Spondylolisthesis

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Spondylolisthesis
Classification and external resources
SpondylolisthesisL5S1.jpg
X-ray of the lateral lumbar spine with a grade III spondylolisthesis at the L5-S1 level.
ICD-10M43.1, Q76.2
ICD-9738.4, 756.12
OMIM184200
DiseasesDB12318
MedlinePlus001260
eMedicineradio/651
MeSHD013168
 
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Spondylolisthesis
Classification and external resources
SpondylolisthesisL5S1.jpg
X-ray of the lateral lumbar spine with a grade III spondylolisthesis at the L5-S1 level.
ICD-10M43.1, Q76.2
ICD-9738.4, 756.12
OMIM184200
DiseasesDB12318
MedlinePlus001260
eMedicineradio/651
MeSHD013168

Spondylolisthesis is the displacement of a vertebra on to the vertebrae below it.

The variant "listhesis," resulting from misdivision of this compound word, is sometimes applied in conjunction with scoliosis.[unreliable medical source?][1] These "slips" (aka "step-offs") occur most commonly in the lumbar spine. Spondylolysis (a defect or fracture of the pars interarticularis of the vertebral arch) is the most common cause of spondylolisthesis, which should not be confused with a slipped disc, where one of the spinal discs in between the vertebrae has ruptured.

A hangman's fracture is a specific type of spondylolisthesis where the C2 vertebra is displaced anteriorly relative to the C3 vertebra due to fractures of the C2 vertebra's pedicles.

Classification[edit]

X-ray picture of a grade 1 isthmic spondylolisthesis at L4-5
MRI of L5-S1 Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis is categorized into five types:[2]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Symptoms of spondylolisthesis include:[medical citation needed]

Other symptoms may include tingling and numbness. Coughing and sneezing can intensify the pain. An individual may also note a "slipping sensation" when moving into an upright position. Sitting and trying to stand up may be painful and difficult.[medical citation needed]

Treatment[edit]

Treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis is controversial.[medical citation needed]

Conservative management[edit]

Patients with symptomatic isthmic spondylolisthesis are initially offered conservative treatment consisting of activity modification, pharmacological intervention, and a physical therapy consultation.

Surgical[edit]

Degenerative spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis is one of the most common indications for spine surgery among older adults.[medical citation needed]

History[edit]

X-ray of a grade 4 spondylolisthesis at L5-S1 with spinal misalignment indicated

Spondylolisthesis was first described in 1782 by Belgian obstetrician Herbinaux.[4] He reported a bony prominence anterior to the sacrum that obstructed the vagina of a small number of patients.[5] The term “spondylolisthesis” was coined in 1854 from the Greek σπονδυλος = "vertebra" and "ὁλισθος" = "slipperiness," "a slip."[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [unreliable medical source?]"Natural History of Adult Scoliosis". 
  2. ^ a b c "Adult Spondylolisthesis in the Low Back". American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 
  3. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2843565/
  4. ^ Newman PH (1955). "Spondylolisthesis: its cause and effect". Ann Coll Surg Engl 16: 305. 
  5. ^ Henry Jacques Garrigues (1902). A text-book of the science and art of obstetrics. pp. 490–93. 
  6. ^ "Isthmic Spondylolisthesis and Spondylolysis".