St. Elsewhere

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St. Elsewhere
Stelsewhere.jpg
FormatMedical drama
Created byJoshua Brand
John Falsey
Developed byMark Tinker
John Masius
StarringEd Flanders
David Birney
Norman Lloyd
William Daniels
Ronny Cox
G.W. Bailey
Bonnie Bartlett
Ed Begley, Jr.
Ellen Bry
Stephen Furst
Bruce Greenwood
Mark Harmon
Terence Knox
Eric Laneuville
Sagan Lewis
Howie Mandel
Kim Miyori
David Morse
France Nuyen
Cindy Pickett
Christina Pickles
Kavi Raz
Jennifer Savidge
Cynthia Sikes
Nancy Stafford
Denzel Washington
Theme music composerDave Grusin
Composer(s)Dave Grusin
J.A.C. Redford
Country of originUnited States
Original language(s)English
No. of seasons6
No. of episodes137 (List of episodes)
Production
Location(s)CBS Studio Center
Studio City, Los Angeles, California
Running time45–48 minutes
Broadcast
Original channelNBC
Audio formatMonaural (Seasons 1-5)
Stereo (Season 6)
Original runOctober 26, 1982 (1982-10-26) – May 25, 1988 (1988-05-25)
 
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St. Elsewhere
Stelsewhere.jpg
FormatMedical drama
Created byJoshua Brand
John Falsey
Developed byMark Tinker
John Masius
StarringEd Flanders
David Birney
Norman Lloyd
William Daniels
Ronny Cox
G.W. Bailey
Bonnie Bartlett
Ed Begley, Jr.
Ellen Bry
Stephen Furst
Bruce Greenwood
Mark Harmon
Terence Knox
Eric Laneuville
Sagan Lewis
Howie Mandel
Kim Miyori
David Morse
France Nuyen
Cindy Pickett
Christina Pickles
Kavi Raz
Jennifer Savidge
Cynthia Sikes
Nancy Stafford
Denzel Washington
Theme music composerDave Grusin
Composer(s)Dave Grusin
J.A.C. Redford
Country of originUnited States
Original language(s)English
No. of seasons6
No. of episodes137 (List of episodes)
Production
Location(s)CBS Studio Center
Studio City, Los Angeles, California
Running time45–48 minutes
Broadcast
Original channelNBC
Audio formatMonaural (Seasons 1-5)
Stereo (Season 6)
Original runOctober 26, 1982 (1982-10-26) – May 25, 1988 (1988-05-25)

St. Elsewhere is an American medical drama television series that originally ran on NBC from October 26, 1982 to May 25, 1988. The series starred Ed Flanders, Norman Lloyd and William Daniels as teaching doctors at a lightly regarded Boston hospital who gave interns a promising future in making critical medical and life decisions. The series was produced by MTM Enterprises, which had success with a similar NBC series, the police drama Hill Street Blues, during that same time; both series were often compared to each other for their use of ensemble casts and overlapping serialized storylines (an original ad for St Elsewhere quoted a critic that called the series "Hill Street Blues in a hospital"). St. Elsewhere was filmed at CBS/MTM Studios, which was known as CBS/Fox Studios when the show began; coincidentally, 20th Century Fox wound up acquiring the rights to the series when it bought MTM Enterprises in the 1990s.

Known for its combination of gritty, realistic drama and moments of black comedy, St. Elsewhere gained a small yet loyal following (the series never ranked higher than 49th place in the yearly Nielsen ratings) over its 6-season, 137-episode run; the series also found a strong audience in Nielsen's 18-49 age demographic, a young demo later known for a young, affluent audience that TV advertisers are eager to reach.[1] The series also earned critical acclaim during its run, earning 13 Emmy Awards for its writing, acting, and directing. St. Elsewhere was ranked #20 on TV Guide's 2002 list of "The 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time.",[2] with the magazine also selecting it as the best drama series of the 1980s in a 1993 issue.[3]

Overview[edit]

St. Elsewhere was set at fictional St. Eligius, a decaying urban teaching hospital in Boston's South End neighborhood. (The Franklin Square House Apartments in Boston stood in for the hospital in exterior shots, including the series' opening sequence.) The hospital's nickname, "St. Elsewhere," is a slang term used in the medical industry to refer to lesser-equipped hospitals that serve patients turned away by more prestigious institutions; it is also used in medical academia to refer to teaching hospitals in general (to the further detriment of St. Eligius' reputation). In the pilot episode, surgeon Dr. Mark Craig (William Daniels' character) informs his colleagues that the local Boston media have bestowed the derogatory nickname upon St. Eligius since they perceive the hospital as "a dumping ground, a place you wouldn't want to send your mother-in-law." In fact, the hospital is so poorly thought of that its shrine to Saint Eligius is commonly defiled by the hospital's visitors and staff, and is passingly referred to by Dr. Wayne Fiscus as "the patron saint of longshoremen and bowlers." (Eligius is neither, in actuality, though he is patron saint of numismatists, metalworkers, and horses.)

Just as in Hill Street Blues, St. Elsewhere employed a large ensemble cast; a gritty, "realistic" visual style; and a profusion of interlocking serialized stories, many of which continued over the course of several episodes, if not multiple seasons. In the same way Hill Street was regarded as a groundbreaking police drama, St. Elsewhere would also break new ground in medical dramas, creating a template that would influence later medical dramas such as ER and Chicago Hope: Here, the medical profession was an admirable but less-than-perfect endeavor; the St. Eligius staff, while mostly having good intentions in serving their patients, all had their own personal and professional problems, with the two often intertwining; their problems, and that of their patients (some of whom didn't survive), were often contemporary in nature, with storylines involving breast cancer, AIDS, and addiction. Though the series dealt with serious issues of life, death, the medical profession, and the human effects of all three, a substantial amount of black comedic moments and inside jokes and references to TV history were included, not to mention tender moments of humanity.[4]

The producers for the series were Bruce Paltrow, Mark Tinker, John Masius, Tom Fontana, John Falsey and Abby Singer. Tinker, Masius, Fontana, and Paltrow wrote a number of episodes as well; other writers included John Tinker, John Ford Noonan, Charles H. Eglee, Eric Overmyer, Channing Gibson, and Aram Saroyan.

The show's main and end title theme was composed by famed jazz musician and composer Dave Grusin. Noted film and TV composer J.A.C. Redford wrote the music for the series (except for the pilot, which was scored by Grusin). No soundtrack was ever released, but the theme was released in two different versions: the original TV mix and edit appeared on TVT Records' compilation Television's Greatest Hits, Vol. 3: 70s & 80s, and Grusin recorded a full-length version (4:13) for inclusion on his Night Lines album, released in 1983.

Cast[edit]

The cast of St. Elsewhere (first season, 1982–1983)

In addition to using such established actors as Ed Flanders, Norman Lloyd and William Daniels, St. Elsewhere is also noted for a strong ensemble cast that included David Morse, Alfre Woodard, Bruce Greenwood, Christina Pickles, Kyle Secor, Ed Begley, Jr., Stephen Furst, Howie Mandel, Mark Harmon, and future Academy Award winners Denzel Washington and Helen Hunt. Notable guest stars included Tim Robbins, whose first major role was in the series' first three episodes (as domestic terrorist Andrew Reinhardt), and Doris Roberts and James Coco, who both earned Emmy Awards for their Season 1 appearance as, respectively, a bag lady and her retarded husband.

Selected episodes[edit]

St. Elsewhere ran for 6 seasons and 137 episodes; the first season (1982–1983) aired Tuesdays at 10 p.m. (ET), with remaining seasons airing Wednesdays at 10 p.m.

St. Elsewhere was noteworthy for featuring episodes with unusual aspects or significant changes to the series' status quo. Some of those episodes have included:

"Newheart"[edit]

Original air date: November 9, 1983

Dr. Morrison learns of the death of his wife, Nina (whom he had an argument with in an early scene of this episode), after slipping and hitting her head. Nina's heart is donated to a heart transplant patient — a patient of Dr. Craig. The poignant final scene of the episode finds Morrison entering the patient's room and, with a stethoscope, hears the patient's new heart — Nina's heart — steadily beating.

"Cheers"[edit]

Original air date: March 27, 1985

St. Elsewhere ended its 3rd season with this TV crossover that found Drs. Westphall, Auschlander, and Craig getting together at that other Boston TV institution, the namesake setting of the comedy series Cheers. The scene, which was filmed on the main Cheers soundstage (Stage 25 at the Paramount Studios lot) and not entirely done for laughs, finds the bar's hypochondriac know-it-all Cliff Clavin, trying and failing to gain free medical advice from the doctors; Auschlander confronting his former accountant, Norm Peterson; and barmaid Carla Tortelli voicing her displeasure with the doctors regarding her stay in St. Eligius 2 years earlier for the birth of her baby. The scene ends with Westphall announcing to his two colleagues that he has decided to leave St. Eligius and medicine, a short-lived departure as Westphall would return in the Season 4 premiere.

"Time Heals"[edit]

Original air date: February 19 and 20, 1986

This 2-part episode featured storylines that fleshed out the 50-year history of St. Eligius, all filmed in a different style (e.g. black-and-white for the 1930s setting, muted colors for the 1940s). The storylines included the hospital's 1936 founding by Fr. Joseph McCabe (played by Edward Hermann), the arrivals of Dr. Auschlander and Nurse Rosenthal, the early struggles of Mark Craig and his relationship with his mentor (which mirrored Craig's later mentoring of Dr. Ehrlich), the death of Dr. Westphall's wife, and Dr. Morrison simultaneously dealing with an overdose patient and the disappearance of his son. TV Guide ranked "Time Heals" #44 on its 1997 list of "100 Greatest Episodes of All Time", calling the episode "a masterwork of dramatic writing."[5]

"After Life"[edit]

Original air date: November 26, 1986

This episode deals with the shooting of Dr. Wayne Fiscus, who takes a bullet while trying to capture fireflies in the park across from St. Eligius during a break from rounds. As the staff frantically try to save him, Fiscus ventures back-and-forth between Hell (where he meets former colleague, and rapist, Peter White); Purgatory; and Heaven, where he has a conversation with God, who presents Himself as a spitting image of Fiscus, a play on a passage from the Book of Genesis ("Let Us make Man in Our image, after Our likeness"). Just as Fiscus shakes hands with Lou Gehrig, his colleagues successfully revive him back to Earth. The episode is a sort of turning point for the usually mischievous Fiscus, who begins to mature afterwards and rein in and moderate his juvenile ways.

"Last Dance at the Wrecker's Ball"[edit]

Original air date: May 27, 1987

In the season five finale, all attempts to save St. Eligius from closing seem to have failed. As demolition begins, a frail Dr. Auschlander, accidentally left in the hospital after a relapse, attempts to escape.

"A Moon For the Misbegotten"[edit]

Original air date: September 30, 1987

St. Eligius is saved (and any damage to the above mentioned "Wrecker's Ball" repaired), but it falls under the new ownership of Ecumenica Corporation, a national managed health care concern. (The use of "Ecumenica" garnered some real-life controversy, as Humana thought the use of that name sounded too much like its own; the protest prompted NBC to begin airing post-episode disclaimers stating that Ecumenica was indeed fictional.) Ecumenica's choice to head St. Eligius, Dr. John Gideon, would mix like oil and water with the St. Eligius staff, especially Dr. Westphall, who, in the final scene of this episode (and Ed Flanders' last moment as a St. Elsewhere series regular), delivers his resignation "in terms you can understand" — by dropping his pants and exposing his bare bottom to Gideon ("You can kiss my ass, pal"). This scene, which would normally be considered controversial, was preserved by NBC's censors as they did not consider Westphall's display to be erotic in nature.[6]

"Their Town"[edit]

Original air date: April 20, 1988

In a somewhat change-of-pace episode, Drs. Craig and Novino, Ellen Craig, and Lizzie Westphal visit Donald and Tommy Westphall (Lizzie's father and brother, respectively), who appear to be enjoying the quiet life in small town New Hampshire. The episode features Dr. Westphall occasionally breaking the fourth wall and speaking directly to the viewer, a la the "Stage Manager" character in Our Town (the episode title and its location are nods to the Thornton Wilder play).

"The Last One"[edit]

Tommy holds the St. Eligius snow globe in the final moments of "The Last One."

Original air date: May 25, 1988

St. Elsewhere's series finale featured momentous changes for several main characters, including the departure of Dr. Morrison and the death of Dr. Auschlander, as well as the return of Donald Westphall to an active leadership role at St. Eligius after Ecumenica agrees to sell the hospital back to the Boston archdiocese. The finale is more known for its provocative final scene: Westphall and his autistic son Tommy (played by Chad Allen) are seen in his office watching snow falling outside. The image cuts to an exterior shot of the hospital. At that moment, Tommy and Daniel Auschlander are seen in an apartment building, with Tommy playing with a snow globe. Donald arrives home from a day of work, and it is clear from the uniform he wears and the dialog in this scene that he works in construction. "Auschlander" is revealed to be Donald's father, and thus Tommy's grandfather. Donald laments to his father, "I don't understand this autism thing, Pop. Here's my son. I talk to him. I don't even know if he can hear me, because he sits there, all day long, in his own world, staring at that toy. What's he thinking about?" As Tommy shakes the snow globe, he is told by his father to come and wash his hands for dinner. Donald places the snow globe on the family's television set and walks into the kitchen with Tommy and Auschlander; as they leave the room, the camera closes in on the snow globe—which holds a replica of St. Eligius.[7]

The most common interpretation of this scene is that the entire series of events in the series St. Elsewhere had been a product of Tommy Westphall's imagination, with elements of the above scene used as its own evidence.[8][9] One of the results of this has been an attempt by individuals to determine how many television shows are also products of Tommy Westphall's mind because of shared fictional characters: the "Tommy Westphall Universe".

"The Last One's" closing credits differed from those of the rest of the series. In all other episodes, the credits appeared over a still image of an ongoing surgical operation, followed by the traditional MTM Productions black-backgrounded logo, featuring Mimsie the cat in a cartoon surgical cap and mask; here, the credits appeared on a black background, flanked by an electrocardiogram and other medical equipment, with Mimsie lying on her side at the top of the screen; at the end of the credits, the electrocardiogram "flatlined", marking Mimsie's death and the end of St. Elsewhere. (The real Mimsie passed away that same year.)

"The Last One" brought in 22.5 million viewers ranking as the seventh most-watched program that week and attracting a 17.0/29 rating/share.[10] In 2011, the finale was ranked #12 on the TV Guide Network special, TV's Most Unforgettable Finales.[11]

Allusions, crossovers, and homages[edit]

St. Elsewhere was known for the insertion of several allusions, large and small, to classic movie, pop culture, and television events (the latter especially) throughout its run, including other shows that were produced by MTM Enterprises.[1] Some of the more noteworthy allusions have included:

St. Elsewhere was also host to one crossover, served as the source material for two others, and has been paid homage to in several ways:

Awards and nominations[edit]

YearAwardCategoryRecipientResult
1986American Cinema Editors' Eddie AwardBest Edited Episode from a Television SeriesRobert P. Seppey (For episode "Haunted")Won
1987John Heath (For episode "Afterlife")Nominated
1988Robert P. Seppey (For episode "The Idiot and the Odyssey")Won
1985Casting Society of America's Artios AwardBest Casting for TV, Dramatic EpisodicEugene BlytheNominated
1986Won
1987Nominated
1988Nominated
1985Directors Guild of America AwardOutstanding Directing – Drama SeriesDavid Anspaugh (For episode "Fade to White")Nominated
Mark Tinker (For episode "Sweet Dreams")Nominated
1987Mark Tinker (For episode "Afterlife")Nominated
1988Mark Tinker (For episode "Weigh In, Way Out")Nominated
1989Mark Tinker (For episode "The Last One")Nominated
1985Golden Globe AwardBest Television Series – DramaNominated
1986Nominated
Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television FilmEd Begley Jr.Nominated
1987Best Television Series – DramaNominated
1988Nominated
1983Humanitas Prize60 Minute CategoryTom Fontana, John Falsey and Joshua Brand (For episode "Rain")Nominated
1984John Masius and Tom Fontana (For episode "All About Eve")Nominated
John Masius and Tom Fontana (For episode "Ties That Bind")Nominated
1985John Masius and Tom FontanaWon
1986Channing Gibson, John Masius and Tom Fontana (For episode "Sancturary")Nominated
1987Channing Gibson, John Masius and Tom Fontana (For episode "A Room with a View")Nominated
John Masius and Tom Fontana (For episode "Where There's Hope, There's Crosby")Nominated
1985Peabody AwardNBC Television and MTM EnterprisesWon
1983People's Choice AwardFavorite New TV Dramatic ProgramWon
Primetime Emmy AwardOutstanding Drama SeriesBruce Paltrow, Mark Tinker, John Masius, John Falsey and Joshua BrandNominated
Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama SeriesWilliam DanielsNominated
Ed FlandersWon
Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama SeriesEd Begley Jr.Nominated
James CocoWon
Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama SeriesChristina PicklesNominated
Doris RobertsWon
Outstanding Art Direction for a SeriesJames Hulsey, Jacqueline Webber, Ernie Bishop and Michele Guiol (For the pilot episode)Nominated
Outstanding Film Sound Editing for a SeriesSam Horta, Donald W. Ernst, Jerelyn J. Harding, Avram D. Gold, Constance A. Kazmer and Gary Krivacek (For episode "Working")Nominated
Outstanding Film Sound Mixing for a SeriesDean Vernon, John Asman, Bill Nicholson and Ken S. Polk (For episode "The Count")Nominated
1984Outstanding Drama SeriesBruce Paltrow, Mark Tinker, John Masius, Tom Fontana and Abby SingerNominated
Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama SeriesWilliam DanielsNominated
Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama SeriesEd Begley Jr.Nominated
Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama SeriesPiper LaurieNominated
Outstanding Writing for a Drama SeriesJohn Masius and Tom Fontana (For episode "All About Eve")Nominated
John Masius, Tom Fontana, Garn Stephens and Emilie R. Small (For episode "Newheart")Nominated
Mark Tinker, John Tinker, John Masius and Tom Fontana (For episode "Qui Transulit Sustinet")Nominated
John Ford Noonan, John Masius and Tom Fontana (For episode "The Women")Won
Outstanding Music Composition for a Series (Dramatic Underscore)J.A.C. Redford (For episode "In Sickness and in Health")Nominated
Outstanding Art Direction for a SeriesJacqueline Webber (For episode "After Dark")Nominated
1985Outstanding Drama SeriesBruce Paltrow, Mark Tinker, John Masius, Tom Fontana and Abby SingerNominated
Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama SeriesWilliam DanielsWon
Ed FlandersNominated
Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama SeriesEd Begley Jr.Nominated
Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama SeriesChristina PicklesNominated
Outstanding Writing for a Drama SeriesJohn Masius, Tom Fontana and Steve Bello (For episode "Murder, She Rote")Nominated
John Masius and Tom Fontana (For episode "Sweet Dreams")Nominated
Outstanding Music Composition for a Series (Dramatic Underscore)J.A.C. Redford (For episode "Fade to White")Nominated
Outstanding Film Sound Mixing for a SeriesDean Vernon, John Asman, Bill Nicholson and Ken S. Polk (For episode "Sweet Dreams")Nominated
1986Outstanding Drama SeriesBruce Paltrow, Mark Tinker, John Masius, Tom Fontana and Abby SingerNominated
Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama SeriesWilliam DanielsWon
Ed FlandersNominated
Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama SeriesAlfre WoodardNominated
Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama SeriesEd Begley Jr.Nominated
Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama SeriesBonnie BartlettWon
Christina PicklesNominated
Outstanding Writing for a Drama SeriesCharles H. Eglee, John Tinker, Channing Gibson, John Masius and Tom Fontana (For episode "Haunted")Nominated
Tom Fontana, John Tinker and John Masius (For episode "Time Heals")Won
Outstanding Guest Performer in a Drama SeriesEdward HerrmannNominated
Outstanding Art Direction for a SeriesJacqueline Webber and Norman Rockett (For episode "Time Heals")Won
Outstanding Costuming for a SeriesSusan Smith, Robert M. Moore, Charles Drayman, Anne Hartley and Kathy O'Rear (For episode "Time Heals")Won
Outstanding Sound Editing for a SeriesKevin Spears, Mark R. Crookston, Andrea Horta, Constance A. Kazmer, Brian F. Mars, John O. Robinson III and Dan Garde (For episode "Time Heals: Part I")Nominated
Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Drama SeriesWilliam Gazecki, Andy MacDonald, Bill Nicholson and Blake Wilcox (For episode "Time Heals: Part II")Won
1987Outstanding Drama SeriesBruce Paltrow, Mark Tinker, John Masius, Tom Fontana and Abby SingerNominated
Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama SeriesWilliam DanielsNominated
Ed FlandersNominated
Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama SeriesEd Begley Jr.Nominated
Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama SeriesBonnie BartlettWon
Christina PicklesNominated
Outstanding Writing for a Drama SeriesJohn Tinker, Tom Fontana and John Masius (For episode "Afterlife")Nominated
Outstanding Guest Performer in a Drama SeriesSteve AllenNominated
Edward HerrmannNominated
Jayne MeadowsNominated
Outstanding Editing for a Series - Single Camera ProductionJohn Heath (For episode "Afterlife")Nominated
1988Outstanding Drama SeriesBruce Paltrow, Mark Tinker, John Tinker, Channing Gibson and Abby SingerNominated
Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama SeriesEd Begley Jr.Nominated
Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama SeriesBonnie BartlettNominated
Christina PicklesNominated
Outstanding Writing for a Drama SeriesBruce Paltrow, Mark Tinker, Tom Fontana, John Tinker and Channing Gibson (For episode "The Last One")Nominated
Outstanding Directing for a Drama SeriesMark Tinker (For episode "Weigh In, Way Out")Won
Outstanding Guest Performer in a Drama SeriesLainie KazanNominated
Alfre WoodardNominated
1985Television Critics Association AwardProgram of the YearNominated
Outstanding Achievement in DramaNominated
1986Nominated
1987Program of the YearNominated
Outstanding Achievement in DramaNominated
1988Program of the YearNominated
Outstanding Achievement in DramaWon
1986Viewers for Quality Television AwardBest Actor in a Quality Drama SeriesWilliam DanielsWon
1987Won
Best Supporting Actress in a Quality Drama SeriesBonnie BartlettWon
1984Writers Guild of America AwardEpisodic DramaJohn Masius and Tom Fontana (For episode "Addiction")Nominated
1985John Masius and Tom Fontana (For episode "Hello and Goodbye")Nominated
John Ford Noonan, John Masius and Tom Fontana (For episode "The Women")Nominated
1986John Masius and Tom Fontana (For episode "Sweet Dreams")Nominated
1987John Masius, Bruce Paltrow and Tom Fontana (For episode "Remembrance of Things Past")Won
1988Channing Gibson, John Masius and Tom Fontana (For episode "A Room with a View")Nominated
1989Tom Fontana, John Tinker and Channing Gibson (For episode "A Moon for the Misbegotten")Nominated

Reruns[edit]

After its initial run, reruns of St. Elsewhere aired for a time in syndication, with later runs on TV Land, Bravo and AmericanLife TV. Also a popular series in the United Kingdom, St. Elsewhere has been aired twice by two independent British broadcasters. Channel 4 aired the series between 1983 and 1989, with Sky One later airing repeats in a daily Midday timeslot during 1992–93. In 2009, Channel 4 began showing the series again, usually at around 03:30AM, and have repeated the entire series several times since then. All 137 episodes are also available to view online at 4OD.

DVD releases[edit]

On November 28, 2006, 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment released the complete first season of St. Elsewhere on DVD in Region 1.[13] It is unknown if the remaining five seasons will be released at some point.

In Region 2, Channel 4 DVD released the first season on DVD in the UK on April 2, 2007.[14] All episodes have been made available on Channel 4's UK on-demand internet stream 4OD (4 On-Demand) in the UK and Ireland, though these episodes are edited versions for syndication and not as they were originally aired.

Currently, episodes from season 1 are available on Hulu.

References and further reading[edit]

  1. ^ a b "100 Episodes: St. Elsewhere," essay from The AV Club, 3/12/2012
  2. ^ TV Guide Names Top 50 Shows
  3. ^ TV Guide April 17-23, 1993. 1993. p. 11. 
  4. ^ "NBC's Stylish 'St. Elsewhere,'" review from The New York Times, 11/16/1982
  5. ^ "Special Collector's Issue: 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time". TV Guide (June 28-July 4). 1997. 
  6. ^ Source: "St. Elsewhere: A Moon for the Misbegotten," from IMDB
  7. ^ TV ACRES: Signoffs- Classic Series Finales (St. Elsewhere)
  8. ^ Gallagher, William (May 30, 2003). "TV's strangest endings". BBC News. Retrieved May 24, 2010. 
  9. ^ Feder, Robert (May 26, 1988). "Chicago Sun-Times:: Search". Chicago Sun-Times. 
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ TV's Most Unforgettable Finales - Aired May 22, 2011 on TV Guide Network
  12. ^ Scrubs: "My Sacrificial Clam", from IMDB.com
  13. ^ "St. Elsewhere - Washington, Morse and Mandel - Artwork inside". 
  14. ^ http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B000EBFOSS

External links[edit]