Spartanburg, South Carolina

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Spartanburg
—  City  —
City of Spartanburg
Clockwise from top: Spartanburg skyline, Daniel Morgan statue, Chapman Cultural Center, Morgan Square, Main Building at Wofford College, Spartanburg Memorial Auditorium

Logo
Nickname(s): The Hub City; Sparkle City; The Burg
Motto: "Historically Southern, Culturally Modern"
Spartanburg's location in South Carolina
Coordinates: 34°56′48″N 81°55′39″W / 34.94667°N 81.9275°W / 34.94667; -81.9275Coordinates: 34°56′48″N 81°55′39″W / 34.94667°N 81.9275°W / 34.94667; -81.9275
CountryUnited States
StateSouth Carolina
CountySpartanburg
Founded1831
Government
 • MayorJunie White
Area
 • City19.2 sq mi (49.9 km2)
 • Land19.2 sq mi (49.6 km2)
 • Water0.1 sq mi (0.2 km2)  0.47%
Elevation807 ft (246 m)
Population (2010)[1]
 • City37,013
 • Density2,066.3/sq mi (399.9/km2)
 • Urban145,058
 • Metro284,307
 • DemonymSpartans
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP Code29301
Area code(s)864
FIPS code45-68290[2]
GNIS feature ID1250982[3]
Websitewww.cityofspartanburg.org
 
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Spartanburg
—  City  —
City of Spartanburg
Clockwise from top: Spartanburg skyline, Daniel Morgan statue, Chapman Cultural Center, Morgan Square, Main Building at Wofford College, Spartanburg Memorial Auditorium

Logo
Nickname(s): The Hub City; Sparkle City; The Burg
Motto: "Historically Southern, Culturally Modern"
Spartanburg's location in South Carolina
Coordinates: 34°56′48″N 81°55′39″W / 34.94667°N 81.9275°W / 34.94667; -81.9275Coordinates: 34°56′48″N 81°55′39″W / 34.94667°N 81.9275°W / 34.94667; -81.9275
CountryUnited States
StateSouth Carolina
CountySpartanburg
Founded1831
Government
 • MayorJunie White
Area
 • City19.2 sq mi (49.9 km2)
 • Land19.2 sq mi (49.6 km2)
 • Water0.1 sq mi (0.2 km2)  0.47%
Elevation807 ft (246 m)
Population (2010)[1]
 • City37,013
 • Density2,066.3/sq mi (399.9/km2)
 • Urban145,058
 • Metro284,307
 • DemonymSpartans
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP Code29301
Area code(s)864
FIPS code45-68290[2]
GNIS feature ID1250982[3]
Websitewww.cityofspartanburg.org

Spartanburg is the largest city in and the county seat of Spartanburg County, South Carolina, United States[4] and is the fourth largest city (by urban population) in the state of South Carolina. Spartanburg has a municipal population of 37,013 and an urban population of 180,786 at the 2010 census.[5] The Spartanburg Metropolitan Statistical Area, corresponding to Spartanburg County, had a population of 284,307 as of the 2010 census.[5]

Spartanburg is the second-largest city in the greater Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Combined Statistical Area which had a population of 1,266,995 at the 2010 census.[5] It is part of a 10-county region of northwestern South Carolina known as "The Upstate," and is located 98 miles (158 km) northwest of Columbia, 80 miles (130 km) west of Charlotte, North Carolina, and about 190 miles (310 km) northeast of Atlanta, Georgia.

Contents

History

This region of the Carolina Piedmont was for centuries a cherished hunting ground of the Catawba and Cherokee tribes, which occupied land east and west of this area, respectively. This distant heritage can be glimpsed in some of the natural features.

Lawson's Fork Creek is located downstream from the Cottonwood Trail.

Early European settlers to this area included French fur trappers, English woodsmen, and Scots-Irish farmers. Few remnants survive from these early pioneering days, but traces can be found in the more rural areas of the county.

First established in the 1780s as a courthouse village, Spartanburg may have been named for the Spartan regiment of the South Carolina militia. The city was incorporated in 1831, at the time of the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Cowpens, a pivotal fight of the American Revolution that took place only a few miles away. The city’s streets and architectural record reflect the changes of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Cotton mills have abounded in the Spartanburg area since 1816, earning Spartanburg the reputation as the "Lowell of the South." Although there were relatively few mills in the area before the Civil War, new technological advances that simplified the work, northern capital, and out-migration from the poor farms created a wave of postbellum mill development here and in much of the Piedmont South. Additionally, the abundant streams and rivers in the area are just beginning their descent towards the lower-lying Midlands region. In many places, these waterways descend abruptly, providing a source for plentiful waterpower. Cotton mills were built along these rivers to harness this power, and so began the region’s servitude to King Cotton. These mills, their owners and their laborers dominated the politics and economy of the region for nearly a century. Although nearly all abandoned, many mills remain along the riverbanks, the Piedmont equivalent of Gothic ruins.

The old bridge and millpond at Glendale. The mill itself (background) has since burned.

When the United States entered World War I in 1917, one of the sixteen divisional cantonments for the training of National Guard troops was Camp Wadsworth, which is located in the vicinity of Westgate Mall. Large numbers of New York National Guardsmen trained there in addition to many southern troops. During World War II, Camp Croft south of the city trained Army recruits. This is now a South Carolina state park with the same name. Some portions of the park contain the original quonset huts (1/2 metal tube structures).

Geography and climate

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.2 square miles (50 km2), of which 19.1 square miles (49 km2) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2), or 0.47%, is water.

The average annual temperature is 60 °F (16 °C), with the average January temperature being 40 °F (4 °C) and the average July temperature as 78 °F (26 °C). There are four distinct but not extreme seasons. Average precipitation is 51.3 inches (130 cm) and the average growing season is 231 days.

Climate data for Spartanburg, South Carolina
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)79
(26)
82
(28)
90
(32)
94
(34)
96
(36)
101
(38)
106
(41)
106
(41)
98
(37)
94
(34)
84
(29)
80
(27)
106
(41)
Average high °F (°C)50.1
(10.1)
54.3
(12.4)
63.5
(17.5)
72.0
(22.2)
79.4
(26.3)
85.5
(29.7)
88.2
(31.2)
86.8
(30.4)
81.1
(27.3)
71.9
(22.2)
62.5
(16.9)
53.2
(11.8)
70.7
(21.5)
Average low °F (°C)30.0
(−1.1)
32.4
(0.2)
39.9
(4.4)
47.6
(8.7)
56.4
(13.6)
64.4
(18.0)
68.3
(20.2)
67.4
(19.7)
61.2
(16.2)
49.0
(9.4)
40.5
(4.7)
33.4
(0.8)
49.2
(9.6)
Record low °F (°C)−5
(−21)
6
(−14)
12
(−11)
22
(−6)
29
(−2)
37
(3)
51
(11)
46
(8)
35
(2)
23
(−5)
15
(−9)
0
(−18)
−5
(−21)
Precipitation inches (mm)4.1
(104)
4.4
(112)
5.4
(137)
3.9
(99)
4.4
(112)
4.8
(122)
4.6
(117)
4.0
(102)
4.0
(102)
4.0
(102)
3.6
(91)
4.1
(104)
51.3
(1,303)
Snowfall inches (cm)2.5
(6.4)
1.8
(4.6)
1.1
(2.8)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.1
(0.3)
0.6
(1.5)
6.1
(15.5)
humidity56.565.064.064.065.569.071.073.574.572.567.066.068.5
Source: http://www.climate-zone.com/climate/united-states/south-carolina/greenville-spartanburg/

http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USSC0325

Government

The current mayor, Junie White, was elected in 2009. Spartanburg operates under a City manager form of government in which the mayor and six city council members have equal votes. Council members represent districts within the city and the mayor is elected at large. The council appoints a city manager, who is responsible for the daily administration of city governmental affairs.[8]City Hall is located at 145 West Broad Street.

The Spartanburg County Administration Building (this is the old Sears building which was vacated in the mid-1970s when Sears moved to Westgate Mall and renovated in the late 1980s or early 1990s) is located at 366 North Church Street. It is across the street from the Spartanburg Memorial Auditorium.

Economy

QS/1 Data Systems Headquarters
Advance America Headquarters

Within the past decade, developers and community leaders have spearheaded an effort to revitalize Spartanburg's downtown district. This has resulted in a remodeling of Morgan Square, the restoration of a number of historic structures and the relocation of several businesses and company headquarters to the downtown vicinity. Some of these new developments include a nine-floor, 240-room Marriott, the headquarters of Advance America, and the headquarters of QS/1 Data Systems. The world headquarters of Denny's restaurants is also located in downtown Spartanburg. Numerous other smaller businesses such as RJ Rockers Brewing Company have also moved downtown as a result of this community-wide effort.

The economy of Spartanburg also benefits from the BMW manufacturing facility located in the western end of Spartanburg County. Manufacturing began in 1996 with certain types of the 3 Series (from the E36 platform) and with the Z3 roadster. However, a year later when the newer 3 Series (E46) platform emerged, BMW decided not to build it at the Spartanburg plant, but instead exclusively manufacture variants of the popular Z3. The plant currently manufactures the X5 SAV and X6 SAC for the world market. As part of an expansion project announced in March 2008, the plant will add about 1,200,000 square feet (110,000 m2) of assembly space, and it will become the home of the next-generation X3 SAV.

Spartanburg is also home to the world headquarters and research facility for Milliken & Company. With over 12,000 associates located at more than 60 facilities worldwide, Milliken is one of the largest privately held textile and chemical manufacturers in the world.

Top employers

According to Spartanburg's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[9] the principal employers in the city are:

#Employer# of Employees
1Spartanburg Regional5,719
2Spartanburg County1,450
3Spartanburg County School District 71,210
4Wal-Mart750
5American Credit Acceptance750
6City of Spartanburg492
7Wofford College483
8QS/1 Headquarters428
9Denny's Corporation278
10Spartanburg County Social Services253

Education

Colleges

Spartanburg is a college town, with eight institutions of higher learning:

Public and private schools

Spartanburg is served by the Spartanburg County School System, which is divided into seven individual districts. Some of the districts share a vocational school. The city of Spartanburg is located in primarily in District 7 and partially in District 6. The McCarthy Teszler School is a school for special needs that serves the whole county and is physically located in District Seven.

Spartanburg is home to Spartanburg Christian Academy, a K-12 private school in North Spartanburg,[18] the Spartanburg Day School, a K-12 private school offering the International Baccalaureate in grades K-4, and to Oakbrook Preparatory and Westgate Christian schools, both K-12 private schools.[19] The city is also home to Spartanburg Charter School, a K-8 public charter school that is the only "brick and mortar" charter school in the Upstate. Opened in August 2009, the school features a Reggio Emilia approach to their curriculum.[20]

Spartanburg is home to the main campus of the South Carolina School for the Deaf and Blind. It has five Regional Outreach Centers throughout the state.[21]

Spartanburg is home to St. Paul the Apostle Catholic School which is located in downtown Spartanburg. It is affiliated with the Diocese of Charleston and is K-8.[22]

Healthcare

Spartanburg County’s healthcare is mainly provided by the Spartanburg Regional Healthcare System. Spartanburg Regional is a public, not-for-profit, integrated health care delivery system based in the Spartanburg Regional Medical Center, a 588-bed teaching and research hospital. SRHS provides healthcare services to a five-county area in North and South Carolina, serving an Upstate medical population of more than 300,000 people.

In 1925, Dr. Hugh Ratchford Black opened a 35-bed facility named in honor of his wife, Mary Black. The current Skylyn Drive facility opened in 1968, and today, the campus features a 353,690-square-foot (32,859 m2) modern medical facility. The medical staff consists of more than 350 physicians representing all specialties. Mary Black Physician Group has over 100 employed physicians in more than 30 locations.

Attractions

Spartanburg is home to many events throughout the year:

Other attractions include:

Sports

Quarterback Cam Newton and the Carolina Panthers participate in training camp at Wofford College in 2011.

Spartanburg is host to the NFL's Carolina Panthers Training Camp each year on the campus of Wofford College.

Historic Duncan Park Stadium was once home to the Spartanburg Stingers[29] in the Coastal Plain League[30] and the Spartanburg Crickets[31] in the Southern Collegiate Baseball League[32] and is the oldest minor league baseball stadium in the country. It was also once home to the Spartanburg Phillies, a minor league team of the Philadelphia Phillies. It now is the home stadium for the baseball teams of Spartanburg High School.

The annual Shrine Bowl of the Carolinas is held each year at Wofford College's Gibbs Stadium. It is a high school football all-star game played between the top players from South Carolina and the top players from North Carolina.

The BMW Charity Pro-Am is a golf tournament on the Nationwide Tour held each year in May at three courses in the Upstate, including the Carolina Country Club in Spartanburg.

The USC Upstate Spartans, Spartanburg Methodist College Pioneers, and the Wofford College Terriers offer a variety of sports for both men and women. Converse College also offers NCAA Division II women's sports teams.[33]

The Southern Conference of the NCAA is headquartered in Spartanburg.

Spartanburg is located an hour away from the Clemson Tigers and about an hour and a half away from the University of South Carolina Gamecocks.

The Spartanburg Parks Commission hosts several travel baseball and softball tournaments each year, helping brand the city as one of the Southeast's most reputable tournament locations. Tyger River Park, a 13-field mega baseball/softball complex, opened in 2012.

Upward Sports, a Christian-based sports organization for kids, is headquartered in Spartanburg.[34]

Arts and culture

Panoramic view of the Chapman Cultural Center.

Despite its size as a small city, Spartanburg has, throughout its history, been a fruitful home to a creative community. Cultural events and institutions abound in the city and county and consistently draw large crowds.

Media

Spartanburg is part of the much greater Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson-Asheville DMA which is the nation's 35th largest and is served by the following major network television affiliates:

Transportation

Major highways

Regional transit

Spartanburg is served by the Spartanburg Area Regional Transit Agency (SPARTA), covering the city of Spartanburg and the surrounding urbanized area with 8 routes leading to a wide variety of destinations.[47] The new SPARTA Passenger Center is located at 100 North Liberty Street.

Airports

Train station

Amtrak's Crescent train connects Spartanburg with the cities of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Greensboro, Charlotte, Atlanta, Birmingham and New Orleans. The Amtrak station is situated at 290 Magnolia Street.

Demographics

Historical populations
CensusPop.
18501,176
18601,2163.4%
18701,080−11.2%
18803,253201.2%
18905,54470.4%
190011,395105.5%
191017,51753.7%
192022,63829.2%
193028,72326.9%
194032,24912.3%
195036,79514.1%
196044,35220.5%
197044,5460.4%
198043,826−1.6%
199043,467−0.8%
200039,673−8.7%
201037,013−6.7%
Est. 201137,3340.9%
U.S. Decennial Census
2011 estimate
Logo of the City of Spartanburg

As of the census[2] of 2000, there were 39,673 people, 15,989 households, and 9,721 families residing within the Spartanburg city limits. The population density was 2,066.3 people per square mile (799.9/km²). There were 17,696 housing units at an average density of 923.9 per square mile (356.8/km²). The racial makeup within the city limits was 49.55% African American, 47.15% White, 0.18% Native American, 1.33% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.76% from other races, and 0.96% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.78% of the population.

There were 15,989 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.0% were married couples living together, 23.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.2% were non-families. 34.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 12.2% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 79.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,735, and the median income for a family was $36,108. Males had a median income of $30,587 versus $23,256 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,136. About 19.4% of families and 23.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.6% of those under age 18 and 15.4% of those age 65 or over.

List of neighborhoods

  • Andrews Farm
  • Arcadia
  • Arkright
  • Beaumont Mills
  • Ben Avon
  • Beverly Woods
  • Blackstock Trace
  • Boiling Springs
  • Bradford Crossing
  • Bradford Place
  • Bradford West
  • Brentwood Hills (now considered a part of Converse Heights)
  • Calhoun Lakes
  • Camelot
  • Camp Croft
  • Canaan
  • Cannons Campground
  • Carolina Country Club
  • Cedar Springs
  • Central Pacolet
  • Chesnee
  • Clevedale
  • Cleveland Heights
  • Cleveland Park
  • Clifton
  • Converse
  • Converse Heights
  • Cowpens
  • Cypress Creek
  • Drayton
  • Duncan
  • Duncan Park
  • Fairforest
  • Fernwood
  • Fernwood-Glendale Rd.
  • Forest Hills
  • Glendale
  • Glenn-Springs
  • Greenpond
  • Hampton Heights (National Register of Historic Places district)
  • Hawk Creek
  • Hillbrook
  • Hillcrest
  • Hilltop
  • Inman
  • Landrum
  • Linville Hills
  • Londonderry
  • Lyman
  • Mayfair
  • Mistybrook
  • Moore
  • North Spartanburg
  • Oak Creek Plantation
  • Oak Forest
  • Pacolet Mills
  • Park Hills
  • Pauline
  • Pierce Acres
  • Pine Grove
  • Poplar Springs
  • Reidville
  • Roebuck
  • Rocksprings
  • Saxon
  • Shadow Lakes
  • Sherwood Acres
  • Shoresbrook
  • Shoreswood
  • South Side
  • Southern Shops
  • Springdale
  • Summerhill
  • Swan Estates
  • Switzer
  • Thornhill
  • Una
  • Union Street
  • Valley Falls
  • Wellford
  • Westgate
  • Westview
  • Whitestone
  • Whitney
  • Willowbrook
  • Windsor Forest
  • Woodburn Hills
  • Woodland Heights
  • Woodridge
  • Woodruff
  • Woodwind

Notable people

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File". American FactFinder. United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_PL_GCTPL2.ST13&prodType=table. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  3. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  4. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  5. ^ a b c "Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File (QT-PL), Spartanburg city, South Carolina". U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder 2. http://factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved August 15, 2011.
  6. ^ Spartanburg Area Conservancy – Edwin M. Griffin Nature Preserve. Spartanburgconservation.org. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  7. ^ Beaumont Village Local Historic District. cityofspartanburg.org. Retrieved on 2012-01-29.
  8. ^ City Council. City of Spartanburg. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  9. ^ "City of Spartanburg CAFR" (PDF). http://www.cityofspartanburg.org/documents/2011_CAFR_%20final.pdf. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
  10. ^ http://www.vc.edu/campus/spartanburg-south-carolina-college.cfm
  11. ^ "School District One". Spartanburg1.k12.sc.us. http://www.spartanburg1.k12.sc.us/. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  12. ^ "School District Two". Spartanburg2.k12.sc.us. http://www.spartanburg2.k12.sc.us/. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  13. ^ "School District Three". Spa3.k12.sc.us. http://www.spa3.k12.sc.us/. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  14. ^ "School District Four". Spartanburg4.org. September 10, 2008. http://www.spartanburg4.org/. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  15. ^ "School District Five". Spart5.k12.sc.us. http://www.spart5.k12.sc.us/. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  16. ^ "School District Six". Spartanburg6.k12.sc.us. May 30, 2011. http://www.spartanburg6.k12.sc.us/. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  17. ^ "School District Seven". Spart7.org. http://www.spart7.org/. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  18. ^ Spartanburg Christian Academy. Scawarriors.org (2010-12-06). Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  19. ^ Oakbrook Preparatory School. Oakbrookprep.org. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  20. ^ "Spartanburg Charter School". Spartanburg Charter School. http://www.spartanburgcharterschool.org/. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  21. ^ South Carolina School for the Deaf and the Blind. Scsdb.org. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  22. ^ St Paul the Apostle Catholic School Spartanburg SC. Stpaulschoolsc.com. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  23. ^ "The Spartanburg Museum of Art". Spartanburgartmuseum.org. http://www.spartanburgartmuseum.org/. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  24. ^ "The Spartanburg Regional Museum of History". Spartanburghistory.org. March 22, 2011. http://www.spartanburghistory.org/. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  25. ^ "The Spartanburg Science Center". The Spartanburg Science Center. http://www.spartanburgsciencecenter.org. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  26. ^ "Ballet Spartanburg". Sparklenet.com. http://www.sparklenet.com/balletspartanburg/index.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  27. ^ "Hub City Railroad Museum". http://www.hubcityrailroadmuseum.org. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  28. ^ "Spartanburg Music Trail". http://spartanburgmusictrail.com/. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  29. ^ "Spartanburg Stingers". Spartanburg Stingers. http://www.spartanburgstingers.com/. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  30. ^ Coastal Plain League[dead link]
  31. ^ Crickets
  32. ^ Collegiate Baseball League
  33. ^ Athletics | Converse College. Converse.edu. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  34. ^ Upward Sports – Providing the best sports experience for every child. Upward.org. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  35. ^ Welcome to the Chapman Cultural Center. Chapmanculturalcenter.org. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  36. ^ Welcome to the Chapman Cultural Center. Spartanarts.org. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  37. ^ Hub-Bub.com. Hub-Bub.com. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  38. ^ Welcome to. Hubcity.org. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  39. ^ TEDxSpartanburg - Together: Creating A New Vision. TEDxSpartanburg.com. Retrieved on February 4, 2012.
  40. ^ Converse College. Converse.edu. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  41. ^ Wofford College. Wofford.edu (2007-10-22). Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  42. ^ Spartanburg County Public Libraries. Infodepot.org. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  43. ^ "GoUpstate.com". GoUpstate.com. http://www.GoUpstate.com. Retrieved April 13, 2012.
  44. ^ Do you think the TSA has gone too far with security checks?. Hometown News. Retrieved on 2010-12-12.
  45. ^ Upstate Link magazine
  46. ^ "KinderCarolina.org". KinderCarolina.org. http://www.KinderCarolina.org. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  47. ^ Spartanburg Area Regional Transit Agency
  48. ^ Spartanburg Downtown Memorial Airport
  49. ^ "Ted Alexander". Baseball-Reference.com. http://www.baseball-reference.com/nlb/player.cgi?id=alexan000ted. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  50. ^ "Stephen Lamont Davis". Pro-Football-Reference.Com. http://www.pro-football-reference.com/players/D/DaviSt00.htm. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  51. ^ "Art Fowler Stats". Baseball Almanac. http://www.baseball-almanac.com/players/player.php?p=fowlear01. Retrieved November 10, 2012.

Further reading

External links