States and union territories of India

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India is a federal union of states[1] comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.[1]

List of states and territories[edit]

Indian OceanBay of BengalAndaman SeaArabian SeaLaccadive SeaSiachen GlacierAndaman and Nicobar IslandsChandigarhDadra and Nagar HaveliDaman and DiuDelhiLakshadweepPondicherryPondicherryPondicherryAndhra PradeshArunachal PradeshAssamBiharChhattisgarhGoaGujaratHaryanaHimachal PradeshJammu and KashmirJharkhandKarnatakaKeralaMadhya PradeshMaharashtraManipurMeghalayaMizoramNagalandOdishaPunjabRajasthanSikkimTamil NaduTripuraUttar PradeshUttarakhandWest BengalAfghanistanBangladeshBhutanBurmaChinaNepalPakistanSri LankaTajikistanDadra and Nagar HaveliDaman and DiuPondicherryPondicherryPondicherryPondicherryAndhra PradeshGoaGujaratJammu and KashmirKarnatakaKeralaMadhya PradeshMaharashtraRajasthanTamil NaduAssamMeghalayaArunachal PradeshNagalandManipurMizoramTripuraWest BengalSikkimBhutanBangladeshBiharJharkhandOdishaChhattisgarhUttar PradeshUttarakhandNepalDelhiHaryanaPunjabHimachal PradeshChandigarhPakistanSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri Lanka
A clickable map of the 28 states and 7 union territories of India
States of India
MapNameISO 3166-2 code[2]Date of formationPopulationArea
(km2)
Official
language(s)
CapitalLargest city
(if not capital)
Population densityLiteracy Rate(%)% of Urban Population to total PopulationSex Ratio
1Andhra PradeshAP1 November 195684,665,533275,045Telugu, UrduHyderabad30867.6627.3992
2Arunachal PradeshAR20 February 19871,382,61183,743EnglishItanagar1766.9520.8920
3AssamAS15 August 194731,169,27278,550Assamese; Regional: Bodo, BengaliDispurGuwahati39773.1812.9954
4BiharBR1 April 1936103,804,63799,200Hindi, Magadhi, Maithili, UrduPatna1,10263.8210.5916[3]
5ChhattisgarhCT01 November 200025,540,196135,194Chattisgarhi, HindiRaipur18971.0420.1991
6GoaGA30 May 19871,457,7233,702KonkaniPanjim39487.4062.2968
7GujaratGJ1 May 196060,383,628196,024GujaratiGandhinagarAhmedabad30879.3137.4918
8HaryanaHR1 November 196625,353,08144,212Hindi, Haryanvi (regional)Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
Faridabad57376.6428.9877
9Himachal PradeshHP25 January 19716,856,50955,673HindiShimla12383.789.8920
10Jammu and KashmirJK26 October 194712,548,926222,236Dogri, Kashmiri, Urdu[4]Srinagar (summer)
Jammu (winter)
12468.7424.8883
11JharkhandJH15 November 200032,966,23874,677HindiRanchiJamshedpur41467.6322.2947
12KarnatakaKA1 November 195661,130,704191,791Kannada, EnglishBangalore31975.6034.0968
13KeralaKL1 November 195633,387,67738,863MalayalamThiruvananthapuramKochi85993.9126.01,084
14Madhya PradeshMP1 November 195672,597,565308,252HindiBhopalIndore23670.6326.5930
15MaharashtraMH1 May 1960112,372,972307,713MarathiMumbai36582.9142.4925
16ManipurMN21 January 19722,721,75622,347ManipuriImphal12279.8525.1987
17MeghalayaML21 January 19722,964,00722,720English, Garo, Hindi, Khasi, Pnar,Shillong13275.4819.6986
18MizoramMZ20 February 19871,091,01421,081MizoAizawl5291.5849.6975
19NagalandNL1 December 19631,980,60216,579EnglishKohimaDimapur11980.1117.2931
20Odisha [5] (Orissa)OR1 April 193641,947,358155,820OriyaBhubaneswar26973.4515.0978
21PunjabPB1 November 196627,704,23650,362PunjabiChandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
Ludhiana55076.6833.9893
22RajasthanRJ1 November 195668,621,012342,269HindiJaipur20167.0623.4926
23SikkimSK16 May 1975607,6887,096Nepali, Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Newari, Sherpa, Sunwar, TamangGangtok8682.2011.1889
24Tamil NaduTN26 January 195072,138,958130,058TamilChennai48080.3344.0995
25TripuraTR21 January 19723,671,03210,492Bengali, TripuriAgartala35087.7517.1961
26Uttar PradeshUP26 January 1950199,581,477243,286Hindi, Urdu[6]Lucknow82869.7220.8908
27UttarakhandUT9 November 200010,116,75253,566Hindi, SanskritDehradun (interim)18979.6325.7963
28West BengalWB1 November 195691,347,73688,752Bengali, EnglishKolkata1,02977.0828.0947
Union Territories
MapNameISO 3166-2 code[2]PopulationOfficial
language
CapitalPopulation densityLiteracy Rate(%)Percentage of Urban Population to total PopulationSex Ratio
AAndaman and Nicobar IslandsAN379,944EnglishPort Blair4686.2732.6878
BChandigarhCH1,054,686English, Hindi, PunjabiChandigarh9,25286.4389.8818
CDadra and Nagar HaveliDN342,853English, Gujarati, Hindi, MarathiSilvassa69877.6522.9775
DDaman and DiuDD242,911English, Gujarati, Hindi, MarathiDaman216987.0736.2618
ELakshadweepLD64,429English, MalayalamKavaratti201392.2844.5946
FNational Capital Territory of DelhiDL16,753,235English, Hindi, Punjabi, UrduDelhi11,29786.3493.2866
GPuducherry (Pondicherry)PY1,244,464French and Tamil; Regional: Malayalam, TeluguPondicherry2,59886.5566.61,038

Responsibilities and authorities[edit]

States and union
territories of India

ordered by
Flag of India.svg
Population
Highest point
GDP
HDI
tax revenues
Number of voter
Abbreviations
Natural growth rate
Sex ratio
Vaccination coverage
Literacy rate
Electricity usage
Capitals
Media exposure
Origin of name
HIV awareness
Household size
Home ownership
Underweight people
Places of worship
TV ownership
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The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." (italics in original)[7]

History[edit]

Administrative division of India in 1951

Pre-1956[edit]

The Indian Subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region.[8][9][full citation needed] During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, who held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.

After 1956[edit]

The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 abandoned the British system of provinces and princely states. In its place, new states were drawn based on ethnicity and language.[citation needed]

The former French and Portuguese colonies in India were incorporated into the Republic as the union territories of Puducherry (Pondicherry), Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Goa, Daman and Diu in 1962.[citation needed]

Several new states and union territories have been created out of existing states since 1956. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960[10] by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was made a state on 1 December 1963.[11] The Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 divided the Punjab along linguistic lines, creating a new Hindi-speaking state of Haryana on 1 November,[12] transferring the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh, and designating Chandigarh, the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana, a union territory.[13]

Statehood was conferred upon Himachal Pradesh[14] on 25 January 1971, Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura[15] on 21 January 1972 the Kingdom of Sikkim joined the Indian Union as a state on 26 April 1975.[16] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu became a separate union territory.[17]

In 2000 three new states were created; Chhattisgarh (1 November 2000) was created out of eastern Madhya Pradesh,[18] Uttaranchal (9 November 2000), which was renamed Uttarakhand in 2007,[19] was created out of the Hilly regions of northwest Uttar Pradesh,[20] and Jharkhand (15 November 2000) was created out of the southern districts of Bihar.[21]

Proposals[edit]

Ahead of the 2009 General Elections in India, all the major parties in Andhra Pradesh supported statehood for Telangana.[dated info][citation needed]

As a result of this unilateral decision by the Government of India, several members of Andhra Pradesh's legislature submitted their resignations to protest the creation of the new state owing to the pressure from the people in their constituencies.[22] As of 11 December, at least 117 legislators and many Members of Parliament had resigned in protest of the Government's decision to carve out a new state of Telangana.[23]

Due to the unexpected turn of events, after the parties which promised support to the Telangana state formation on 7 December 2009 in a unanimous all-party meeting at the State level, presided by CM, Rosaiah, and later the party members of these parties made a U-turn on their support bowing to the pressure from the people in their constituency following the 9 December statement (in support of Telangana state process initiation), the federal government made another statement on 23 December to clarify its intention on the process that it would consult with all groups, political and non-political, before moving forward. It then formed the Justice Sri Krishna committee which has been touring the state consulting with different sections of the society. A report recommending a solution suitable to all constituents is expected to be submitted before 31 December 2010.[24]

In November 2011 Mayawati, the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, proposed dividing it into four states, Avadh Pradesh, Bundelkhand, Paschim Pradesh, and Purvanchal. On 21 November this movement was backed through a "voice vote" by the state assembly, despite criticism from the opposition and claims that the move was made to gain support for the next state election. It must gain the approval of the federal government, however this may be difficult due to the opposition to the creation of Telangana.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "States and union territories". Retrieved 2007-09-07. 
  2. ^ a b "Code List: 3229". UN/EDIFACT. GEFEG. Retrieved 25 December 2012. 
  3. ^ http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/data_files/bihar/Provisional%20Population%20Totals%202011-Bihar.pdf
  4. ^ "Official and Regional Languages of India". Mapsofindia.com. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  5. ^ "Orissa's new name is Odisha". The Times Of India. 24 March 2011. 
  6. ^ "Uttar Pradesh Legislature". Uplegassembly.nic.in. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  7. ^ Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998.
  8. ^ "Indian History, India History, History of India". Indhistory.com. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  9. ^ "History of India, The Great Indian History". Indohistory.com. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  10. ^ J.C. Aggarwal and S.P. Agrawal, editors, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future (New Delhi: Concept Publishing, 1995), p89-90
  11. ^ Nagaland History & Geography-Source india.gov.in
  12. ^ The Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966[dead link]
  13. ^ "State map of India". Travel India guide. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  14. ^ "Himachal Pradesh Tenth Five Year Plan" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  15. ^ Snapshot of North Eastern States
  16. ^ Sikkim joins Indian Union. Books.google.co.in. 1975-04-26. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  17. ^ Goa Chronology
  18. ^ "Chhattisgarh state - History". Cg.gov.in. 1979-12-19. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  19. ^ Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January 2007). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". TNN. The Time of India. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  20. ^ "About Us: Uttarakhand Government Portal, India". Uk.gov.in. 2000-11-09. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  21. ^ "Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". Jharkhand.gov.in. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  22. ^ Press Trust of India (10 December 2009). "60 AP MLAs submit resignation to protest Telangana creation". Business Standard. Retrieved 10 December 2009. 
  23. ^ "Telangana: Shutdown in Andhra Pradesh, 117 legislators quit". Times of India. 11 December 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2009. 
  24. ^ "Srikrishna report by Dec. 31". Deccan Chronicle. 27 October 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2010. 
  25. ^ "India: Uttar Pradesh assembly backs state division". BBC News. 21 November 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 

External links[edit]