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|Cookbook:Steak tartare Steak tartare|
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|Cookbook:Steak tartare Steak tartare|
Steak tartare is a meat dish made from finely chopped or minced raw beef.  It is often served with onions, capers and seasonings (the latter typically incorporating fresh ground pepper and Worcestershire sauce), sometimes with a raw egg yolk, and often on rye bread. The name tartare is sometimes generalized to other raw meat or fish dishes.
Although less common than the completely raw variety, there is a version served in France of steak tartare called tartare aller-retour. It is a mound of mostly raw steak tartare that is lightly seared on one side of the patty.
The modern version of steak tartare with raw egg was first served in French restaurants early in the 20th century. What is now generally known as "steak tartare" was then called steack à l'Americaine. Steak tartare was a variation on that dish; the 1921 edition of Escoffier's Le Guide Culinaire defines it as steack à l'Americaine made without egg yolk, served with tartar sauce on the side.
Over time, the distinction between steack à l'Americaine and its variant disappeared. The 1938 edition of Larousse Gastronomique describes steak tartare as raw ground beef served with a raw egg yolk, without any mention of tartar sauce.
Although the word 'tartare' presumably refers to the Tatar or Tartar people of Central Asia, and there are many stories connecting steak tartare with them, steak tartare is not related to Tatar cuisine.
"À la tartare" or simply "tartare" still means "served with tartar sauce" for some dishes, mostly fried fish.
Health concerns have reduced the popularity of this meat dish in some parts of the world because of the danger of contamination by bacteria and parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii and Taenia saginata. However, when basic hygienic rules are followed and fresh meat is used, the risk of bacterial infection is low. Even when these provisions are met, it is nonetheless not recommended for pregnant women (due to risk of congenital toxoplasmosis in the fetus), people who have a weakened immune system or suffer from a chronic illness, as these individuals are at a greater risk of infection from E. coli and/or Salmonella.
Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that may be found in raw or undercooked meat. Cultural differences in raw meat consumption are thought to be a cause of regional variation in the prevalence of toxoplasma infection (ranging from around 55% in France down to 10% in the United Kingdom). Latent toxoplasmosis in adults, though not as harmful as congenital toxoplasmosis, is associated with psychological effects and lower IQ.
Raw-meat dishes are popular across the Levant. For instance, kibbeh nayyeh (كبة نية, kibbah nayyah) which incorporates raw lamb or beef with bulgur wheat, olive oil and spices, known as çiğ köfte (raw meat ball) in Turkey is often considered to be a national dish of Lebanon and Syria.
In Nepal, "Kachila" is popular among the Newar community, however, buffalo meat is used instead of beef, since cow slaughter is illegal. Raw minced buffalo meat is mixed with mustard oil, ground fennel seeds, minced garlic and spices to prepare this dish.
Northern Thailand features several dishes made with raw chopped or minced beef, but also pork, wild boar and even bear, collectively called "larb", a word originally from the northern Thai language meaning "to chop up finely". Some of these northern Thai style larb dishes include the blood, bile and/or contents of the first stomach of cattle. These dishes are viewed as Thai salads due to the main ingredient being mixed with spices and herbs as in a salad.
In Austria, it is called Beef tartare but is exactly the same thing.
In Sweden, steak tartare is called Råbiff, and is usually served with raw egg yolk, raw onions, diced pickled beetroot and capers.
In Germany, there is a very popular variant using raw minced pork called Mett or Hackepeter, which is typically served on rye bread or rolls, with the onions and pepper, but without capers or egg.
In Poland, Czech republic, Slovakia and Hungary this dish made from minced raw beef called Befsztyk tatarski (in Hungarian: tatárbifsztek) is typically served with raw egg yolk, onions, pickled cucumber, pickled mushrooms and seasonings incorporating fresh ground pepper, salt, mustard, maggi sauce or ketchup and Worcestershire sauce.
In Belgium, steak tartare is known as “filet américain” (lit. American fillet) and is served with fries. A variation of it is used normally as a sandwich spread or “américain préparé”. It is mostly served with onions and more seasoning than a regular steak tartare.
In the Netherlands, steak tartare is called Filet americain. It can also be served raw on bread with onion, mayonnaise and hard boiled egg, this is called broodje tartaar speciaal (lit. "bun tartar special"). There is also 'Rundertartaar" (beef tartare), a chopped steak, but not served raw. Rather it is slowly browned in butter with salt, pepper and done when the center is thoroughly heated but remaining pink and moist.
In Armenia it's called "chikufte". The beef is very finely ground (to a "paste" consistency) and is mixed with soaked cracked wheat ("Burghul"), chopped raw onion, and spices. It is served with a side of chopped parsley, and is eaten as an "appetizer" or a side-dish. This dish comes mostly from Armenians living in Middle Eastern countries. The Lebanese recipe for it can be found here.
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