Steve Gerber

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Steve Gerber
Steve Gerber (cropped).jpg
Gerber circa 1979
BornStephen Ross Gerber
(1947-09-20)September 20, 1947[1]
St. Louis, Missouri
DiedFebruary 10, 2008(2008-02-10) (aged 60)
Las Vegas, Nevada
NationalityAmerican
Area(s)Writer, Editor
Pseudonym(s)Reg Everbest
Notable works
Defenders
"Doctor Fate"
Foolkiller
Hard Time
Howard the Duck
Man-Thing
Nevada
Omega the Unknown
Sludge
Tales of the Zombie,
AwardsEagle Award, 1977
Inkpot Award, 1978
Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame, 2010

Official website
 
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Steve Gerber
Steve Gerber (cropped).jpg
Gerber circa 1979
BornStephen Ross Gerber
(1947-09-20)September 20, 1947[1]
St. Louis, Missouri
DiedFebruary 10, 2008(2008-02-10) (aged 60)
Las Vegas, Nevada
NationalityAmerican
Area(s)Writer, Editor
Pseudonym(s)Reg Everbest
Notable works
Defenders
"Doctor Fate"
Foolkiller
Hard Time
Howard the Duck
Man-Thing
Nevada
Omega the Unknown
Sludge
Tales of the Zombie,
AwardsEagle Award, 1977
Inkpot Award, 1978
Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame, 2010

Official website

Stephen Ross "Steve" Gerber (September 20, 1947 – February 10, 2008)[2] was an American comic book writer best known as co-creator of the satiric Marvel Comics character Howard the Duck. Other notable works include Man-Thing, Omega the Unknown, Marvel Spotlight: "Son of Satan", The Defenders, Marvel Presents: "Guardians of the Galaxy", and Daredevil. Gerber was known for including lengthy text pages in the midst of comic book stories, such as in his graphic novel, Stewart the Rat. Gerber was posthumously inducted into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2010.

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Steve Gerber was born in St. Louis, Missouri, the son of Bernice Gerber,[3] and one of four children, with siblings Jon, Michael, and Lisa.[3] A letter from Steve Gerber of "7014 Roberts Court, University City 30, Mo." was published in Fantastic Four #19 (Oct. 1963). After corresponding with fellow youthful comics fans Roy Thomas and Jerry Bails, and starting one of the first comics fanzines, Headline, at age 13 or 14, Gerber attended college at the University of Missouri–St. Louis, the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri, and St. Louis University, where he finished his communications degree.[4]

Career[edit]

Gerber began work as a copywriter for a St. Louis advertising agency.[4] During this time he wrote short stories, some of which, such as "And the Birds Hummed Dirges," later appeared in Crazy Magazine during his stint as editor.[5]

In early 1972, Gerber asked Thomas, by this time Marvel editor-in-chief, about writing comics; Thomas sent him a writer's test — six pages of a Daredevil car-chase scene drawn by Gene Colan — which Gerber passed. He accepted a position as an associate editor and writer at Marvel Comics. Thomas said in 2007,

Steve and I had been in touch, off and on....I [eventually] got a letter from Steve saying, in essence, 'Help! I'm going crazy in this advertising job'....So I thought, 'Gee, he'd be a good person to get up here, so if he wants to make a change, let's give it a try'. He was brought in to be an assistant editor on staff. That didn't work our so well, because for whatever reason ... he had trouble staying awake. At the time, he wasn't a staff kind of person, at least in terms of what Marvel needed, but he was a real good writer and did some interesting things... "[6]

Gerber's comics writing career at Marvel began with three comic books cover dated December 1972: Adventure into Fear #11, The Incredible Hulk #158, and a collaboration with writer Carole Seuling on Shanna the She-Devil.[7][8] Gerber initially penned superhero stories for titles such as Daredevil (20 issues), Iron Man (three issues), and Sub-Mariner (11 issues).[9] Gerber penned anthological horror-fantasy stories for Creatures on the Loose (adaptations of Lin Carter's Thongor), Monsters Unleashed, Chamber of Chills, and Journey into Mystery, and humor pieces for Crazy Magazine, becoming editor of that satirical magazine for issues #11-14.[5]

Man-Thing and Howard the Duck[edit]

Gerber scripted one of his signature series, Man-Thing, about a swamp-monster empath, beginning in Adventure into Fear #11 (Dec. 1972).[10] On page 11 of that issue, he created the series' narrative tagline, used in captions: "Whatever knows fear burns at the Man-Thing's touch!" After issue #19 (Dec. 1973), Man-Thing received a solo title, which ran 22 issues (Jan. 1974 - Oct. 1975). Gerber and Mayerik introduced the original Foolkiller in issue #3 (March 1974).[11] In the final issue, Gerber appeared as a character in the story, claiming he had not been inventing the Man-Thing's adventures but simply reporting on them and that he had decided to move on.

Howard the Duck's first appearance, from Adventure into Fear #19 (December 1973)

With penciler Val Mayerik, Gerber created Howard the Duck as a secondary character in a Man-Thing story in Adventure into Fear #19 (Dec. 1973).[12] Howard graduated to his own backup feature in Giant-Size Man-Thing, confronting such bizarre horror-parody characters as the Hellcow and the Man-Frog, before acquiring his own comic-book title with Howard the Duck #1 in January 1976.[13] Gerber wrote 27 issues of the series, penciled initially by Frank Brunner and shortly afterward by Gene Colan.[14] The series gradually developed a substantial cult following, which Marvel helped to promote by Howard's satiric entry into the 1976 U.S. presidential campaign under the auspices of the All-Night Party.[15]

Marvel attempted a spin-off with a short-lived Howard the Duck syndicated comic strip from 1977 to 1978, at first written by Gerber and drawn by Colan and Mayerik, and later written by Marv Wolfman and drawn by Alan Kupperberg.[16] Gerber had been replaced on the strip in mid-1978, creating acrimony and a lawsuit. Marvel's then editor-in-chief, Jim Shooter, blamed Gerber's chronic tardiness, saying the creative team was "producing strips within six days of their publication dates," which he said caused several newspapers to drop the strip.[17] Shooter added that while the syndicate threatened to drop the strip if a new writer were not brought in, "Steve can tell you a good number of horror stories — and they're all true — about the trouble we had getting artists."[17]

Gerber recalled, in the 2000s, that:

We had some problems with the Howard newspaper strip, which led to problems with the Howard book, which ultimately led to the lawsuit. Marvel wouldn't pay the artist to draw it. Gene Colan and I were supposed to get a percentage of the syndicate's take for the strip. The problem was, the money came in 90 days, 120 days, six months — I don't remember how long exactly — after the strips were published. So, essentially, the artist was working for nothing up until that time, and no artist can afford to do that. [In comparison with Stan Lee and John Romita's Spider-Man comic strip,] Stan, as publisher of Marvel, had a regular salary coming in, and John Romita, I believe, was also on staff at the time. They didn't have quite the same problem.[18]

Other series[edit]

During this period Gerber often worked with writer Mary Skrenes. Among other Marvel projects, Gerber created Omega The Unknown with Skrenes and artist Jim Mooney,[19] which explored the strange link between a cosmic superhero and a boy, and wrote the first issue of Marvel Comics Super Special featuring the band KISS. He created the characters of Starhawk,[20] Aleta Ogord, and Nikki. He wrote stories of Son of Satan, Morbius the Living Vampire and Lilith, Daughter of Dracula.[10]

Gerber often revived forgotten characters. In The Defenders, he brought back three pre-superhero characters, the Headmen.[21] He reintroduced the 1969 one-time feature Guardians of the Galaxy, first as guest stars in Marvel Two-in-One, he wrote the first nine issues of that series, the first seven tying directly with his other storylines, and The Defenders, then as a feature in Marvel Presents.[22][23]

Toward the end of his work at Marvel, he wrote Hanna-Barbera stories for Mark Evanier under the anagrammatic name Reg Everbest. Only two of these, featuring Magilla Gorilla and Clue Club, were published in their English-language originals.

Battle for Howard the Duck[edit]

Gerber was fired by Marvel in 1978, with then editor-in-chief Jim Shooter saying Gerber was "over two months late" on the titles he was writing, and "late on his contractual obligations; he was contracted to do so many pages [per month] and was not doing them." Shooter added, "I would not say there was nothing else to it; I would just say that we found it advantageous to get out of the contract we were in," while at the same time calling Gerber "one of the best writers in the business," whom he would welcome as a freelancer.[17] Gerber, in an open letter to The Comics Journal editor Gary Groth, referred to his "parting of the ways with Marvel", and said, "I was dismissed from the Howard the Duck newspaper strip in a manner which violated the terms of my written agreement with Marvel. Marvel was advised that I was contemplating legal action.... As a consequence of the notice given Marvel by my lawyers, the company chose to terminate my contract on the comic books as well."[24] Gerber subsequently launched a lengthy legal battle for control of Howard the Duck, culminating in a lawsuit filed August 29, 1980.[25][26]

During the mid 1970s and early 1980s, Gerber did some work for DC Comics, including an issue of Metal Men,[27] the last three issues of Mister Miracle,[28] The Phantom Zone limited series,[29][30] and a run of "Doctor Fate" backup stories in The Flash co-written with Martin Pasko.[31] Gerber had planned to wrote for DC's Time Warp science-fiction anthology series but objected to the submission guidelines for that series.[32] Gerber wrote for independent comic companies. One of Gerber's first major works away from Marvel was the original graphic novel Stewart the Rat for Eclipse Comics, with art by Gene Colan and Tom Palmer. For Eclipse Magazine Gerber and Mayerik created the anti-censorship horror story, "Role Model/Caring, Sharing, and Helping Others".

In 1982 he teamed with Jack Kirby at Eclipse to create Destroyer Duck, a satirical comic that raised funds for his court case against Marvel.[33] Eclipse publisher Dean Mullaney states, "Everyone involved with the 'Special Lawsuit Benefit Issue' donated their time and talents, including Eclipse as the publisher. The full and total proceeds went to pay Steve's legal bills. Among the back-up stories was the first appearance of "Groo" by Sergio Aragones." Gerber and Marvel reached a settlement in the case.[3]

Later career[edit]

In the early 1980s, Gerber and Frank Miller made a proposal to revamp DC's three biggest characters: Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman.[34] However, this proposal was not accepted.

Gerber was slated to write a new Spectre series in 1986, but he missed the deadline for the first issue so that he could watch the last day of shooting on the Howard the Duck film, and DC assigned another writer to the series in response.[34][35]

Gerber wrote various projects for Marvel including Void Indigo for the Epic Comics imprint in 1984, the serialized, eight-page Man-Thing feature in the omnibus series Marvel Comics Presents #1-12 (Sept. 1988 - Feb. 1989), The Legion of Night and Suburban She-Devils in 1991 and for DC including A. Bizarro.[8] At Marvel, he had a 12-issue run on The Sensational She-Hulk, a three-issue run on Cloak and Dagger, had Hawkeye get shot and wear a new armored costume designed by Tony Stark in Avengers Spotlight, and wrote two issues of Toxic Crusaders. During this time he did a serial in Marvel Comics Presents featuring Poison, a character he created in The Evolutionary War crossover. He wrote the two-issue Freddy Krueger's A Nightmare on Elm Street which delved into the backstory of the character.[8]

In collaboration with Beth Woods (later Slick), he wrote the "Contagion" episode of the syndicated television series Star Trek: The Next Generation.

He worked in television animation, working as story editor on the animated TV series The Transformers, G.I. Joe, and Dungeons & Dragons; created Thundarr the Barbarian;[36] and shared a 1998 Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Special Class — Animated Program, for the WB program The New Batman/Superman Adventures.

He was one of the founders of the Malibu Comics Ultraverse, co-creating Sludge[37] andExiles. For Image Comics, he co-created The Cybernary with Nick Manabat and disbanded Codename: Strykeforce, in addition to guest-writing Pitt. In 2002 he created a new Howard the Duck miniseries for Marvel's MAX line.[38] For DC he created Nevada for the Vertigo imprint in 1998 with artist Phil Winslade and Hard Time with long-time collaborator Mary Skrenes, which outlasted the short-lived imprint DC Focus, but slow sales led Hard Time: Season Two to be cancelled after only seven issues.[39]

Later, Gerber wrote the Helmet of Fate: Zauriel one-shot and continued writing the Doctor Fate serial in the Countdown to Mystery limited series for DC Comics up to the time of his death, working on stories in the hospital. Gerber died before being able to write the concluding chapter of the serial; in his honor, four separate writers (Adam Beechen, Mark Evanier, Gail Simone, and Mark Waid) provided their own conclusions to the story.

In 2010, Comics Bulletin ranked Gerber's run on The Defenders first on its list of the "Top 10 1970s Marvels" while Omega the Unknown was tenth on the same list.[40]

Gerber's posthumous Man-Thing story The Screenplay of the Living Dead Man, with art by Kevin Nowlan, originally planned as a 1980s graphic novel before being left uncompleted by the artist,[41] was revived in the 2010s and appeared as a three-issue miniseries cover-titled The Infernal Man-Thing (Early Sept.-Oct. 2012).[42] The story was a sequel to Gerber's “Song-Cry of the Living Dead Man” in Man-Thing #12 (Dec. 1974).[41]

Death[edit]

In 2007, Gerber was diagnosed with an early stage of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and was eventually hospitalized while continuing to work. He had gotten onto the waiting list for a transplant at UCLA Medical Center. On February 10, 2008, Gerber died in a Las Vegas hospital from complications stemming from his condition.[43][44] At the time of his death, he was writing Countdown to Mystery: Doctor Fate for DC Comics, having briefly worked with a version of the character in 1983.

At the time of his death, Gerber was separated from his wife, Margo Macleod.[3] He had a daughter, Samantha Voll.[3]

In fiction[edit]

One of Gerber's working pen-names, Reg Everbest, was the inspiration behind the first Foolkiller's real name which was revealed as Ross G. Everbest. Gerber used the anagrammatic Reg Everbest pseudonym for Marvel-published Hanna-Barbera stories after he was banned from Marvel by Jim Shooter. Roger Stern named the original, deceased Foolkiller "Ross G. Everbest" in The Amazing Spider-Man #225, in homage to Gerber, using Gerber's middle name as the character's first name, the middle initial restoring the anagram save for a silent e. The character's real name never appeared in the two Gerber stories, but is seen on a computer screen in the second Foolkiller's van, next to the face of the original user of that identity.

Awards and nominations[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

DC Comics[edit]

Eclipse Comics[edit]

Image Comics[edit]

Malibu Comics[edit]

Marvel Comics[edit]

Star*Reach[edit]

DVDs[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "United States Social Security Death Index," index, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/JGL8-R3L : accessed 11 Mar 2013), Stephen R Gerber, 10 February 2008.
  2. ^ Social Security Death Index details
  3. ^ a b c d e Fox, Margalit. "Steve Gerber, Creator of Howard the Duck, Dies at 60". The New York Times, February 14, 2008, with correction appended. WebCitation archive.
  4. ^ a b Spurgeon, Tom (February 11, 2008). "Steve Gerber, 1947-2008". Comics Reporter. Archived from the original on May 15, 2013. Retrieved November 29, 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Arnold, Mark (December 2008). "Gerber Goes Crazy". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (31): 51–53. 
  6. ^ Roy Thomas interview, Alter Ego #70 (July 2007), p. 55
  7. ^ Sanderson, Peter; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1970s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. Dorling Kindersley. p. 157. ISBN 978-0756641238. "Writers Carole Seuling and Steve Gerber crafted Shanna's origin story with artist George Tuska." 
  8. ^ a b c Steve Gerber at the Grand Comics Database
  9. ^ Shayer, Jason (December 2008). "Steve Gerber in the Marvel Universe". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (31): 33–40. 
  10. ^ a b Aushenker, Michael (December 2008). "Gerber's Gruesomes: The Quirky Wordsmith's Beastie Books". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (31): 23–32. 
  11. ^ Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 165: "Writer Steve Gerber made his own comment on the rise of 'grim and gritty' vigilantes when he and artist Val Mayerik created the Foolkiller in Man-Thing #3."
  12. ^ Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 161: "December [1973] saw the debut of the cigar-smoking Howard the Duck. In this story by writer Steve Gerber and artist Val Mayerik, various beings from different realities had begun turning up in the Man-Thing's Florida swamp, including this bad-tempered talking duck."
  13. ^ Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 174: "Gerber and artist Frank Brunner quickly brought Howard back...in his own comic book."
  14. ^ Ash, Roger (December 2008). "Steve and Howard: A Boy and His Duck". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (31): 3–13. 
  15. ^ Daniels, Les (1991). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. Harry N. Abrams. p. 174. ISBN 9780810938212. "Stan Lee...recalls that the duck received thousands of write-in votes when he ran for President of the United States against Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter in 1976." 
  16. ^ "Alan Kupperberg". Lambiek Comiclopedia. May 29, 2009. Archived from the original on February 2, 2013. Retrieved February 2, 2013. 
  17. ^ a b c "Marvel Fires Gerber", The Comics Journal #41 (August 1978), p. 7
  18. ^ Comic Book Artist #7 (reprinted in Comic Book Artist Collection Volume 3 (TwoMorrows Publishing, 2005)): "Steve Gerber's Crazy Days", p. 66
  19. ^ Callahan, Timothy (December 2008). "Omega the Unknown". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (31): 41–46. 
  20. ^ Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 170
  21. ^ DeAngelo, Daniel (July 2013). "The Not-Ready-For-Super-Team Players A History of the Defenders". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (65): 7-8. 
  22. ^ Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 175: "The Guardians of the Galaxy finally received their own ongoing series in Marvel Presents #3, written by Steve Gerber and penciled by Al Milgrom."
  23. ^ Buttery, Jarrod (July 2013). "Explore the Marvel Universe of the 31st Century With...The Guardians of the Galaxy". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (65): 25–26. 
  24. ^ May 26, 1978, letter from Steve Gerber to Gary Groth, in "An Interview with Steve Gerber", The Comics Journal #41 (August 1978), p. 29
  25. ^ Catron, Michael (June 1981). "Duck Squawk: Gerber vs. Marvel". Amazing Heroes (Fantagraphics Books) (1): 18. 
  26. ^ "Gerber Sues Marvel over Rights to Duck," The Comics Journal #62 (March 1981), pp. 11–13
  27. ^ Wells, John (December 2008). "Gerber's Metal Men". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (31): 54–56. 
  28. ^ Kingman, Jim (December 2008). "The Miracle Messiah: Steve Gerber's Short-Lived Take on Mister Miracle". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (31): 57–59. 
  29. ^ Eury, Michael (December 2008). "Steve Gerber Discusses The Phantom Zone". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (31): 60–63. 
  30. ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1980s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. "DC once again shone the spotlight on Superman's alien past in this four-issue miniseries by writer Steve Gerber and artist Gene Colan." 
  31. ^ Riley, Shannon E. (May 2013). "A Matter of (Dr.) Fate Martin Pasko and Keith Giffen Discuss Their Magical Flash Backup Series". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (64): 64–68. 
  32. ^ Sanderson, Peter (September/October 1981). "Comics Feature interviews Steve Gerber". Comics Feature (New Media Publishing) (12/13): 119. "[Editor Jack C.] Harris sent me a copy of the writers' guide he had prepared for Time Warp...I stared at that piece of paper for a day or two, then threw it away without showing it to anyone I knew out there. I was too embarrassed by it." 
  33. ^ "Steve Gerber and Jack Kirby Collaborate on the 'Manslaying Mallard of Vengeance'". Comics Feature (New Media Publishing) (12/13): 14. September/October 1981. 
  34. ^ a b Cronin, Brian (April 1, 2010). "Comic Book Legends Revealed #254". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on November 13, 2011. Retrieved November 6, 2011. "Gerber and Frank Miller pitched DC on revamps of the “Trinity.” The three titles would be called by the “line name” of METROPOLIS, with each character being defined by one word/phrase… AMAZON (written by Gerber); DARK KNIGHT (written by Miller); and Something for Superman – I believe either MAN OF STEEL or THE MAN OF STEEL, but I’m not sure about that (written by both men)." 
  35. ^ Zimmerman, Dwight Jon (September 1986). "Steve Gerber (part 2)". Comics Interview (38) (Fictioneer Books). pp. 6–19. 
  36. ^ Weiss, Brett (December 2008). "Remembering Thundarr the Barbarian". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (31): 64–69. 
  37. ^ Gagnon, Mike (December 2008). "Sludge Steve Gerber's Muck-Monster With a Difference". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (31): 71–74. 
  38. ^ Schroeder, Darren (July 20, 2001). "Steve Gerber: The Dark Duck Returns". SilverBulletComicBooks.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2013. 
  39. ^ Ash, Roger (December 2008). "A Hard Time in Nevada". Back Issue (TwoMorrows Publishing) (31): 75–79. 
  40. ^ Sacks, Jason (September 6, 2010). "Top 10 1970s Marvels". Comics Bulletin. Archived from the original on August 3, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013. 
  41. ^ a b Arrant, Chris (September 21, 2011). "The Next Big-Wait Project Emerges: Man-Thing by Gerber and Nowlan". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on January 1, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  42. ^ Infernal Man-Thing at the Grand Comics Database
  43. ^ Evanier, Mark. "Steve Gerber, R.I.P.", P.O.V. Online (column), February 11, 2008. WebCitation archive.
  44. ^ Brady, Matt. "Steve Gerber Passes Away". Newsarama, February 11, 2008. WebCitation archive.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g "Eagle Awards Previous Winners 1977". Eagle Awards. 2013. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 3013. 
  46. ^ "Inkpot Awards". San Diego Comic-Con International. 2013. Archived from the original on October 30, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013. 
  47. ^ a b c d "Eagle Awards Previous Winners 1978". Eagle Awards. 2013. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 3013. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f "Eagle Awards Previous Winners 1979". Eagle Awards. 2013. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 3013. 
  49. ^ "Eagle Awards Previous Winners 1980". Eagle Awards. 1980. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013. 
  50. ^ "Bram Stoker Award Winners". FSPL.org/bramstokerlist. 2013. Archived from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013. 
  51. ^ "Horror Writers' Association Bram Stoker Awards". Comic Book Awards Almanac. no date. Archived from the original on October 24, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013. 
  52. ^ "2010s Eisner Awards Recipients". San Diego Comic-Con International. 2013. Archived from the original on October 30, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Gerry Conway
Man-Thing writer
1972–1975
Succeeded by
Michael Fleisher (in 1979)
Preceded by
Mike Friedrich
Iron Man writer
1973
Succeeded by
Mike Friedrich
Preceded by
Gerry Conway
Daredevil writer
1973–1975
(#102 and #118 by Chris Claremont)
Succeeded by
Tony Isabella
Preceded by
Len Wein
The Defenders writer
1975–1976
Succeeded by
Gerry Conway
Preceded by
n/a
Howard the Duck writer
1976–1979
Succeeded by
Bill Mantlo
Preceded by
Donald F. Glut
Captain America writer
1978
Succeeded by
Roger McKenzie