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Sport science is a discipline that studies the application of treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports medicine. The study of sport science traditionally incorporates areas of physiology, psychology, and biomechanics but also includes other topics such as nutrition and diet,
Sport scientists and performance consultants are growing in demand and employment numbers, with the ever-increasing focus within the sporting world on achieving the best results possible. Through the study of science and sport, researchers have developed a greater understanding on how the human body reacts to exercise, training, different environments and many other stimuli.
Sport science can trace its origins to ancient Greece. The noted ancient Greek physician Galen (131–201) wrote 87 detailed essays about improving health (proper nutrition), aerobic fitness, and strengthening muscles. Assyrian Hunayn ibn Ishaq translated Galen's work, along with that of Hippocrates, into Arabic which lead to the spread of Greek physiology throughout the Middle East and Europe. Between 776 BC to 393 AD, the ancient Greek physicians planned the training regimens and diets of the Olympic competitors, which developed many principles used 1945.
New ideas upon the working and functioning of the human body emerged during the renaissance as anatomists and physicians challenged the previously known theories. These spread with the implementation of the printed word, the result of Gutenberg's printing press in the 15th century. Allied with this was a large increase in academia in general, universities were forming all around the world. Importantly these new scholars went beyond the simplistic notions of the early Greek physicians, and shed light upon the complexities of the circulatory, and digestive systems. Furthermore by the middle of the 19th century early medical schools (such as the Harvard Medical School, formed 1782) began appearing in the United States, whose graduates went on to assume positions of importance in academia and allied medical research.
Medical journal publications increased increased significantly in number during this period. In 1898, three articles on physical activity appeared in the first volume of the American Journal of Physiology. Other articles and reviews subsequently appeared in prestigious journals. The German applied physiology publication, Internationale Zeitschrift fur Physiologie einschliesslich Arbeitphysiologie (1929–1940; now known as the European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology), became a significant journal in the field of research.
A number of key figures have made significant contributons to the discipline, including the following:
Higher-education degrees in sports science or human physiology are also becoming increasingly popular with many universities now offering both undergraduate, postgraduate and distance learning degrees in the discipline. Opportunities for graduates in these fields employment as a physical education teacher, dietician or nutritionist, performance analyst, sports coach, sports therapist, fitness centre manager, sports administrator, strength and conditioning specialist or retail manager of a sports store. Graduates may also be well positioned to undertake further training to become an accredited physiotherapist, exercise physiologist or clinical exercise consultant and sports medical doctor.
There are many noted institutions in the United Kingdom which run courses in sport and exercise sciences. Some of the better known are Brunel University, London,St Mary's University College, Twickenham Durham, Leeds, Loughborough, Exeter, Oxford Brookes University, Bath, Bangor, Birmingham, University of Chichester, Edinburgh, Liverpool John Moores, University of Portsmouth, Manchester Metropolitan University (which does both onsite and distance learning delivery modes)
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