St. Louis tornado history

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The St. Louis, Missouri metropolitan area has a history of tornadoes. The third deadliest, and the costliest in United States history, the 1896 St. Louis – East St. Louis tornado, injured more than one thousand people and caused at least 255 fatalities in the City of St. Louis and in East St. Louis. The second costliest tornado also occurred in St. Louis in September 1927.[1] More tornado fatalities occurred in St. Louis than any other city in the United States.[2] Also noteworthy is that destructive tornadoes occurred in winter and autumn, as well as the typical months of spring. Additionally, damaging tornadoes occurred in the morning and late at night, as well as the more common late afternoon to early evening maximum period.

In April 2011, an EF4 tornado on Good Friday caused widespread damage along a 22-mile track across the northern part of the St. Louis metropolitan area; including significant damage to Lambert International Airport, causing a complete shutdown for over 24 hours, but no deaths.[3] Prior to that event, a F4 tornado also struck the northern metro, and killed three in January 1967.[4] Another F4 tornado struck the Granite City and Edwardsville, Illinois area in April 1981.[5]

Contents

City of St. Louis tornadoes[edit source | edit]

[6]

DateLocationRatingCasualtiesNotes
March 8, 1871St. Louis - East St. Louis - St. Clair County, IllinoisF39 fatalities, 60 injuriesSee: 1871 St. Louis tornado
March 29, 18727th StreetF11 possible fatality, 8 injuries
January 12, 1890St. Louis - Madison County, IllinoisF24 fatalities, 15 injuries
May 27, 1896St. Louis - East St. Louis - St. Clair CountyF4255 fatalities, 1000 injuriesCostliest and third deadliest tornado in U.S. history (see: St. Louis-East St. Louis tornado) [7]
August 19, 1904St. Louis - Madison CountyF23 fatalities, 10 injuries
September 29, 1927Webster Groves - St. LouisF479 fatalities, 550 injuries2nd costliest and at least 25th deadliest tornado in U.S. history. A meteorologist who saw the tornado come to ground on the south side of Kingshighway Boulevard at about Laclede and wrote an account of the storm, states there were two tornadoes. The first hit along the Manchester Avenue industrial district southwest of Forest Park. Through the years the two tornadoes were blended into one.
September 16, 1958St. LouisF10 fatalities
February 10, 1959Ellisville - St. Louis - Madison CountyF421 fatalities, 345 injuriesVery similar path to 1871, 1896, 1927 tornadoes; 68th deadliest in U.S. history. Many witnesses said that as the tornado hit the Arena and Forest Park Highlands and crossed the Express Highway there were two funnels side by side. There was evidence of damage occurring away from the main path also. But all this detail was, as happens, quickly lost to time.
May 1, 1983St. Louis - Madison CountyF23 injuries
March 31, 2007Midtown St. LouisEF05 injuriesLate-March 2007 tornado outbreak [8]
December 31, 2010North St. LouisEF10 fatalities2010 New Year's Eve tornado outbreak [9]
April 22, 2011Riverview, St. LouisEF40 fatalities, some injuries2011 St. Louis tornado during April 19–24, 2011 tornado outbreak sequence [3]
April 10, 2013The Hill, St. LouisEF00 fatalities[10]
May 31, 2013Riverview, St. LouisEF32 injuriesSt. Charles County to St. Louis County to extreme northern St. Louis City at 32.5 mi over 35 min with max width 1 mi[11] (see: May 26–31, 2013 tornado outbreak)

Greater St. Louis area tornadoes[edit source | edit]

These tables describe the tornado history for Greater St. Louis. In Missouri, this includes the counties of St. Louis, St. Charles, Franklin, and Jefferson. In Illinois, this includes the counties of Madison, St. Clair, and Monroe. Data for the independent city of St. Louis is not part of these tables unless part of the path of the tornado striking these counties also struck the city.

1870–1950[edit source | edit]

DateLocationCountiesRatingCasualtiesNotes[12]
July 13, 1870St. Clair
March 8, 1871St. Clair
June 30, 1877St. Louis
May 18, 1878St. Louis
January 12, 1890St. Louis
March 27, 1890St. Clair
May 27, 1896St. LouisSt. Louis City, St. Clair
May 27, 1896St. Clair, Clinton
May 14, 1909St. Louis
September 29, 1927St. Louis
September 1, 1931St. Louis
March 15, 1938St. Clair
March 15, 1938St. Clair
May 24, 1952St. Clair
May 21, 1949St. Louis
May 21, 1949St. Louis

1950s[edit source | edit]

DateLocationCountiesRatingCasualtiesNotes
January 3, 1950St. Louis
March 25, 1954St. Louis
October 6, 1955St. Clair
October 6, 1955St. Clair
February 24, 1956St. Louis, St. Clair
February 24, 1956St. Clair
September 15, 1956St. Clair
August 30, 1956St. Louis
April 25, 1957St. Clair
May 9, 1957St. Louis
May 21, 1957St. Clair
May 22, 1957St. Louis
April 5, 1958St. Clair
April 23, 1958St. Louis
May 3, 1958St. Louis
May 3, 1958St. Clair
May 31, 1958St. Clair
June 1, 1958St. Clair
February 10, 1959St. Louis
February 10, 1959St. Louis
May 10, 1959St. Clair

1960–1980[edit source | edit]

DateLocationCountiesRatingCasualtiesNotes
March 29, 1960St. Clair
September 24, 1961St. Clair
January 24, 1967St. LouisF43 deaths, 216 injuredFourth worst tornado in history to hit the St. Louis Metropolitan Area, last F4 tornado to affect St. Louis County or City until April 22, 2011.[4]
August 3, 1967St. Clair
October 24, 1967St. Louis
April 3, 1968St. Clair
May 15, 1968St. Clair
August 15, 1968St. Louis
June 1, 1970St. Louis
May 7, 1973St. Louis
May 26, 1973St. Louis
June 4, 1973St. Clair
March 7, 1975St. Louis
March 20, 1976St. Clair
February 23, 1977St. Louis
May 12, 1978St. Louis

1980–2000[edit source | edit]

DateLocationCountiesRatingCasualtiesNotes
April 7, 1980St. Louis
May 1, 1983St. Clair
April 3, 1984St. Clair
May 25, 1984St. Clair
November 15, 1988St. Clair
November 15. 1988St. Clair
November 26, 1990St. Clair
May 10, 1991St. Clair
May 11, 1991St. Clair
July 4, 1992St. Clair
May 9, 1995St. Clair
May 18, 1995St. Clair
May 18, 1995St. Clair
April 19, 1996St. Clair
June 10, 1996St. Louis
April 13, 1998St. Louis
April 15, 1998St. Clair
April 15, 1998St. Clair

2000—[edit source | edit]

DateLocationCountiesRatingCasualtiesNotes
June 24, 2000St. Clair
April 10, 2001St. LouisMost costly hailstorm in U.S. History. 4 inch dia. hail in Florissant.[13]
April 27, 2002St. Clair
June 10, 2003St. Clair
June 10, 2003St. Clair
June 10, 2003St. Clair
June 10, 2003St. Clair
November 27, 2005Webster Groves, MaplewoodSt. LouisF00Late-November 2005 Tornado Outbreak[14]
January 2, 2006Creve CoeurSt. LouisF10
March 11, 2006Festus, MissouriJeffersonF30Part of a three day tornado outbreak across Missouri[15]
April 2, 2006Fairview Heights, O'Fallon, IllinoisSt. ClairEF21[16]
July 23, 2006Troy, IllinoisMadisonF10Part of the July 2006 derechoes event[17]
June 8, 2009St. ClairEF2[18]
December 31, 2010Byrnes MillJefferson
December 31, 2010FentonSt. Louis
December 31, 2010BallwinSt. Louis
December 31, 2010Sunset Hills, MissouriSt. LouisEF312010 New Year's Eve tornado outbreak
February 27, 2011Troy, IllinoisMadisonEF10
April 22, 2011Foristell, New Melle, Maryland Heights, Bridgeton, St. Ann, Edmundson, Kinloch, Berkeley, Ferguson, Dellwood, Bellefontaine Neighbors, Moline Acres, Riverview, St. Louis, Pontoon Beach, Granite CitySt. Charles, St. Louis, St. Louis City, St. Clair, MadisonEF40 fatalities, some injuriesMain article: 2011 St. Louis tornado. Significant damage in North St. Louis County in Maryland Heights, St. Ann, Bridgeton, Berkeley, and Ferguson. Lambert International Airport (EF3) closed due to widespread damage, windows blown out, and the destruction of Concourse C.[3]
April 10, 2013St. AlbansFranklinEF10 fatalities[10]
April 10, 2013Bridgeton, Hazelwood, FlorissantSt. LouisEF20 fatalities[10]
May 31, 2013Harvester, Earth City, Bridgeton, Ferguson, Bellefontaine Neighbors, St. LouisSt. Charles, St. Louis, St. Louis CityEF32 injuries[19]32.5 mi path over 35 min and 1 mi max width[11]
May 31, 2013South RoxannaMadisonEF30[11]
May 31, 2013Byrnes Mill, ScotsdaleJeffersonEF10[11]
May 31, 2013FranklinEF10[11]

See also[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Brooks, Harold E.; Charles A. Doswell III (February 2001). "Normalized Damage from Major Tornadoes in the United States: 1890–1999". Weather and Forecasting 16 (1): 168–76. doi:10.1175/1520-0434(2001)016<0168:NDFMTI>2.0.CO;2. 
  2. ^ Smith, Mike (2010). Warnings: The True Story of How Science Tamed the Weather. Austin, TX: Greenleaf. pp. 134–5. ISBN 978-1608320349. 
  3. ^ a b c April 22 Tornadic Supercell Greater St. Louis Metropolitan Area, National Weather Service, St. Louis, Missouri. April 23, 2011.
  4. ^ a b F4 St. Louis County Tornado, 24 January 1967, National Weather Service, St. Louis, Missouri
  5. ^ Violent (F4-F5) Tornadoes in the NWS St. Louis County Warning Area
  6. ^ NWS list of tornadoes in City of St. Louis
  7. ^ May 1896 St. Louis Tornado
  8. ^ Bow Echo Event over the city of St. Louis, Missouri March 31st, 2007
  9. ^ New Years Eve Tornado Outbreak December 31 2010, National Weather Service, St. Louis, Missouri.
  10. ^ a b c Severe Weather Event - Squall Line St. Louis Metropolitan Tornadoes April 10 2013
  11. ^ a b c d e Severe Thunderstorms Produce Straight Line Wind Damage and Nine Tornadoes May 31 2013
  12. ^ St. Louis Area Tornado Climatology
  13. ^ The April 10, 2001 Historic Hailstorm and Supercell, National Weather Service, St. Louis, Missouri.
  14. ^ November 27, 2005 Severe Weather Event Downburst Winds and an Isolated Tornado in Maplewood, Missouri, National Weather Service, St. Louis, Missouri.
  15. ^ 11 March 2006 - Tornado Outbreak, National Weather Service, St. Louis, Missouri
  16. ^ 2 April 2006 - Severe Thunderstorm Outbreak, National Weather Service, St. Louis, Missouri
  17. ^ Largest Power Outage in the History of St. Louis, National Weather Service, St. Louis, Missouri.
  18. ^ June 8, 2009 EF2 Tornado St. Clair County, Illinois, National Weather Service, St. Louis, Missouri.
  19. ^ St. Louis tornado: Twister moves 32 miles, was on ground for 35 minutes, KSHB.

External links[edit source | edit]