Standard electrode potential (data page)

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The values of standard electrode potentials are given in the table below in volts relative to the standard hydrogen electrode and are for the following conditions:

Legend: (s) – solid; (l) – liquid; (g) – gas; (aq) – aqueous (default for all charged species); (Hg) – amalgam.

Half-reaction (V)[note 1]Ref.
Oxidantis in equilibrium withReductant
&-9
Zz9
Sr+ + eis in equilibrium withSr -4.10 −4.10[1]
Ca+ + eis in equilibrium withCa -3.80 −3.80[1]
Pr3+ + eis in equilibrium withPr2+ -3.1 −3.1[1]
N32N2(g) + H+ + eis in equilibrium withHN3(aq) -3.09 −3.09[2][3]
Li+ + eis in equilibrium withLi(s) -3.0401 −3.0401[3][4]
N2(g) + 4H2O + 2eis in equilibrium with2NH2OH(aq) + 2OH -3.04 −3.04[2]
Cs+ + eis in equilibrium withCs(s) -3.026 −3.026[3]
Ca(OH)2 + 2eis in equilibrium withCa + 2 OH- -3.02 −3.02[1]
Er3+ + eis in equilibrium withEr2+ -3.0 −3.0[1]
Ba(OH)2 + 2eis in equilibrium withBa + 2 OH- -2.99 −2.99[1]
Rb+ + eis in equilibrium withRb(s) -2.98 −2.98[3]
K+ + eis in equilibrium withK(s) -2.931 −2.931[3]
Ba2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withBa(s) -2.912 −2.912[3]
La(OH)3(s) + 3eis in equilibrium withLa(s) + 3OH -2.90 −2.90[3]
Fr+ + eis in equilibrium withFr -2.9 −2.9[1]
Sr2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withSr(s) -2.899 −2.899[3]
Sr(OH)2 + 2eis in equilibrium withSr + 2 OH- -2.88 −2.88[1]
Ca2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withCa(s) -2.868 −2.868[3]
Eu2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withEu(s) -2.812 −2.812[3]
Ra2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withRa(s) -2.8 −2.8[3]
Ho3+ + eis in equilibrium withHo2+ -2.8 −2.8[1]
Bk3+ + eis in equilibrium withBk2+ -2.8 −2.8[1]
Yb2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withYb -2.76 −2.76[1]
Na+ + eis in equilibrium withNa(s) -2.71 −2.71[3][5]
Mg+ + eis in equilibrium withMg -2.70 −2.70[1]
Nd3+ + eis in equilibrium withNd2+ -2.7 −2.7[1]
Mg(OH)2 + 2eis in equilibrium withMg + 2 OH- -2.690 −2.690[1]
Sm2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withSm -2.68 −2.68[1]
Be2O32- + 3 H2O + 4eis in equilibrium with2 Be + 6 OH- -2.63 −2.63[1]
Pm3+ + eis in equilibrium withPm2+ -2.6 −2.6[1]
Dy3+ + eis in equilibrium withDy2+ -2.6 −2.6[1]
No2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withNo -2.50 −2.50[1]
HfO(OH)2 + H2O + 4eis in equilibrium withHf + 4 OH- -2.50 −2.50[1]
Th(OH)4 + 4eis in equilibrium withTh + 4 OH- -2.48 −2.48[1]
Md2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withMd -2.40 −2.40[1]
Tm2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withTm -2.4 −2.4[1]
La3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withLa(s) -2.379 −2.379[3]
Y3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withY(s) -2.372 −2.372[3]
Mg2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withMg(s) -2.372 −2.372[3]
ZrO(OH)2(s) + H2O + 4eis in equilibrium withZr(s) + 4OH -2.36 −2.36[3]
Pr3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withPr -2.353 −2.353[1]
Ce3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withCe -2.336 −2.336[1]
Er3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withEr -2.331 −2.331[1]
Ho3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withHo -2.33 −2.33[1]
H2AlO3- + H2O + 3eis in equilibrium withAl + 4 OH- -2.33 −2.33[1]
Nd3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withNd -2.323 −2.323[1]
Tm3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withTm -2.319 −2.319[1]
Al(OH)3(s) + 3eis in equilibrium withAl(s) + 3OH -2.31 −2.31
Sm3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withSm -2.304 −2.304[1]
Fm2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withFm -2.30 −2.30[1]
Am3+ + eis in equilibrium withAm2+ -2.3 −2.3[1]
Dy3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withDy -2.295 −2.295[1]
Lu3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withLu -2.28 −2.28[1]
Tb3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withTb -2.28 −2.28[1]
Gd3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withGd -2.279 −2.279[1]
H2 + 2eis in equilibrium with2H- -2.23 −2.23[1]
Es2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withEs -2.23 −2.23[1]
Pm2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withPm -2.2 −2.2[1]
Tm3+ + eis in equilibrium withTm2+ -2.2 −2.2[1]
Dy2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withDy -2.2 −2.2[1]
Ac3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withAc -2.20 −2.20[1]
Yb3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withYb -2.19 −2.19[1]
Cf2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withCf -2.12 −2.12[1]
Nd2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withNd -2.1 −2.1[1]
Ho2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withHo -2.1 −2.1[1]
Sc3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withSc(s) -2.077 −2.077[6]
AlF63- + 3eis in equilibrium withAl + 6 F- -2.069 −2.069[1]
Am3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withAm -2.048 −2.048[1]
Cm3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withCm -2.04 −2.04[1]
Pu3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withPu -2.031 −2.031[1]
Pr2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withPr -2.0 −2.0[1]
Er2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withEr -2.0 −2.0[1]
Eu3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withEu -1.991 −1.991[1]
Lr3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withLr -1.96 −1.96[1]
Cf3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withCf -1.94 −1.94[1]
Es3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withEs -1.91 −1.91[1]
Pa4+ + eis in equilibrium withPa3+ -1.9 −1.9[1]
Am2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withAm -1.9 −1.9[1]
Th4+ + 4eis in equilibrium withTh -1.899 −1.899[1]
Fm3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withFm -1.89 −1.89[1]
Np3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withNp -1.856 −1.856[1]
Be2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withBe -1.847 −1.847[1]
H2PO2- + eis in equilibrium withP + 2 OH- -1.82 −1.82[1]
U3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withU -1.798 −1.798[1]
Sr2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withSr/Hg -1.793 −1.793[1]
H2BO3- + H2O + 3eis in equilibrium withB + 4 OH- -1.79 −1.79[1]
ThO2 + 4H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withTh + 2 H2O -1.789 −1.789[1]
HfO2+ + 2 H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withHf + H2O -1.724 −1.724[1]
HPO32- + 2 H2O + 3eis in equilibrium withP + 5 OH- -1.71 −1.71[1]
SiO32- + H2O + 4eis in equilibrium withSi + 6 OH- -1.697 −1.697[1]
Al3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withAl(s) -1.662 −1.662[1]
Ti2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withTi(s) -1.63 −1.63[5]
ZrO2(s) + 4H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withZr(s) + 2H2O -1.553 −1.553[7]
Zr4+ + 4eis in equilibrium withZr(s) -1.45 −1.45[7]
Ti3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withTi(s) -1.37 −1.37[8]
TiO(s) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withTi(s) + H2O -1.31 −1.31
Ti2O3(s) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium with2TiO(s) + H2O -1.23 −1.23
Zn(OH)42- + 2eis in equilibrium withZn(s) + 4OH -1.199 −1.199[7]
Mn2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withMn(s) -1.185 −1.185[7]
Fe(CN)64- + 6H+ + 2 eis in equilibrium withFe(s) + 6HCN(aq) -1.16 −1.16[9]
Te(s) + 2eis in equilibrium withTe2- -1.143 −1.143[10]
V2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withV(s) -1.13 −1.13[10]
Nb3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withNb(s) -1.099 −1.099
Sn(s) + 4H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withSnH4(g) -1.07 −1.07
SiO2(s) + 4H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withSi(s) + 2H2O -0.91 −0.91
B(OH)3(aq) + 3H+ + 3eis in equilibrium withB(s) + 3H2O -0.89 −0.89
Fe(OH)2(s) + 2eis in equilibrium withFe(s) + 2OH -0.89 −0.89[9]
Fe2O3(s) + 3H2O + 2eis in equilibrium with2Fe(OH)2(s) + 2OH -0.86 −0.86[9]
TiO2+ + 2H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withTi(s) + H2O -0.86 −0.86
H2H2O + 2eis in equilibrium withH2(g) + 2OH -0.8277 −0.8277[7]
Bi(s) + 3H+ + 3eis in equilibrium withBiH3 -0.8 −0.8[7]
Zn2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withZn(Hg) -0.7628 −0.7628[7]
Zn2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withZn(s) -0.7618 −0.7618[7]
Ta2O5(s) + 10H+ + 10eis in equilibrium with2Ta(s) + 5H2O -0.75 −0.75
Cr3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withCr(s) -0.74 −0.74
Au[Au(CN)2]- + eis in equilibrium withAu(s) + 2CN- -0.60 −0.60
Ta3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withTa(s) -0.6 −0.6
PbO(s) + H2O + 2eis in equilibrium withPb(s) + 2OH -0.58 −0.58
Ti2TiO2(s) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withTi2O3(s) + H2O -0.56 −0.56
Ga3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withGa(s) -0.53 −0.53
U4+ + eis in equilibrium withU3+ -0.52 −0.52[11]
P H3PO2(aq) + H+ + eis in equilibrium withP(white)[note 2] + 2H2O -0.508 −0.508[7]
P H3PO3(aq) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withH3PO2(aq) + H2O -0.499 −0.499[7]
P H3PO3(aq) + 3H+ + 3eis in equilibrium withP(red)[note 2] + 3H2O -0.454 −0.454[7]
Fe2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withFe(s) -0.44 −0.44[5]
C2CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withHOOCCOOH(aq) -0.43 −0.43
Cr3+ + eis in equilibrium withCr2+ -0.42 −0.42
Cd2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withCd(s) -0.40 −0.40[5]
GeO2(s) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withGeO(s) + H2O -0.37 −0.37
Cu2O(s) + H2O + 2eis in equilibrium with2Cu(s) + 2OH -0.360 −0.360[7]
PbSO4(s) + 2eis in equilibrium withPb(s) + SO42- -0.3588 −0.3588[7]
PbSO4(s) + 2eis in equilibrium withPb(Hg) + SO42- -0.3505 −0.3505[7]
Eu3+ + eis in equilibrium withEu2+ -0.35 −0.35[11]
In3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withIn(s) -0.34 −0.34[10]
Tl+ + eis in equilibrium withTl(s) -0.34 −0.34[10]
Ge(s) + 4H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withGeH4(g) -0.29 −0.29
Co2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withCo(s) -0.28 −0.28[7]
P H3PO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withH3PO3(aq) + H2O -0.276 −0.276[7]
V3+ + eis in equilibrium withV2+ -0.26 −0.26[5]
Ni2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withNi(s) -0.25 −0.25
As(s) + 3H+ + 3eis in equilibrium withAsH3(g) -0.23 −0.23[10]
AgI(s) + eis in equilibrium withAg(s) + I- -0.15224 −0.15224[7]
MoO2(s) + 4H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withMo(s) + 2H2O -0.15 −0.15
Si(s) + 4H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withSiH4(g) -0.14 −0.14
Sn2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withSn(s) -0.13 −0.13
O2(g) + H+ + eis in equilibrium withHO2•(aq) -0.13 −0.13
Pb2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withPb(s) -0.13 −0.13[5]
WO2(s) + 4H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withW(s) + 2H2O -0.12 −0.12
P(red) + 3H+ + 3eis in equilibrium withPH3(g) -0.111 −0.111[7]
C CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withHCOOH(aq) -0.11 −0.11
Se(s) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withH2Se(g) -0.11 −0.11
C CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withCO(g) + H2O -0.11 −0.11
SnO(s) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withSn(s) + H2O -0.10 −0.10
SnO2(s) + 4H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withSnO(s) + 2H2O -0.09 −0.09
WO3(aq) + 6H+ + 6eis in equilibrium withW(s) + 3H2O -0.09 −0.09[10]
P(white) + 3H+ + 3eis in equilibrium withPH3(g) -0.063 −0.063[7]
Fe3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withFe(s) -0.04 −0.04[9]
C HCOOH(aq) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withHCHO(aq) + H2O -0.03 −0.03
H 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withH2(g)   0.0000= 0
AgBr(s) + eis in equilibrium withAg(s) + Br- +0.07133[7]
S4O62- + 2eis in equilibrium with2S2O32- +0.08
Fe3O4(s) + 8H+ + 8eis in equilibrium with3Fe(s) + 4H2O +0.085[12]
N2(g) + 2H2O + 6H+ + 6eis in equilibrium with2NH4OH(aq) +0.092
HgO(s) + H2O + 2eis in equilibrium withHg(l) + 2OH +0.0977
Cu(NH3)42+ + eis in equilibrium withCu(NH3)2+ + 2NH3 +0.10[10]
Ru(NH3)63+ + eis in equilibrium withRu(NH3)62+ +0.10[11]
N2H4(aq) + 4H2O + 2eis in equilibrium with2NH4+ + 4OH +0.11[2]
Mo H2MoO4(aq) + 6H+ + 6eis in equilibrium withMo(s) + 4H2O +0.11
Ge4+ + 4eis in equilibrium withGe(s) +0.12
C(s) + 4H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withCH4(g) +0.13[10]
C HCHO(aq) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withCH3OH(aq) +0.13
S(s) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withH2S(g) +0.14
Sn4+ + 2eis in equilibrium withSn2+ +0.15
Cu2+ + eis in equilibrium withCu+ +0.159[10]
S HSO4- + 3H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withSO2(aq) + 2H2O +0.16
UO22+ + eis in equilibrium withUO2+ +0.163[11]
S SO42- + 4H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withSO2(aq) + 2H2O +0.17
TiO2+ + 2H+ + eis in equilibrium withTi3+ + H2O +0.19
SbO+ + 2H+ + 3eis in equilibrium withSb(s) + H2O +0.20
AgCl(s) + eis in equilibrium withAg(s) + Cl- +0.22233[7]
As H3AsO3(aq) + 3H+ + 3eis in equilibrium withAs(s) + 3H2O +0.24
GeO(s) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withGe(s) + H2O +0.26
UO2+ + 4H+ + eis in equilibrium withU4+ + 2H2O +0.273[11]
Re3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withRe(s) +0.300
Bi3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withBi(s) +0.308[7]
VO2+ + 2H+ + eis in equilibrium withV3+ + H2O +0.34
Cu2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withCu(s) +0.340[10]
Fe [Fe(CN)6]3- + eis in equilibrium with[Fe(CN)6]4- +0.36
O2(g) + 2H2O + 4eis in equilibrium with4OH(aq) +0.40[5]
Mo H2MoO4 + 6H+ + 3eis in equilibrium withMo3+ + 2H2O +0.43
C CH3OH(aq) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withCH4(g) + H2O +0.50
S SO2(aq) + 4H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withS(s) + 2H2O +0.50
Cu+ + eis in equilibrium withCu(s) +0.520[10]
C CO(g) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withC(s) + H2O +0.52
I3- + 2eis in equilibrium with3I- +0.53[5]
I2(s) + 2eis in equilibrium with2I- +0.54[5]
Au [AuI4]- + 3eis in equilibrium withAu(s) + 4I- +0.56
As H3AsO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withH3AsO3(aq) + H2O +0.56
Au [AuI2]- + eis in equilibrium withAu(s) + 2I- +0.58
MnO4- + 2H2O + 3eis in equilibrium withMnO2(s) + 4OH +0.59
S2O32- + 6H+ + 4eis in equilibrium with2S(s) + 3H2O +0.60
Fc+ + eis in equilibrium withFc(s) +0.641[13]
Mo H2MoO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withMoO2(s) + 2H2O +0.65
C 1,4-Benzochinon.svg + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withHydrochinon2.svg +0.6992[7]
O2(g) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withH2O2(aq) +0.70
Tl3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withTl(s) +0.72
PtCl62- + 2eis in equilibrium withPtCl42- + 2Cl- +0.726[11]
Se H2SeO3(aq) + 4H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withSe(s) + 3H2O +0.74
PtCl42- + 2eis in equilibrium withPt(s) + 4Cl- +0.758[11]
Fe3+ + eis in equilibrium withFe2+ +0.77
Ag+ + eis in equilibrium withAg(s) +0.7996[7]
Hg22+ + 2eis in equilibrium with2Hg(l) +0.80
N NO3-(aq) + 2H+ + eis in equilibrium withNO2(g) + H2O +0.80
Fe 2FeO42- + 5H2O + 6eis in equilibrium withFe2O3(s) + 10 OH +0.81[9]
Au [AuBr4]- + 3eis in equilibrium withAu(s) + 4Br- +0.85
Hg2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withHg(l) +0.85
Ir [IrCl6]2- + eis in equilibrium with[IrCl6]3- +0.87[4]
MnO4- + H+ + eis in equilibrium withHMnO4- +0.90
Hg2Hg2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withHg22+ +0.91[10]
Pd2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withPd(s) +0.915[11]
Au [AuCl4]- + 3eis in equilibrium withAu(s) + 4Cl- +0.93
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + eis in equilibrium withMn3+ + 2H2O +0.95
Au[AuBr2]- + eis in equilibrium withAu(s) + 2Br- +0.96
Xe[HXeO6]3- + 2H2O + 2e +is in equilibrium with[HXeO4]- + 4OH +0.99[14]
[VO2]+(aq) + 2H+ + eis in equilibrium with[VO]2+(aq) + H2O +1.0[15]
TeH6TeO6(aq) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withTeO2(s) + 4H2O +1.02[15]
Br2(l) + 2eis in equilibrium with2Br- +1.066[7]
Br2(aq) + 2eis in equilibrium with2Br- +1.0873[7]
I IO3- + 5H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withHIO(aq) + 2H2O +1.13
Au [AuCl2]- + eis in equilibrium withAu(s) + 2Cl- +1.15
Se HSeO4- + 3H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withH2SeO3(aq) + H2O +1.15
Ag2O(s) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium with2Ag(s) + H2O +1.17
ClO3- + 2H+ + eis in equilibrium withClO2(g) + H2O +1.18
Xe[HXeO6]3- + 5H2O + 8 eis in equilibrium withXe(g) + 11OH +1.18[14]
Pt2+ + 2eis in equilibrium withPt(s) +1.188[11]
ClO2(g) + H+ + eis in equilibrium withHClO2(aq) +1.19
I 2IO3- + 12H+ + 10eis in equilibrium withI2(s) + 6H2O +1.20
ClO4- + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withClO3- + H2O +1.20
O2(g) + 4H+ + 4eis in equilibrium with2H2O +1.229[5]
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withMn2+ + 2H2O +1.23
Xe[HXeO4]- + 3H2O + 6 eis in equilibrium withXe(g) + 7OH +1.24[14]
Tl3+ + 2eis in equilibrium withTl+ +1.25
Cr2O72- + 14H+ + 6eis in equilibrium with2Cr3+ + 7H2O +1.33
Cl2(g) + 2eis in equilibrium with2Cl- +1.36[5]
CoO2(s) + 4H+ + eis in equilibrium withCo3+ + 2H2O +1.42
N 2[[Hydroxylamine|NH3OH+]] + H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withN2H5+ + 2H2O +1.42[2]
I 2HIO(aq) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withI2(s) + 2H2O +1.44
BrO3- + 5H+ + 4eis in equilibrium withHBrO(aq) + 2H2O +1.45
PbO ß-PbO2(s) + 4H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withPb2+ + 2H2O +1.460[10]
PbO a-PbO2(s) + 4H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withPb2+ + 2H2O +1.468[10]
Br 2BrO3- + 12H+ + 10eis in equilibrium withBr2(l) + 6H2O +1.48
Cl 2ClO3- + 12H+ + 10eis in equilibrium withCl2(g) + 6H2O +1.49
Cl HClO(aq) + H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withCl(aq) + H2O +1.49[1]
MnO4- + 8H+ + 5eis in equilibrium withMn2+ + 4H2O +1.51
O HO2 + H+ + eis in equilibrium withH2O2(aq) +1.51
Au3+ + 3eis in equilibrium withAu(s) +1.52
NiO2(s) + 4H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withNi2+ + 2OH +1.59
Ce4+ + eis in equilibrium withCe3+ +1.61
Cl 2HClO(aq) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withCl2(g) + 2H2O +1.63
Ag2O3(s) + 6H+ + 4eis in equilibrium with2Ag+ + 3H2O +1.67
Cl HClO2(aq) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withHClO(aq) + H2O +1.67
Pb4+ + 2eis in equilibrium withPb2+ +1.69[10]
MnO4- + 4H+ + 3eis in equilibrium withMnO2(s) + 2H2O +1.70
AgO(s) + 2H+ + eis in equilibrium withAg+ + H2O +1.77
O H2O2(aq) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium with2H2O +1.78
Co3+ + eis in equilibrium withCo2+ +1.82
Au+ + eis in equilibrium withAu(s) +1.83[10]
BrO4- + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withBrO3- + H2O +1.85
Ag2+ + eis in equilibrium withAg+ +1.98[10]
S2O82− + 2eis in equilibrium with2SO42- +2.010[7]
O3(g) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withO2(g) + H2O +2.075[11]
Mn HMnO4- + 3H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withMnO2(s) + 2H2O +2.09
XeO3(aq) + 6H+ + 6 eis in equilibrium withXe(g) + 3H2O +2.12[14]
XeH4XeO6(aq) + 8H+ + 8 eis in equilibrium withXe(g) + 6 H2O +2.18[14]
FeO42- + 3e + 8H+is in equilibrium withFe3+ + 4H2O +2.20[16]
XeF2(aq) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withXe(g) + 2HF(aq) +2.32[14]
XeH4XeO6(aq) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium withXeO3(aq) + H2O +2.42[14]
F2(g) + 2eis in equilibrium with2F- +2.87[4][5][10]
F2(g) + 2H+ + 2eis in equilibrium with2HF(aq) +3.05[10]
  1. ^ Clicking on this column to re-sort by potential didn’t work in the Safari web browser in v. 4.0.3 or earlier (but works in v. 4.0.5). In this case just reload the page to restore the original order.
  2. ^ a b Not specified in the indicated reference, but assumed due to the difference between the value -0.454 and that computed by (2×-0.499 + -0.508)/3 = -0.502 exactly matching the difference between the values for white (-0.063) and red (-0.111) phosphorus in equilibrium with PH3.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu Lide, David R., ed. (2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3. 
  2. ^ a b c d Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0080379419. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Vanýsek, Petr (2011). “Electrochemical Series”, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 92nd Edition (Chemical Rubber Company).
  4. ^ a b c Atkins, Peter (2010). Inorganic Chemistry (5th Edition). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-42-921820-7. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Peter Atkins (1997). Physical Chemistry, 6th edition (W.H. Freeman and Company, New York).
  6. ^ David R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Internet Version 2005, <http://www.hbcpnetbase.com>, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2005.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Vanýsek, Petr (2012). "Electrochemical Series". In Haynes, William M. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 93rd Edition. Chemical Rubber Company. pp. 5–80. ISBN 9781439880494. .
  8. ^ Gordon Aylward & Tristan Findlay (2008). "SI Chemical Data", 6th edition (John Wiley & Sons, Australia), ISBN 978-0-470-81638-7.
  9. ^ a b c d e WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements | Iron | compounds information
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Bard, A. J., Parsons, R., and Jordan, J. (1985). Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions (Marcel Dekker, New York).
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bard, A.J., Faulkner, L.R.(2001). Electrochemical Methods. Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd edition (John Wiley and Sons Inc).
  12. ^ Marcel Pourbaix (1966). Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions (NACE International, Houston, Texas; Cebelcor, Brussels).
  13. ^ Connelly, Neil G.; Geiger, William E. (1 January 1996). "Chemical Redox Agents for Organometallic Chemistry". Chemical Reviews 96 (2): 877–910. doi:10.1021/cr940053x. PMID 11848774. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements | Xenon | compounds information
  15. ^ a b Cotton, F. Albert; Wilkinson, Geoffrey; Murillo, Carlos A.; Bochmann, Manfred (1999), Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (6th ed.), New York: Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 0-471-19957-5 
  16. ^ Redox Reactions, Western Oregon University website

See also[edit]