St. James's Square, c. 1722
Squares have long been a feature of . London
A few, such as
Trafalgar Square, were built as public open spaces, like the squares found in many cities, known as a plaza, piazza, platz, etc. Most, however, were garden squares, originally built as private communal gardens for use by the inhabitants of the surrounding houses. This type of space is most prevalent in central London, but squares are also found in the suburbs. Some of these gardens are now open to the public, while others, for example around Notting Hill, are still fenced and private. Name and shape [edit ]
"Square" is a generic term for these urban open spaces; some are not actually square, or even rectangular. One reason for this is the use of a local nickname for the street, park or garden in question. Another is that some older squares were irregularly shaped to begin with, or lost their original layout due to the city's many transformations, not least following the
Great Fire of London and The Blitz.
London Borough has rules which have been drawn up prevent inappropriate street names being used to designate new developments or to rename existing features — the general requirement for new squares in London is that they be rectangular and be to some extent open. Billiter Square, EC3 and Millennium Square, SE1 are examples of squares which do not satisfy these guidelines. [1 ]
Some are entirely paved (
Granary Square), while others are almost completely grass and trees ( Russell Square). Some have the word "square" in their name, while others do not. Increasingly, spaces are being constructed that are legally private, although in practice open to the public ( Paternoster Square). At the other extreme, London's growth over the centuries has encompassed several village greens such as Newington Green, which serve as council-run open spaces in the midst of dense housing. This category of urban green space then begins to shade in to the parks for which London is justly famous. History [edit ]
The making of residential squares fell into decline in the early twentieth century, one of the last notable such squares having been designed by
Edwin Lutyens for Hampstead Garden Suburb. Numerous squares were in danger of being used as building sites. This was banned by the London Squares Act of 1931. But in the last quarter of the twentieth century a fashion for making office squares developed. This trend was led by the [2 ] Broadgate development. The new London Square development indicates a minor revival in the development of new wholly residential squares. However, as a mixed-use focal area squares have become a resurgent planning design, this is reflected for instance by Times Square, Sutton or Canada Square in Canary Wharf.
Since 1998, numerous squares and other private gardens have been open to the paying public due to an initiative by Caroline Aldiss. This is called the "London open Garden Square Weekend" and takes place on the second weekend in June.
The event is organised by the London Parks and Garden Trust and run mainly by volunteers. In 2013, more than 200 gardens take place. Among others, the Garden of the [3 ] Prime Minister at 10 Downing Street, Eaton Square and the Gardens of HM Prison Wormwood Scrubs. Other events are organised to coincide with this weekend, for example, the "World Archaeology Festival" run by the Institute of Archaeology, UCL, in Gordon Square. [4 ]
The parks can be split into
garden squares and other squares. Notable garden squares [edit ] Squares as landmarks [edit ] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it
List of Greater London squares [edit ] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it
City (EC) Warwick - EC4, (No. 1) Exchange - EC2 Austin Friars - EC2 Monkwell - EC2 Finsbury - EC2 Finsbury Avenue - EC2 Paternoster - EC4 Billiter - EC3 Ludgate - EC4 Reliance - EC2 Mark - EC2 New Inn - EC2 Trinity - EC3 Brewery - EC1, (No. 1) Rosebery - EC1, (No. 1) Cold Bath - EC1 St John’s - EC1 Myddelton - EC1 America - EC4 Angel - EC1 Aldermanbury - EC2 Salisbury - EC4 New St - EC4 Gough - EC4 Waterhouse - EC1 King - EC1 Northampton - EC1 Charterhouse - EC1 Bartholomew - EC1 (No. 1) Bridgewater - EC2 City (WC) Near central north and northwest Canonbury - N1 Union - N1 Packington - N1 Red House - N1 Arlington - N1 Claremont - N1 Hoxton - N1 Charles Uhura - N16 Euston - NW1 Torrington - (No. 1) Woburn Triton Munster - NW1 Russell Bedford Fitzroy Muncaster Park E & W - NW1 Cavendish Manchester Dorset - NW1 Portman Montagu Bryanston Northpoint - NW1 Cloudesley - N1 John Spencer - N1 De Beauvoir - N1 Old Royal Free - N1 Lonsdale Gibson Milner Barnsbury - Islington, N1 Alwyne Anderson Thornhill Edward Tolmers Chalcot - NW1 Oakley - NW1 Harrington - NW1 Ampthill - NW1 Harmsworth Hammond Beavoir Wilton St Mark’s - NW1 South - NW11, (No. 2) North - NW11, (No. 1) Pond Camden Lucas Near central west and southwest Audley Berkeley Grosvenor Belgrave Parliament Smith St Georges - Pimlico, SW1, (No. 1) Warwick - SW1, (No. 2) Fountain Vincent Lindsay SW1 Dolphin - SW1, (No. 1) Victoria - SW1 Eccelston Chester Ebury - SW1 Eaton - SW1 Cleveland Lowndes - SW1 Montepelier Trevor Brompton Thurloe Rose - Brompton, SW7 Hereford Onslow Adam Commodore - West Brompton/ Chelsea, SW10 Admiral - SW10 Coleridge - SW10, (No. 1) Alexander Ovington Wellington - SW3 Chelsea Mozart Carlyle Tedworth Cadogan - SW1 Markham Sloane Duke of York Chesterton Paultons - Chelsea, SW3 St Mary’s - W2, (No.1) Oxford - W2 Sheldon - W2 St Mary’s - W6, (No.2) Lancer - Kensington, W8 Chantry - Kensington, W8 Craven Hill Gardens - W2 Near central south Bergen - Bermondsey, SE16 Bermondsey - Bermondsey, SE16 Reveley - Bermondsey, SE16 Greenacre Millstream Helsinki Tillett Thorburn Layard - Bermondsey, SE16 Frederick - Bermondsey, SE16 New Place Millennium Tower Bridge Tower Bridge Business Marden Lockwood St Olav’s Providence Fountain Gate Cleaver Graphite Brewery - SE1, (No. 2) Avondale - SE1 Salamanca - SE1 Great Guildford Business Winchester Gatehouse Perkins Nelson Cornwall - Kennington, SW11 John Parker - Kennington, SW11 Cobalt - Vauxhall, SW8 St Philip - Battersea, SW8 Surrey - SE1 West Walcot St Georges - Rotherhithe, SE8 (No. 2) Trinity Church - SE1 Albert - SW8, (No. 1) Peabody - SE1 Westminster Business - SE11 Sutherland - Camberwell, SE17 Montague Peckham - Peckham, SE15 Granville - Peckham, SE15 Yarnfield - Peckham, SE15 Choumert - Peckham, SE15 Vivian - Peckham, SE15 Galatea - Peckham, SE15 Huguenot - Peckham, SE15 Shard's - Peckham, SE15 Dickens Merrick Hamilton Greene Helena - Rotherhithe, SE16 Bonnington - Kennington, SW8 Addington - Camberwell, SE5 Rust - Camberwell, SE5 Foxley - Battersea/Lambeth, SW9 Nightingale - Balham, SW12 Lorrimore Flat Iron, SE1 [5 ] East — within London postal districts Chow - E8 Clapton - E5 Time - E8 Lea Hornbeam - Clapton, E3 Grayling - E2 Lampern Tredegar - Bow, E3 Murray Patriot Harpley - E1 Bartholomew - E1, (No. 2) Carlton Thomas More Beaumont - Stepney, E1 Sidney - Stepney, E1 Petticoat - Aldgate, E1 Arbour - Stepney, E1 Avis - Stepney, E1 Brayford - Stepney, E1 O’Leary - Stepney, E1 Douthwaite - Wapping, E1 Portland - Wapping, E1 Cork - Wapping, E1 Wellclose - Wapping, E1 Rectory - Stepney, E1 Roy York Canada Cabot Cutlers St David’s Devonshire Spital Mothers - Lower Clapton/Homerton E5 Shalborne - Hackney Wick Wick - Hackney Wick Silk Mills - Hackney Wick Leabank - Hackney Wick Lavender - E11 Stonechat - Beckton E6 Tollgate - Beckton E6 Goose - Beckton E6 Partridge - Beckton E6 Butterfield - Beckton E6 Royal Victoria - Custom House, E16 Jessop - Limehouse, E14 Old School - Limehouse, E14 Lampern - Bethnal Green, E2 Old Market - Bethnal Green, E2 Ambassador - Limehouse, E14 Aberdeen - Limehouse, E14 Athol - Limehouse, E14 St Georges - Limehouse, E14 (No. 3) St Georges - Upton, E7 (No. 4) Regent - Bow, E3 (No. 2) Alphabet Invicta Guerin Heln Sheffield - E3 Trellis - E3 Brackly Wakeling - Limehouse, E14 Eastbury - Upney Maryland - Stratford, E15 Albert - Stratford, E15, (No. 2) Gerry Raffles - Stratford, E15 Theatre - Stratford, E15, (No. 1) Torrens - Stratford, E15 Lanark - Poplar, E14 Burrells Wharf - Canary Wharf Casablanca Capstan Cumberland Mills Ambassador Torres Transom - Millwall, E14 Lank Vulcan Arnett - Chingford, E4 Warrior - Manor Park, E12 St Luke’s - E16 St Thomas’s - E9 Goldsmith’s - E2 Ion - E2 St Peter’s - E2, (No. 1) Evergreen - E8 Chant - W Ham, E15 Barnby - W Ham, E16 Market - Poplar, E14, (No. 1) Athoi - Poplar, E14 Bering - Millwall, E14 Shaw - Higham Hill, Walthamstow, E17 St Thomas’s - Hackney, E9 Fassett - Hackney, E9 Primrose - Hackney, E9 Principal - Hackney, E9 Sutton - Hackney, E9, (No.1) The Square - E10, (No. 1) Further east — still within Greater London The Square - Ilford, IG1 (No. 2) The Square - Woodford Green, IG8 (No. 3) Brandesbury - Ilford, IG8 Rosebury - Ilford, IG8 Brackley - Woodford Green, IG6 Warrington - Becontree, Dagenham, RM8 Manor - Becontree, Dagenham, RM8 Noel - Becontree, Dagenham, RM8 Osborne - Dagenham, RM9 Hunters - Dagenham, RM9 Causton - Dagenham, RM9 Further west — still within Greater London Hill Leinster Kensington Gardens Coleridge - West Ealing, W13, (No. 2) Halliday Cubitt St Andrews - Ladbroke Grove, W11, No1 Wesley - Ladbroke Grove, W11, Mortimer - Ladbroke Grove, W11 St Charles - North Kensington, W11 Wesley - North Kensington, W11 Colville - North Kensington, W11 Chelmsford - Kensal Rise, NW4 Powis - W11 Orme Porchester Kensington Princes Leinster Pembridge Nottingdale Katherine Norland Campden Hill Edwardes Wycombe Ravenscourt St Peter's Square, Hammersmith, (No. 2) Ashcroft - Hammersmith, W6 Chiswick Westcroft - W6 Dolphin - Chiswick, W4, (No. 2) Essex Place The Square - W6, (No. 4) Shuters - W14 Orchard - W14 Townfield - Hayes, UB3 Drenon - Hayes, UB3 Tudor - Hayes, UB3 Emerald - Southall, UB2 The Square - Stockley Park, UB6, (No. 5) The Square - Longford, UB7, (No. 6) Further southwest Earl’s Court Square - SW5 Redcliffe - SW10 Nevern Franklin Lampeter - Earl’s Court, W6 St Edmunds - Barnes, SW13 Cardington - Hounslow West, TW4 Sutton - Heston, TW5, (No. 2) Epsom - Heathrow, TW6 New Chapel - Feltham, TW13 New - East Bedfont, Feltham, TW14 Market - Kingston, KT1, (No. 2) Rosebery - Kingston, KT1, (No. 2) Ernest - Kingston, KT1 Charter - Kingston, KT1 Fleetwood - Kingston, KT1 Waters - Kingston, KT1 Ashcombe - New Malden, KT3 Heathfield - Wandsworth, SW18 Red Lion - Wandsworth, SW18 (No. 2) James Clavell - Wandsworth SW18 Red Lion - Wandsworth SW18, (No. 2) Theatre - SW11 Battersea, (No. 2) Brassey - SW11 Battersea Battersea Restoration Ivory Weekley - Clapham SW4 Parker - Clapham SW4 Grafton - Clapham SW4 Whites - Clapham SW4 Macaulay - Clapham SW4 Imperial Philpot Hurlingham - Fulham, SW6 Marryat - Fulham, SW6 Mission - Brentford TW8 Ferry - Brentford TW8 Columbia - Mortlake, SW14 Vine - Mortlake, SW14 Aubyn - Putney, SW15 Radcliffe - Putney, SW15 Chartfield - Putney, SW15 Tolland - Putney, SW15 Vanneck - Putney, SW15 Baringer - Tooting, SW17 Cheriton - Tooting/Balham, SW17 Bevin - Tooting/Balham, SW17 Pavilion - Tooting, SW17 Belvedere - Wimbledon SW19 Chapman - Wimbledon SW19, (No. 1) St George’s - New Malden, KT3 (Note four St Georges above) Castelnau Gardens - Barnes, SW13 The Square - Richmond, TW9 (No. 7) Topiary - Richmond, TW9 Heron - Richmond, TW9 King George - Richmond, TW10 Charlotte - Richmond, TW10 St Andrew’s - Surbiton, KT6, No2 St Leonards - Surbiton, KT6 Upper - Isleworth, TW7 Lower - Isleworth, TW7 Memorial - Isleworth, TW7 Town Sq - Isleworth, TW7 Sigrist - Kingston, KT1 Kennet - Wimbledon, SW19 Factory - Streatham, SW16 Further southeast Ryculff - Blackheath, SE3 Collins - Blackheath, SE3 Tristan - Blackheath, SE3 Lebrun - Blackheath, SE3 Gallus - Blackheath, SE3 Queen’s Elm - Blackheath, SE3 School - Greenwich, SE10 Roman - Thamesmead, SE28 The Gardens - Dulwich, SE22 Arpley - Penge, SE20 Watermen’s - Penge, SE20 Palace Stanton - Lower Sydenham, SE26 Romero Cambert Telemann Ealdham - Eltham, SE9 Chiswell Brook - Blackheath/Kidbrooke, SE18 Mortgramit - Woolwich, SE18 Reginald - Deptford, SE8 Market - Bromley, BR1, (No. 3) St Paul’s - Bromley, BR2 Oregon - Orpington, BR6 Corvette - Greenwich, SE10 Gibbs - Gypsy Hill, West Norwood, SE19 Kingston - Gypsy Hill, West Norwood, SE19 Bury - Mottingham, New Eltham and Elmstead, SE9 Montbelle - Mottingham, New Eltham and Elmstead, SE9 Beresford - Woolwich, SE18 Les Smith - Woolwich, SE18 Old Clem - Woolwich, SE18 Artillery - Woolwich, SE18 Peppermead - Ladywell, SE13 Archer - Deptford, SE14 Broadway - Bexleyheath, DA6 Adams - Bexleyheath, DA6 Regent - Belvedere, DA17 Further north Red - N16 Arundel - N7 The Market - Edmonton, N9 North - Edmonton, N9 (No. 2) Ardett - Chingford Olympus - Clapton Topham - Tottenham, N17 Brunswick - Tottenham, N17 (No. 2) Broadfield - Enfield, EN1 Westbrook - Cockfosters, EN4 Cornwallis Albion Christina Schonfeld N16 Chaplin - N12 Further south Whitgift - Croydon, CR0 The Pavement - Croydon, CR0 Torrington - Croydon, CR0, (No. 2) Rathbone - Croydon, CR0 Berkshire - Mitcham, CR4 Charlwood - Mitcham, CR4 Glebe - Mitcham, CR4 Bovingdon - Mitcham, CR4 Appleton - Mitcham, SM3 Stanley - Carshalton, SM5 Alexandra - Morden, SM4 Times - Sutton, SM1 Wallington - Wallington, SM6 Further northwest St Leonard’s - NW5 Seaton - Mill Hill East, NW7 Sentinel - NW4 Leys - Finchley Central - NW11, (No. 1) Belsize Blandford Hampden Rochester Elliott New End The Mount - Highgate, NW3 Central - Wembley, HA0, (No. 2) See also [edit ] References [edit ] ^  Street Naming and Building Numbering Guide (example from Kensington and Chelsea) ^ Camilla Phelps, London opens its gates. The English Garden, June 2013, 97 ^ Camilla Phelps, London opens its gates. The English Garden, June 2013, 95-98 ^ http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/calendar/articles/20130608 ^ https://maps.google.co.uk/maps?q=flat+iron+square,+london&hl=en&ll=51.503938,-0.094795&spn=0.002551,0.004823&sll=52.8382,-2.327815&sspn=10.149213,19.753418&t=h&hq=flat+iron+square,&hnear=London,+United+Kingdom&z=18 External links [edit ]