States and union territories of India

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Indian OceanBay of BengalAndaman SeaArabian SeaLaccadive SeaSiachen GlacierAndaman and Nicobar IslandsChandigarhDadra and Nagar HaveliDaman and DiuDelhiLakshadweepPondicherryPondicherryPondicherryArunachal PradeshAssamBiharChhattisgarhGoaGujaratHaryanaHimachal PradeshJammu and KashmirJharkhandKarnatakaKeralaMadhya PradeshMaharashtraManipurMeghalayaMizoramNagalandOdishaPunjabRajasthanSikkimTamil NaduTripuraUttar PradeshUttarakhandWest BengalAfghanistanBangladeshBhutanBurmaChinaNepalPakistanSri LankaTajikistanDadra and Nagar HaveliDaman and DiuPondicherryPondicherryPondicherryPondicherryGoaGujaratJammu and KashmirKarnatakaKeralaMadhya PradeshMaharashtraRajasthanTamil NaduAssamMeghalayaAndhra PradeshArunachal PradeshNagalandManipurMizoramTelanganaTripuraWest BengalSikkimBhutanBangladeshBiharJharkhandOdishaChhattisgarhUttar PradeshUttarakhandNepalDelhiHaryanaPunjabHimachal PradeshChandigarhPakistanSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaSri LankaDisputed territory in Jammu and KashmirDisputed territory in Jammu and Kashmir
A clickable map of the 29 states and 7 union territories of India

India is a federal union of states[1] comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.[1]

List of states and territories[edit]

States
MapNameISO 3166-2 code[2]Date of formationPopulationArea
(km2)
Official
language(s)
Administrative
capital
Largest city
(if not the capital)
Population densityLiteracy Rate (%)% of total population that is urban
1Andhra PradeshAP1 November 195649,386,799160,205TeluguHyderabadNote 1Visakhapatnam30867.41%[3]29.6
2Arunachal PradeshAR20 February 19871,382,61183,743EnglishItanagar1766.9520.8
3AssamAS15 August 194731,169,27278,550Assamese; Regional: Bodo, BengaliDispurGuwahati39773.1812.9
4BiharBR1 April 1936103,804,63799,200Hindi, Magadhi, Maithili, UrduPatna1,10263.8210.5
5ChhattisgarhCT1 November 200025,540,196135,194Chattisgarhi, HindiRaipur18971.0420.1
6GoaGA30 May 19871,457,7233,702KonkaniPanaji39487.4062.2
7GujaratGJ1 May 196060,383,628196,024GujaratiGandhinagarAhmedabad30879.3137.4
8HaryanaHR1 November 196625,353,08144,212Hindi, Haryanvi (regional)Chandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
Faridabad57376.6428.9
9Himachal PradeshHP25 January 19716,856,50955,673Hindi, Pahari (regional)Shimla12383.789.8
10Jammu and KashmirJK26 October 194712,548,926222,236Dogri, Kashmiri, Ladakhi, Urdu[4]Srinagar (summer)
Jammu (winter)
12468.7424.8
11JharkhandJH15 November 200032,966,23874,677HindiRanchiJamshedpur41467.6322.2
12KarnatakaKA1 November 195661,130,704191,791KannadaBangalore31975.6034.0
13KeralaKL1 November 195633,387,67738,863MalayalamThiruvananthapuramKochi85993.9126.0
14Madhya PradeshMP1 November 195672,597,565308,252HindiBhopalIndore23670.6326.5
15MaharashtraMH1 May 1960112,372,972307,713MarathiMumbai36582.9142.4
16ManipurMN21 January 19722,721,75622,347ManipuriImphal12279.8525.1
17MeghalayaML21 January 19722,964,00722,720English, Garo, Hindi, Khasi, Pnar,Shillong13275.4819.6
18MizoramMZ20 February 19871,091,01421,081MizoAizawl5291.5849.6
19NagalandNL1 December 19631,980,60216,579EnglishKohimaDimapur11980.1117.2
20Odisha[5] (Orissa)OR1 April 193641,947,358155,820OriyaBhubaneswar26973.4515.0
21PunjabPB1 November 196627,704,23650,362PunjabiChandigarh
(shared, Union Territory)
Ludhiana55076.6833.9
22RajasthanRJ1 November 195668,621,012342,269Hindi, RajasthaniJaipur20167.0623.4
23SikkimSK16 May 1975607,6887,096Nepali, Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Newari, Sherpa, Sunwar, TamangGangtok8682.2011.1
24Tamil NaduTN26 January 195072,138,958130,058TamilChennaiCoimbatore, Madurai48080.3344.0
25Telangana2 June 201435,193,978 [6]114,840[citation needed]Telugu, UrduHyderabadNote 1307 [6]N/AN/A
26TripuraTR21 January 19723,671,03210,492Bengali, TripuriAgartala35087.7517.1
27Uttar PradeshUP26 January 1950199,581,477243,286Hindi, Urdu[7]Lucknow82869.7220.8
28UttarakhandUK9 November 200010,116,75253,566Hindi, SanskritDehradun (interim)18979.6325.7
29West BengalWB1 November 195691,347,73688,752Bengali, EnglishKolkata1,02977.0828.0
Union Territories
MapNameISO 3166-2 code[2]PopulationOfficial
language
CapitalPopulation densityLiteracy Rate(%)Percentage of Urban Population to total Population
AAndaman and Nicobar IslandsAN379,944English, HindiPort Blair4686.2732.6
BChandigarhCH1,054,686English, Hindi, PunjabiChandigarh9,25286.4389.8
CDadra and Nagar HaveliDN342,853English, Gujarati, Hindi, MarathiSilvassa69877.6522.9
DDaman and DiuDD242,911English, Gujarati, Hindi, MarathiDaman216987.0736.2
ELakshadweepLD64,429English, MalayalamKavaratti201392.2844.5
FNational Capital Territory of DelhiDL16,753,235English, Hindi, Punjabi, UrduDelhi11,29786.3493.2
GPuducherryPY1,244,464French and Tamil;
Regional:
Telugu and Malayalam
Pondicherry2,59886.5566.6

Responsibilities and authorities[edit]

The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." (italics in original)[12]

History[edit]

Hyderabad state in 1909
Administrative division of India in 1951

Pre-1956[edit]

The Indian Subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, who held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.

Post-1956[edit]

Several new states and union territories have been created out of existing states since 1956. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960[23] by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was made a state on 1 December 1963.[24] The Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 divided the Punjab along linguistic lines, creating a new Hindi-speaking state of Haryana on 1 November,[25] transferring the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh, and designating Chandigarh, the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana, a union territory.[26]

Statehood was conferred upon Himachal Pradesh[27] on 25 January 1971, Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura[28] on 21 January 1972. The Kingdom of Sikkim joined the Indian Union as a state on 26 April 1975.[29] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu became a separate union territory.[30]

In 2000 three new states were created; Chhattisgarh (1 November 2000) was created out of eastern Madhya Pradesh,[31] Uttaranchal (9 November 2000), which was renamed Uttarakhand in 2007,[32] was created out of the Hilly regions of northwest Uttar Pradesh,[33] and Jharkhand (15 November 2000) was created out of the southern districts of Bihar.[34]

In 2014, the new state of Telangana was carved out from the North-Western regions of the state of Andhra Pradesh. The city of Hyderabad became the joint capital of the two states.[citation needed]

Current Proposals[edit]

In November 2011 Mayawati, the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh, proposed dividing it into four states, Avadh Pradesh, Bundelkhand, Paschim Pradesh, and Purvanchal. On 21 November this movement was backed through a "voice vote" by the state assembly, despite criticism from the opposition and claims that the move was made to gain support for the next state election. It must gain the approval of the federal government, however this may be difficult due to the opposition to the creation of Telangana.[35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "States and union territories". Retrieved 7 September 2007. 
  2. ^ a b "Code List: 3229". UN/EDIFACT. GEFEG. Retrieved 25 December 2012. 
  3. ^ "Literacy of AP (Census 2011)" (pdf). AP govt. portal. p. 43. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  4. ^ "Official and Regional Languages of India". Mapsofindia.com. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  5. ^ "Orissa's new name is Odisha". The Times Of India. 24 March 2011. 
  6. ^ a b "Population of Telangana" (pdf). Telangana government portal. p. 34. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  7. ^ "Uttar Pradesh Legislature". Uplegassembly.nic.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  8. ^ "Bifurcated into Telangana State and residual Andhra Pradesh State". The Times Of India. 2 June 2014. 
  9. ^ "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014". Ministry of Law and Justice. Government of India. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  10. ^ "The Gazette of India : The Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2014 Sub-section". 4 March 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
  11. ^ Sanchari Bhattacharya (June 1, 2014). Andhra Pradesh Minus Telangana: 10 Facts "Andhra Pradesh Minus Telangana: 10 Facts". NDTV. 
  12. ^ Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998
  13. ^ Krishna Reddy (2003). Indian History. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-048369-8. 
  14. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0436-8. 
  15. ^ Romila Thapar. A History of India: Part 1. 
  16. ^ G. Bongard-Levin. A History of India: Volume 1. 
  17. ^ Gupta Dynasty - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. 
  18. ^ "India - Historical Setting - The Classical Age - Gupta and Harsha". Historymedren.about.com. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  19. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN 0-19-560686-8. 
  20. ^ Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals. p. 202. 
  21. ^ "Regional states, c. 1700–1850". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 
  22. ^ Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. 
  23. ^ J.C. Aggarwal and S.P. Agrawal, editors, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future (New Delhi: Concept Publishing, 1995), p89-90
  24. ^ Nagaland History & Geography-Source india.gov.in
  25. ^ The Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966[dead link]
  26. ^ "State map of India". Travel India guide. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  27. ^ "Himachal Pradesh Tenth Five Year Plan" (PDF). Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  28. ^ Snapshot of North Eastern States
  29. ^ Bhargava, S. C. Bhatt, Gopal K. (2006). Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: In 36 Volumes. Sikkim. Gyan Publishing House. p. 13. ISBN 9788178353807. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  30. ^ Goa Chronology
  31. ^ "Chhattisgarh state - History". Cg.gov.in. 19 December 1979. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  32. ^ Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January 2007). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". TNN. The Time of India. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  33. ^ "About Us: Uttarakhand Government Portal, India". Uk.gov.in. 9 November 2000. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  34. ^ "Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". Jharkhand.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  35. ^ "India: Uttar Pradesh assembly backs state division". BBC News. 21 November 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. 

External links[edit]