Spondyloarthropathy

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Spondyloarthropathy
Classification and external resources
ICD-10M40 through M54
ICD-9720, 721, 722, 723, 724
 
  (Redirected from Spondyloarthritis)
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"SpA" redirects here. For the Italian type of company, see Società per azioni.
Spondyloarthropathy
Classification and external resources
ICD-10M40 through M54
ICD-9720, 721, 722, 723, 724

Spondyloarthropathy or spondyloarthrosis refers to any joint disease of the vertebral column.[1] As such, it is a class or category of diseases rather than a single, specific entity. It differs from spondylopathy, which is a disease of the vertebra itself. However, many conditions involve both spondylopathy and spondyloarthropathy.

Spondyloarthropathy with inflammation is called spondylarthritis. In the broadest sense, the term spondyloarthropathy includes joint involvement of vertebral column from any type of joint disease, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, but the term is often used for a specific group of disorders with certain common features, the group often being termed specifically seronegative spondylarthropathies. They have an increased incidence of HLA-B27, as well as negative rheumatoid factor and ANA. Enthesopathy is also sometimes present in association with seronegative spondarthritides.

Nonvertebral symptoms of spondyloarthropathies include asymmetric peripheral arthritis (which is distinct from rheumatoid arthritis), arthritis of the Toe IP Joints, sausage digits, Achilles tenosynovitis, plantar fasciitis, costochondritis, iritis, and mucocutaneous lesions. However, lower back pain is the most common clinical presentation of the disease; this back pain is unique because it decreases with activity.

Seronegative spondyloarthropathy[edit]

Seronegative spondyloarthropathy (or seronegative spondyloarthritis) is a group of diseases involving the axial skeleton[2] and having a negative serostatus.

"Seronegative" refers to the fact that these diseases are negative for rheumatoid factor,[3] indicating a different pathophysiological mechanism of disease than what is commonly seen in rheumatoid arthritis.

Conditions[edit]

The following conditions are typically included within the group of seronegative spondylarthropathies:

ConditionPercent of people with the
condition who are HLA-B27 positive
Ankylosing Spondylitis[4][5]
  • Caucasians: 92%[6]
  • African-Americans:50%
Reactive arthritis[4][5] (Reiter's syndrome)60-80%
enteropathic spondylitis or spondylitis associated with

inflammatory bowel disease[4][5] (including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis)

60%
Psoriatic arthritis[4][5]60%
Isolated acute anterior uveitis50%
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
Undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy[4][5] (USpA)20-25%

Some sources also include Behcet's disease[citation needed] and Whipple's disease.[7]

Common characteristics[edit]

These diseases have the following conditions in common:

Classification[edit]

Assessment of Spondylarthritis International Society (ASAS criteria) is used for classification of axial spondylarthritis (to be applied for patients with back pain greater than or equal to 3 months and age of onset less than 45 years).[11] It is of two broad types:[12][13]

  1. Sacroiliitis on imaging plus 1 SpA feature, or
  2. HLA-B27 plus 2 other SpA features

Sacroiliitis on imaging:[11]

SpA features:[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ thefreedictionary.com/spondyloarthropathy citing:
  2. ^ Howe HS, Zhao L, Song YW, et al. (February 2007). "Seronegative spondyloarthropathy--studies from the Asia Pacific region". Ann. Acad. Med. Singap. 36 (2): 135–41. PMID 17364081. 
  3. ^ "Seronegative Spondyloarthropathies: Joint Disorders: Merck Manual Professional". Retrieved 2008-12-15. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Luong AA, Salonen DC (August 2000). "Imaging of the seronegative spondyloarthropathies". Curr Rheumatol Rep 2 (4): 288–96. doi:10.1007/s11926-000-0065-z. PMID 11123073. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Elizabeth D Agabegi; Agabegi, Steven S. (2008). Step-Up to Medicine (Step-Up Series). Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-7153-6. 
  6. ^ Ankylosing Spondylitis and Undifferentiated Spondyloarthropathy Workup Author: Lawrence H Brent. Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond. Updated: Apr 19, 2011
  7. ^ Várvölgyi C, Bubán T, Szakáll S, et al. (April 2002). "Fever of unknown origin with seronegative spondyloarthropathy: an atypical manifestation of Whipple's disease". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61 (4): 377–8. doi:10.1136/ard.61.4.377. PMC 1754069. PMID 11874851. 
  8. ^ Shankarkumar U, Devraj JP, Ghosh K, Mohanty D (2002). "Seronegative spondarthritis and human leucocyte antigen association". Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 59 (1): 38–41. PMID 12000185. 
  9. ^ Maria Antonietta D'Agostino, MD, Ignazio Olivieri, MD. (June 2006). "Enthesitis" 20 (3). Clinical Rheumatology. pp. 473–486. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2006.03.007.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help);
  10. ^ The Free Dictionary (2009). "Enthesitis". Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  11. ^ a b c Lipton, Sarah; Deodhar, Atul. "The new ASAS classification criteria for axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis: promises and pitfalls". International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology 7 (6): 675–682. doi:10.2217/ijr.12.61. 
  12. ^ Rudwaleit, M; Landewe, R; van der Heijde, D; Listing, J; Brandt, J; Braun, J; Burgos-Vargas, R; Collantes-Estevez, E; Davis, J; Dijkmans, B; Dougados, M; Emery, P; van der Horst-Bruinsma, I E; Inman, R; Khan, M A; Leirisalo-Repo, M; van der Linden, S; Maksymowych, W P; Mielants, H; Olivieri, I; Sturrock, R; de Vlam, K; Sieper, J (17 March 2009). "The development of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (part I): classification of paper patients by expert opinion including uncertainty appraisal". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 68 (6): 770–776. doi:10.1136/ard.2009.108217. 
  13. ^ Rudwaleit, M; van der Heijde, D; Landewe, R; Listing, J; Akkoc, N; Brandt, J; Braun, J; Chou, C T; Collantes-Estevez, E; Dougados, M; Huang, F; Gu, J; Khan, M A; Kirazli, Y; Maksymowych, W P; Mielants, H; Sorensen, I J; Ozgocmen, S; Roussou, E; Valle-Onate, R; Weber, U; Wei, J; Sieper, J (17 March 2009). "The development of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (part II): validation and final selection". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 68 (6): 777–783. doi:10.1136/ard.2009.108233. 

External links[edit]