Speech disorder

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Speech disorder
Classification and external resources
ICD-10F98.5-F98.6, R47
ICD-9307.0, 784.5
MeSHD013064
 
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Speech disorder
Classification and external resources
ICD-10F98.5-F98.6, R47
ICD-9307.0, 784.5
MeSHD013064

Speech disorders or speech impediments are a type of communication disorder where 'normal' speech is disrupted. This can mean stuttering, lisps, etc. Someone who is unable to speak due to a speech disorder is considered mute.[1]


Classification[edit]

Classifying speech into normal and disordered is more problematic than it first seems. By a strict classification[citation needed], only 5% to 10% of the population has a completely normal manner of speaking (with respect to all parameters) and healthy voice; all others suffer from one disorder or another.

There are three different levels of classification when determining the magnitude and type of a speech disorder and the proper treatment or therapy:[2]

  1. Sounds the patient can produce
    1. Phonemic- can be produced easily; used meaningfully and contrastively
    2. Phonetic- produced only upon request; not used consistently, meaningfully, or contrastively; not used in connected speech
  2. Stimulable sounds
    1. Easily stimulable
    2. Stimulable after demonstration and probing (i.e. with a tongue depressor)
  3. Cannot produce the sound
    1. Cannot be produced voluntarily
    2. No production ever observed

Types of disorder[edit]

Causes[edit]

In many cases the cause is unknown. However, there are various known causes of speech impediments, such as "hearing loss, neurological disorders, brain injury, intellectual disability, drug abuse, physical impairments such as Cleft lip and palate, and vocal abuse or misuse."[4] Child abuse may also be a cause in some cases.[5]

Treatment[edit]

Many of these types of disorders can be treated by speech therapy, but others require medical attention by a doctor in phoniatrics. Other treatments include correction of organic conditions and psychotherapy.[6]

In the United States, school-age children with a speech disorder are often placed in special education programs. Children who struggle to learn to talk often experience persistent communication difficulties in addition to academic struggles.[7] More than 700,000 of the students served in the public schools’ special education programs in the 2000-2001 school year were categorized as having a speech or language impediment. This estimate does not include children who have speech and language impairments secondary to other conditions such as deafness".[4] Many school districts provide the students with speech therapy during school hours, although extended day and summer services may be appropriate under certain circumstances.

Patients will be treated in teams, depending on the type of disorder they have. A team can include SLPs, specialists, family doctors, teachers,and family members.

Social effects[edit]

Suffering from a speech disorder can have negative social effects, especially among young children. Those with a speech disorder can be targets of bullying because of their disorder. The bullying can result in decreased self-esteem. Later in life, bullying is experienced less by a general population, as people become more understanding as they age.

Language disorders[edit]

Language disorders are usually considered distinct from speech disorders, even though they are often used synonymously.

Speech disorders refer to problems in producing the sounds of speech or with the quality of voice, where language disorders are usually an impairment of either understanding words or being able to use words and does not have to do with speech production[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kennison, Shelia M. (2014). Introduction to language development. Los Angeles: SAGE. ISBN 978-1-4129-9606-8. OCLC 830837502. 
  2. ^ Deputy, Paul; Human Communication Disorders; March 10, 2008
  3. ^ Pinto JA, Corso RJ, Guilherme AC, Pinho SR, Nóbrega Mde O (March 2004). "Dysprosody nonassociated with neurological diseases--a case report". J Voice 18 (1): 90–6. doi:10.1016/j.jvoice.2003.07.005. PMID 15070228. 
  4. ^ a b "Disability Info: Speech and Language Disorders Fact Sheet (FS11)." National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. http://www.nichcy.org/pubs/factshe/fs11txt.htm
  5. ^ http://www.lbfdtraining.com/Pages/emt/sectiond/childabuse.html Long Beach (California) Fire Department
  6. ^ "Speech Defect." Encyclopedia.com. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-speechde.html
  7. ^ Scott, G. G., O'Donnell, P. J., & Sereno, S. C. (2012). Emotion words affect eye fixations during reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, doi:10.1037/a0027209
  8. ^ Disability Info: Speech and Language Disorders Fact Sheet (FS11)

External links[edit]