personhood[edit]

Wise's position on animal rights is that some animals, particularly primates, meet the criteria of legal personhood, and should therefore be awarded certain rights and protections. His criteria for personhood are that the animal must be able to desire things, to act in an intentional manner to acquire those things, and must have a sense of self i.e. the animals must know that s/he exists. Wise argues that chimpanzees, bonobos, elephants, parrots, dolphins, orangutans, and gorillas meet these criteria.[4]

Wise argues that these animals should have legal personhood bestowed upon them to protect them from "serious infringements upon their bodily integrity and bodily liberty." Without personhood in law, he writes, one is "invisible to civil law" and "might as well be dead."[5]

He writes in "The Problem with Being a Thing" in Rattling the Cage:

In Rattling the Cage, Wise offers examples of primates who he believes have suffered unjustifiably. He writes about Jerom, a chimpanzee who lived alone in a small cage in the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, with no access to sunlight, after being infected with one strain of HIV when he was three, another at the age of four, and a third at the age of five, before dying in 1996 at the age of 14.

Wise also tells the story of Lucy Temerlin, a six-year-old chimpanzee who learned American Sign Language from Roger Fouts, the primatologist, and was raised by Maurice K. Temerlin and Temerlin Mcclain. Fouts would arrive at Lucy's home at 8:30 every morning, when Lucy would greet him with a hug, go to the stove, take the kettle, fill it with water from the sink, find two cups and tea bags from the cupboard, and brew and serve the tea. When she was 12, the Temerlins were no longer able to care for her. She was sent to a chimpanzee rehabilitation center in Senegal, then flown to Gambia, where she was shot and skinned by a poacher, and her feet and hands hacked off for sale as trophies.[5]


Wise has been profiled in Who's Who in the World (since 2005), Who's Who in America (since 2003), Who's Who in American Law (since 2005), and Who’s Who in Finance and Business (since 2007). He is a frequent guest on a wide variety of television and radio shows throughout Europe, Africa, Australia and New Zealand, and North America, including National Public Radio's "All Things Considered," Morning Edition," "Weekend Edition," "Fresh Air with Terry Gross," and "The Connection," NBC Nightly News, CBS Nightly News, Fox TV News, Court TV, MSNBC, CNBC, CNN News and "Crossfire," "Voice of America," and the BBC's "Start the Week' with Jeremy Paxman" and "Outlook."

Wisee speaks frequently on topics related to animal rights law at law schools, legal conferences, and universities throughout North and South America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand, and Africa, including Harvard Law School, Yale Law School, University of Vienna Law School, Austria, University of Basel, Switzerland, Lincoln's Inn, London, University of New South Wales Law School, Australia, University of Woolongong Law School, Australia, University of Melbourne Law School, Australia, Monash University Law School, Australia, University of Auckland Law School, New Zealand, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, Federal University, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, and the Office for Animal Rights, Florence, Italy.

He has taught "Animal Rights Law" or "Animal Rights Jurisprudence" at the Harvard, Vermont, Lewis and Clark, University of Miami, St. Thomas, and John Marshall Law Schools.



Wise has written four books.

While reviewing An American Trilogy, the July/August 2009 issue of VegNews called him the "John Grisham of the animal rights movement".[citation needed]

Book chapters[edit]

Law review articles[edit] (2008)

Encyclopedia articles[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "About the author", Steven Wise's home page.
  2. ^ "Emeritus Advisory Council". AHM Website. Animal History Museum. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b Gale, "Biography".
  5. ^ a b Sunstein, Cass R. "The Chimps' Day in Court", New York Times Book Review, February 20, 2000.
  6. ^ Wise, Steven. "The Problem with Being a Thing", Chapter One of Rattling the Cage: Toward Legal Rights for Animals.


Further reading[edit]