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Caricature of Charles H. Workman.
The caption reads, "Through every passion raging."
The accompanying biography reads, "The only part of him which gets tired is his tongue, and occasionally the oft-repeated lines have got muddled. 'Self-constricted ruddles', 'his striggles were terruffic', and 'deloberately rib me' are a few of the spoonerisms he has perpetrated. Success has not spoilt him. He is a professional humourist, who has been known to make an Englishman laugh at breakfast."
Most Spoonerims were not invented by Reverend William A. Spooner, but by his students (New York Times, 1928)

A spoonerism is an error in speech or deliberate play on words in which corresponding consonants, vowels, or morphemes are switched (see metathesis) between two words in a phrase.[1][2]

An example is saying "The Lord is a shoving leopard" instead of "The Lord is a loving shepherd." While spoonerisms are commonly heard as slips of the tongue resulting from unintentionally getting one's words in a tangle, they can also be used intentionally as a play on words.


It is named after the Reverend William Archibald Spooner (1844–1930), Warden of New College, Oxford, who was notoriously prone to this mistake.[3][4] The term "Spoonerism" was well established by 1921. An article in The Times from that year reports that,

The boys of Aldro School, Eastbourne, [...] have been set the following task for the holidays: Discover and write down something about: The Old Lady of Threadneedle-street, a Spoonerism, a Busman's Holiday...[5]

In 1937, The Times quoted a detective describing a man as "a bricklabourer's layer" and used "Police Court Spoonerism" as the headline.[6]

A spoonerism is also known as a marrowsky, purportedly after a Polish count who suffered from the same impediment.[7]


Most of the quotations attributed to Spooner are apocryphal; The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (3rd edition, 1979) lists only one substantiated spoonerism: "The weight of rages will press hard upon the employer" (instead of "rate of wages"). Spooner claimed[3] that "The Kinquering Congs Their Titles Take" (in reference to a hymn)[8] was his sole spoonerism. Most spoonerisms were probably never uttered by William Spooner himself but rather made up by colleagues and students as a pastime.[9] Richard Lederer, calling "Kinkering Kongs their Titles Take" (with an alternative spelling) one of the "few" authenticated Spoonerisms, dates it to 1879, and he gives nine examples "attributed to Spooner, most of them spuriously."[10] They are as follows:

A newspaper column[4] attributes this additional example to Spooner: "A nosey little cook." (as opposed to a "cozy little nook").

Popular use[edit]

In modern terms, "spoonerism" generally refers to any changing of sounds in this manner.


In his poem "Translation," Brian P. Cleary describes a boy named Alex who speaks in spoonerisms (like "shook a tower" instead of "took a shower"). Humorously, Cleary leaves the poem's final spoonerism up to the reader when he says,

He once proclaimed, "Hey, belly jeans"

When he found a stash of jelly beans.
But when he says he pepped in stew

We'll tell him he should wipe his shoe.[14]

Twisted tales[edit]

Comedian F. Chase Taylor was the star of the 1930s radio program Stoopnagle and Budd, in which his character, Colonel Stoopnagle, used spoonerisms. In 1945, he published a book, My Tale Is Twisted, consisting of 44 "spoonerised" versions of well-known children's stories. Subtitled "Wart Pun: Aysop's Feebles" and "Tart Pooh: Tairy and Other Fales," these included such tales as "Beeping Sleauty" for "Sleeping Beauty." The book was republished in 2001 by Stone and Scott Publishers as Stoopnagle's Tale is Twisted.[15]

Also known for telling entire fairy tales using spoonerisms is "Zilch the Torysteller." He travels to Renaissance Faires across the United States and in England regaling audiences with hilarious versions of classic stories such as "Parunzel," "Jomeo and Ruliet," "Rindercella," and "Rittle Led Hiding Rood."[16]



The musical Ruthless! has a song called Unkie's Muncle with a spoonerism in every line. The title is a spoonerism of "monkey's uncle."

Kniferism and forkerism[edit]

As complements to spoonerism, Douglas Hofstadter used the nonce terms kniferism and forkerism to refer to changing the syllables of two words, giving them a new meaning.[when?] Examples of so-called kniferisms include a British television newsreader once referring to the police at a crime scene removing a 'hypodeemic nerdle'; a television announcer once saying that "All the world was thrilled by the marriage of the Duck and Doochess of Windsor";[17] and during a live broadcast in 1931, radio presenter Harry von Zell accidentally mispronouncing U.S. President Herbert Hoover's name as "Hoobert Heever."[17][18] Usage of these new terms has been limited; many sources count any syllable exchange as a spoonerism, regardless of location.[19][20]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Eric Donald Hirsch; Joseph F. Kett; James S. Trefil (2002). The New dictionary of cultural literacy. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 160–. ISBN 978-0-618-22647-4. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  2. ^ The definition of Spoonerism in the 1924 edition of the Oxford English Dictionary is: An accidental transposition of the initial sounds, or other parts, of two or more words.
  3. ^ a b "Names make news". Time. 1928-10-29. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 
  4. ^ a b "Spoonerism Message Lost in Translation". Toledo Blade. 1980-11-03. 
  5. ^ "Every Schoolboy Knows", The Times, Dec 8, 1921, pg. 7
  6. ^ The Times, Oct 29, 1937, pg. 9
  7. ^ Chambers Dictionary 1993 ISBN 0-550-10255-8
  8. ^ Bartlett, John (1992) [1855]. Justin Kaplan, ed. Bartlett's Familiar Quotations (16th ed.). Little, Brown and Company. p. 533. ISBN 0-316-08277-5. 
  9. ^ Quinion, Michael (2007-07-28). "Spoonerism". World Wide Words. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  10. ^ a b Lederer, Richard (1988). Get Thee to a Punnery. Charleston, South Carolina: Wyrick & Co. pp. 137–148. 
  11. ^ http://www.ursuladubosarsky.com retrieved July 3, 2012
  12. ^ http://www.capsteps.com
  13. ^ http://www.capsteps.com/lirty/
  14. ^ Cleary, Brian P. "Rainbow Soup: Adventures in Poetry." Minneapolis, MN: CarolRhoda, 2004.
  15. ^ "Stoopnagle's Tale is Twisted, by Ken James". Retrieved November 3, 2008. 
  16. ^ http://renoutfitters.com/2012/02/28/zilch-the-storyteller/
  17. ^ a b Simonini, R. C. ((Dec., 1956)). "Phonemic and Analogic Lapses in Radio and Television Speech". American Speech (Duke University Press) 31 (4): 252–263. doi:10.2307/453412. JSTOR 453412.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  18. ^ "snopes.com: Harry von Zell and Hoobert Heever". Retrieved Feb 2, 2009. 
  19. ^ "spoonerism definition". Dictionary.com. Retrieved Feb 2, 2009. 
  20. ^ "spoonerism: Definition from Answers.com". Retrieved Feb 2, 2009. 

External links[edit]