Space Race

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For a discussion of all spaceflight programs to date, see History of spaceflight. For a list of key events, see Timeline of the Space Race. For other uses of the term, see Space Race (disambiguation).
Charting the progress of the Space Race in 1957–1975.
Replica of Sputnik 1, first artificial satellite, 1957
Yuri Gagarin, the first person in space, 1961
Neil Armstrong, first man to walk on the Moon along with Buzz Aldrin, July 1969

The Space Race was a 20th-century (1955–1972) competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for supremacy in spaceflight capability. The technological superiority required for such supremacy was seen as necessary for national security, and symbolic of ideological superiority. The Space Race spawned pioneering efforts to launch artificial satellites, unmanned probes of the Moon, Venus, and Mars, and human spaceflight in low Earth orbit and to the Moon. The competition began on August 2, 1955, when the Soviet Union responded to the US announcement four days earlier of intent to launch artificial satellites for the International Geophysical Year, by declaring they would also launch a satellite "in the near future". The Soviet Union beat the US to this, with the October 4, 1957 launch of Sputnik 1. The Space Race peaked with the July 20, 1969 US landing of the first humans on the Moon with Apollo 11, and concluded in a period of détente with the April 1972 agreement on a co-operative Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, resulting in the July 1975 rendezvous in Earth orbit of a US astronaut crew with a Soviet cosmonaut crew.

The Space Race had its origins in the missile-based arms race that occurred following World War II, when both the Soviet Union and the United States captured advanced German rocket technology and personnel.

The Space Race sparked increases in spending on education and pure research, which led to beneficial spin-off technologies. It also contributed to the birth of the environmental movement by providing sharp color images of the global Earth taken by astronauts in translunar space.

Origins[edit]

World War II[edit]

Wernher von Braun (1912–1977), technical director of Nazi Germany's missile program, became the United States' lead rocket engineer during the 1950s and 1960s

The Space Race can trace its origins to Germany, beginning in the 1930s and continuing during World War II when Nazi Germany researched and built operational ballistic missiles. Starting in the early 1930s, during the last stages of the Weimar Republic, German aerospace engineers experimented with liquid-fueled rockets, with the goal that one day they would be capable of reaching high altitudes and traversing long distances.[1] The head of the German Army's Ballistics and Munitions Branch, Lieutenant Colonel Karl Emil Becker, gathered a small team of engineers that included Walter Dornberger and Leo Zanssen, to figure out how to use rockets as long-range artillery in order to get around the Treaty of Versailles' ban on research and development of long-range cannons.[2] Wernher von Braun, a young engineering prodigy, was recruited by Becker and Dornberger to join their secret army program at Kummersdorf-West in 1932.[3] Von Braun had dreams about conquering outer space with rockets, and did not initially see the military value in missile technology.[4]

During the Second World War, General Dornberger was the military head of the army's rocket program, Zanssen became the commandant of the Peenemünde army rocket centre, and von Braun was the technical director of the ballistic missile program.[5] They would lead the team that built the Aggregate-4 (A-4) rocket, which became the first vehicle to reach outer space during its test flight program in 1942 and 1943.[6] By 1943, Germany began mass-producing the A-4 as the Vergeltungswaffe 2 ("Vengeance Weapon" 2, or more commonly, V2), a ballistic missile with a 320 kilometers (200 mi) range carrying a 1,130 kilograms (2,490 lb) warhead at 4,000 kilometers per hour (2,500 mph).[7] Its supersonic speed meant there was no defense against it, and radar detection provided little warning.[8] Germany used the weapon to bombard southern England and parts of Allied-liberated western Europe from 1944 until 1945.[9] After the war, the V-2 became the basis of early American and Soviet rocket designs.[10][11]

At war's end, American, British, and Soviet scientific intelligence teams competed to capture Germany's rocket engineers along with the German rockets themselves and the designs on which they were based.[12] Each of the Allies captured a share of the available members of the German rocket team, but the United States benefited the most with Operation Paperclip, recruiting von Braun and most of his engineering team, who later helped develop the American missile and space exploration programs. The United States also acquired a large number of complete V2 rockets.[10]

Rocket teams assembled[edit]

Sergei Korolev (1907–1966) was the lead Soviet rocket engineer during the 1950s and 1960s

The German rocket center in Peenemünde was located in the eastern part of Germany, which became the Soviet zone of occupation. On Stalin's orders, the Soviet Union sent its best rocket engineers to this region to see what they could salvage for future weapons systems.[13] The Soviet rocket engineers were led by Sergei Korolev.[13] He had been involved in space clubs and early Soviet rocket design in the 1930s, but was arrested in 1938 during Joseph Stalin's Great Purge and imprisoned for six years in Siberia.[14] After the war, he became the USSR's chief rocket and spacecraft engineer, essentially the Soviet counterpart to von Braun.[15] His identity was kept a state secret throughout the Cold War, and he was identified publicly only as "the Chief Designer."[15] In the West, his name was only officially revealed when he died in 1966.[15]

After almost a year in the area around Peenemünde, Soviet officials moved most of the captured German rocket specialists to Gorodomlya Island on Lake Seliger, about 240 kilometers (150 mi) northwest of Moscow.[16] They were not allowed to participate in Soviet missile design, but were used as problem-solving consultants to the Soviet engineers.[17] They helped in the following areas: the creation of a Soviet version of the A-4; work on "organizational schemes"; research in improving the A-4 main engine; development of a 100-ton engine; assistance in the "layout" of plant production rooms; and preparation of rocket assembly using German components.[16] With their help, particularly Helmut Groettrup's group, Korolev reverse-engineered the A-4 and built his own version of the rocket, the R-1, in 1948.[18] Later, he developed his own distinct designs, though many of these designs were influenced by the Groettrup Group's G4-R10 design from 1949.[18] The Germans were eventually repatriated in 1951–53.[18]

In America, Von Braun and his team were sent to the United States Army's White Sands Proving Ground, located in New Mexico, in 1945.[19] They set about assembling the captured V2s and began a program of launching them and instructing American engineers in their operation.[20] These tests led to the first rocket to take photos from outer space, and the first two-stage rocket, the WAC Corporal-V2 combination, in 1949.[20] The German rocket team was moved from Fort Bliss to the Army's new Redstone Arsenal, located in Huntsville, Alabama, in 1950.[21] From here, Von Braun and his team would develop the Army's first operational medium-range ballistic missile, the Redstone rocket, that would, in slightly modified versions, launch both America's first satellite, and the first piloted Mercury space missions.[21] It became the basis for both the Jupiter and Saturn family of rockets.[21]

Cold War arms race[edit]

The cold war would become the great engine, the supreme catalyst, that sent rockets and their cargoes far above Earth and worlds away. If Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Goddard, and others were the fathers of rocketry, the competition between capitalism and communism was its midwife.

William E. Burrows,
This New Ocean, "The Other World Series", p. 147

The Cold War (1947–1991) developed between two former allies, the Soviet Union and the United States, soon after the end of the Second World War. It involved a continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition, primarily between the Soviet Union and its satellite states, and the powers of the Western world, particularly the United States.[22] Although the primary participants' military forces never clashed directly, they expressed this conflict through military coalitions, strategic conventional force deployments, extensive aid to states deemed vulnerable, proxy wars, espionage, propaganda, a nuclear arms race, and economic and technological competitions, such as the Space Race.[22]

In simple terms, the Cold War can be viewed as an expression of the ideological struggle between communism and capitalism.[23] The United States faced a new uncertainty beginning in September 1949, when it lost its monopoly on the atomic bomb.[23] American intelligence agencies discovered that the Soviet Union had exploded its first atomic bomb, with the consequence that the United States potentially could face a future nuclear war that, for the first time, might devastate its cities.[23] Given this new danger, the United States participated in an arms race with the Soviet Union that included development of the hydrogen bomb, as well as intercontinental strategic bombers and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) capable of delivering nuclear weapons.[23] A new fear of communism and its sympathizers swept the United States during the 1950s, which devolved into paranoid McCarthyism.[23] With communism spreading in China, Korea, and Eastern Europe, Americans came to feel so threatened that popular and political culture condoned extensive "witch-hunts" to expose communist spies.[23] Part of the American reaction to the Soviet atomic and hydrogen bomb tests included maintaining a large Air Force, under the control of the Strategic Air Command (SAC). SAC employed intercontinental strategic bombers, as well as medium-bombers based close to Soviet airspace (in western Europe and in Turkey) that were capable of delivering nuclear payloads.[24]

For its part, the Soviet Union harbored fears of invasion. Having suffered at least 27 million casualties during World War II after being invaded by Nazi Germany in 1941,[25] the Soviet Union was wary of its former ally, the United States, which until late 1949 was the sole possessor of atomic weapons. The United States had used these weapons operationally during World War II, and it could use them again against the Soviet Union, laying waste its cities and military centers.[25] Since the Americans had a much larger air force than the Soviet Union, and the United States maintained advance air bases near Soviet territory, in 1947 Stalin ordered the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) in order to counter the perceived American threat.[17]

In 1953, Korolev was given the go-ahead to develop the R-7 Semyorka rocket, which represented a major advance from the German design. Although some of its components (notably boosters) still resembled the German G-4, the new rocket incorporated staged design, a completely new control system, and a new fuel. It was successfully tested on 21 August 1957 and became the world's first fully operational ICBM the following month.[26] It would later be used to launch the first satellite into space, and derivatives would launch all piloted Soviet spacecraft.[27]

The United States had multiple rocket programs divided among the different branches of the American armed services, which meant that each force developed its own ICBM program. The Air Force initiated ICBM research in 1945 with the MX-774.[28] However, its funding was cancelled and only three partially successful launches were conducted in 1947.[28] In 1951, the Air Force began a new ICBM program called MX-1593, and by 1955 this program was receiving top-priority funding.[28] The MX-1593 program evolved to become the Atlas-A, with its maiden launch occurring on 11 June 1957, becoming the first successful American ICBM.[28] Its upgraded version, the Atlas-D rocket, would later serve as an operational nuclear ICBM and be used as the orbital launch vehicle for Project Mercury and the remote-controlled Agena Target Vehicle used in Project Gemini.[28]

With the Cold War as an engine for change in the ideological competition between the United States and the Soviet Union, a coherent space policy began to take shape in the United States during the late 1950s.[29] Korolev would take much inspiration from the competition as well, achieving many firsts to counter the possibility that the United States might prevail.[30]

Early Space Race: 1950s[edit]

Beginnings[edit]

In 1955, with both the United States and the Soviet Union building ballistic missiles that could be utilized to launch objects into space, the "starting line" was drawn for the Space Race.[31] In separate announcements, just four days apart, both nations publicly announced that they would launch artificial Earth satellites by 1957 or 1958.[31] On July 29, 1955, James C. Hagerty, president Dwight D. Eisenhower's press secretary, announced that the United States intended to launch "small Earth circling satellites" between July 1, 1957 and December 31, 1958 as part of their contribution to the International Geophysical Year (IGY).[31] Four days later, at the Sixth Congress of International Astronautical Federation in Copenhagen, scientist Leonid I. Sedov spoke to international reporters at the Soviet embassy, and announced his country's intention to launch a satellite as well, in the "near future".[31] On August 30, 1955, Korolev managed to get the Soviet Academy of Sciences to create a commission whose purpose was to beat the Americans into Earth orbit: this was the de facto start date for the Space Race.[31]

Initially, President Eisenhower was worried that a satellite passing above a nation at over 100 kilometers (62 mi), might be construed as violating that nation's sovereign airspace.[32] He was concerned that the Soviet Union would accuse the Americans of an illegal overflight, thereby scoring a propaganda victory at his expense.[33] Eisenhower and his advisors believed that a nation's airspace sovereignty did not extend into outer space, acknowledged as the Kármán line, and he used the 1957–58 International Geophysical Year launches to establish this principle in international law.[32] Eisenhower also feared that he might cause an international incident and be called a "Warmonger" if he were to use military missiles as launchers. Therefore he selected the untried Naval Research Laboratory's Vanguard rocket, which was a research-only booster.[34] This meant that von Braun's team was not allowed to put a satellite into orbit with their Jupiter-C rocket, because of its intended use as a future military vehicle.[34] On September 20, 1956, von Braun and his team did launch a Jupiter-C that was capable of putting a satellite into orbit, but the launch was used only as a suborbital test of nose cone reentry technology.[34]

First artificial satellites[edit]

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The signals of Sputnik 1 continued for 22 days.

Korolev received word about von Braun's 1956 Jupiter-C test, but thinking it was a satellite mission that failed, he expedited plans to get his own satellite in orbit. Since his R-7 was substantially more powerful than any of the American boosters, he made sure to take full advantage of this capability by designing Object D as his primary satellite.[35] It was given the designation 'D', to distinguish it from other R-7 payload designations 'A', 'B', 'V', and 'G' which were nuclear weapon payloads.[36] Object D would dwarf the proposed American satellites, by having a weight of 1,400 kilograms (3,100 lb), of which 300 kilograms (660 lb) would be composed of scientific instruments that would photograph the Earth, take readings on radiation levels, and check on the planet's magnetic field.[36] However, things were not going along well with the design and manufacturing of the satellite, so in February 1957, Korolev sought and received permission from the USSR Council of Ministers to create a prosteishy sputnik (PS-1), or simple satellite.[35] The Council also decreed that Object D be postponed until April 1958.[37] The new sputnik was a shiny spherical ball that would be a much lighter craft, weighing 83.8 kilograms (185 lb) and having a 58-centimeter (23 in) diameter. [38] The satellite would not contain the complex instrumentation that Object D had, but it did have two radio transmitters operating on different short wave radio frequencies, the ability to detect if a meteoroid were to penetrate its pressure hull, and the ability to detect the density of the Earth's thermosphere.[39]

Korolev was buoyed by the first successful launches of his R-7 rocket in August and September, which paved the way for him to launch his sputnik.[40] Word came that the Americans were planning to announce a major breakthrough at an International Geophysical Year conference at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington D.C., with a paper entitled "Satellite Over the Planet", on 6 October 1957.[41] Korolev's fear was that von Braun might launch a Jupiter-C with a satellite payload on or around the fourth or fifth of October, in conjunction with the paper.[41] The fear of being beaten made him hasten the launch, moving it to the fourth of October.[41] The launch vehicle for PS-1, was a modified R-7 – vehicle 8K71PS number M1-PS– without much of the test equipment and radio gear that was present in the previous launches.[40] It arrived at the Soviet missile base Tyura-Tam in September and was prepared for its mission at launch site number one.[40] On Friday, October 4, 1957, at exactly 10:28:34 pm Moscow time, the R-7, with the now named Sputnik 1 satellite, lifted off the launch pad, and placed this artificial "moon" into an orbit a few minutes later.[42] This "fellow traveler," as the name is translated in English, was a small, beeping ball, less than two feet in diameter and weighing less than 200 pounds. But the celebrations were muted at the launch control centre until the down-range far east tracking station at Kamchatka received the first distinctive beep ... beep ... beep sounds from Sputnik 1's radio transmitters, indicating that it was on its way to completing its first orbit.[42] About 95 minutes after launch, the satellite flew over its launch site, and its radio signals were picked up by the engineers and military personnel at Tyura-Tam: that's when Korolev and his team celebrated the first successful artificial satellite placed into Earth-orbit.[43]

Launch rocket family of Sputnik, Laika, Gagarin, and more—R7/Soyuz

The Soviet success caused public controversy in the United States, and Eisenhower ordered the civilian rocket and satellite project, Vanguard, to move up its timetable and launch its satellite much sooner than originally planned.[44] The December 6, 1957 Project Vanguard launch failure occurred at Cape Canaveral in front of a live broadcast television audience (it was the first live countdown broadcast nationally) in the United States.[44] It was a monumental failure, exploding a few seconds after launch, and it became an international joke. The satellite appeared in newspapers under the names Flopnik, Stayputnik, Kaputnik,[45] and Dudnik.[46] In the United Nations, the Russian delegate offered the U.S. representative aid "under the Soviet program of technical assistance to backwards nations."[47] Only in the wake of this very public failure did von Braun's Redstone team get the go-ahead to launch their Jupiter-C rocket as soon as they could. Britain, the USA's Western Cold War ally, had a slightly different reaction and many people celebrated the fact that the Soviets had reached space first. However, other member of Britain's population feared the destructive potential that military uses of space craft might bring. [48]

Nearly four months after the launch of Sputnik 1, von Braun and the United States successfully launched its first satellite, on a modified Redstone booster, under the "civilian" name Juno 1 to differentiate it from the army's Redstone missile. Explorer 1 was the first successful American satellite. It was launched at Cape Canaveral in Florida on January 31, 1958.[49] It was 4,8 kg in mass and was launched on a four stage Juno 1 vehicle.[50] It carried a micrometeorite gauge and a Geiger-Müller tube. It passed in and out of the Earth-encompassing radiation belt with its 360 km by 2534 km orbit therefore saturating the tube's capacity and proving what Dr. James Van Allen, a space scientist at the University of Iowa, had previously only theorized. It not only confirmed his theory, but also brought him to fame.[51] Said radiation belt is actually now known as the Van Allen radiation belt. This belt consists of a doughnut shaped zone of high-level radiation intensity around the Earth above the magnetic equator.[52] Van Allen was also the man who designed and built the satellite instrumentation of Explorer 1. It was because of the previous failure of the Vanguard rocket of December 1957 that scientist made the decision of using a military rocket allowing the successful launch of the satellite.[52] The satellite actually measured three phenomena. They are cosmic ray and radiation levels, the temperature in the spacecraft and finally the frequency of collisions with micrometeorites. The satellite had no space for data storage though which meant that it had to transmit continuously.[53] A couple of months later in March 1958, a second satellite was sent into orbit with augmented cosmic ray instrument.

Space Race in the 1960s[edit]

First humans in space[edit]

Yuri Gagarin, the first person in space, 1961

By 1959 American observers believed that the Soviet Union would be the first to get a human into space, because of the time needed to prepare for Project Mercury's first launch.[54] On April 12, 1961, the USSR launched Yuri Gagarin into orbit around the Earth on Vostok 1.[55] They dubbed Gagarin the first cosmonaut, roughly translated from Russian and Greek as "sailor of the universe". Although he had the ability to take over manual control of his spacecraft in an emergency by opening an envelope he had in the cabin that contained a code that could be typed into the computer, it was flown in an automatic mode as a precaution; medical science at that time did not know what would happen to a human in the weightlessness of space.[55] Vostok 1 orbited the Earth for 108 minutes and made its reentry over the Soviet Union, with Gagarin ejecting from the spacecraft at 7,000 meters (23,000 ft), and landing by parachute.[55] Under Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (International Federation of Aeronautics) FAI qualifying rules for aeronautical records, pilots must both take off and land with their craft, so the Soviet Union kept the landing procedures secret until 1978, when they finally admitted that Gagarin did not land with his spacecraft.[55] When the flight was publicly announced, it was celebrated around the world as a great triumph, not just for the Soviet Union, but for all mankind[dubious ] Yet it once again shocked and embarrassed the United States.[56]

The United States called their space travelers astronauts ("star sailors" from the Greek), and it was 3 weeks later, on May 5, 1961, when Alan Shepard became the first American in space, launched on a suborbital mission Mercury-Redstone 3, in a spacecraft named Freedom 7.[57] Though he did not achieve orbit, unlike Gagarin he was the first person to exercise manual control over his spacecraft's attitude and retro-rocket firing.[58] The first Soviet cosmonaut to exercise manual control was Gherman Titov in Vostok 2 on 6 August 1961.[59]

Almost a year after the Soviet Union put a human into orbit, astronaut John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth, on February 20, 1962.[60] His Mercury-Atlas 6 mission completed three orbits in the Friendship 7 spacecraft, and splashed-down safely in the Atlantic Ocean, after a tense reentry, due to what falsely appeared from the telemetry data to be a loose heat-shield.[60]

Kennedy launches the Moon race[edit]

We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too.

It is for these reasons that I regard the decision last year to shift our efforts in space from low to high gear as among the most important decisions that will be made during my incumbency in the office of the Presidency.

John F. Kennedy,
Speech at Rice University, Houston, September 12, 1962[61]

Despite Kennedy's famous decision to send an American to the moon, this was never a foregone conclusion. Jerome Wiesner of MIT, who served as a science adviser to both Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy, remarked, "If Kennedy could have opted out of a big space program without hurting the country in his judgement, he would have." [62] In March 1961, when NASA administrator James E. Webb submitted a budget request to fund a moon landing before 1970, Kennedy rejected it because it was simply too expensive. [63]

On April 20, 1961, about one week after Gagarin's flight, American President John F. Kennedy sent a memo to Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, asking him to look into the state of America's space program, and into programs that could offer NASA the opportunity to catch up.[64] Johnson responded about one week later, concluding that the United States needed to do much more to reach a position of leadership. Johnson recommended that a piloted moon landing was far enough in the future that it was likely that the United States could achieve it first.[65]

On May 25, Kennedy announced his support for the Apollo program and redefined the ultimate goal of the Space Race in an address to a special joint session of Congress: "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth."[66] His overall support of NASA and the space program was unexpected because of how often he attacked the administration's inefficiency during the election.[67] His justification for the Moon Race was both that it was vital to national security and that it would focus the nation's energies in other scientific and social fields.[61] He expressed his reasoning in his "We choose to go to the Moon" speech, on 12 September 1962, before a large crowd at Rice University Stadium, in Houston, Texas, near the site of the future Johnson Space Center.[61]

Proposed joint US-USSR moon program[edit]

On September 20, 1963, in a speech before the United Nations General Assembly, President Kennedy proposed that the United States and the Soviet Union join forces in their efforts to reach the moon. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev initially rejected Kennedy's proposal; however, during the next few weeks he concluded that both nations might realize cost benefits and technological gains from a joint venture. Khrushchev was poised to accept Kennedy's proposal at the time of Kennedy's assassination in November 1963.[68]

Khrushchev and Kennedy had developed a measure of rapport during their years as leaders of the world's two superpowers, especially during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. That trust was lacking with Vice President Johnson; when Johnson assumed the Presidency after Kennedy's assassination, Khrushchev dropped the idea of a joint moon program.[68]

Vostoks and Voskhods[edit]

Vostok rocket displayed at Ostankino

The Soviet Union achieved another first, with the first dual-piloted flights, Vostok 3 and Vostok 4 on August 11–15, 1962.[69] The two spacecraft came within approximately 6.5 kilometers (4.0 mi) of one another, close enough for radio communication.[70] The launching of two spacecraft from the same pad during a very short period of time represented a significant technical accomplishment, but there was no capability for the spacecraft to maneuver closer to each other, and over the course of the mission they continued to drift as far as 2,850 kilometers (1,770 mi) apart.[71]

The Soviet Union achieved yet another first when it launched not only the first woman, but also the first civilian, in space-- Valentina Tereshkova, on June 16, 1963, in Vostok 6.[72] Launching a woman was reportedly Korolev's idea, and it was accomplished purely for propaganda value.[72] Tereshkova was one of a small corps of female cosmonauts who were amateur parachutists, but Tereshkova was the only one to fly.[72] The USSR didn't again open its cosmonaut corps to women until 1980, two years after the United States opened its astronaut corps to women.

Korolev had planned further, long-term missions for the Vostok spacecraft, and had four Vostoks in various stages of fabrication in late 1963 at his OKB-1 facilities.[73] At that time, the Americans announced their ambitious plans for the Project Gemini flight schedule. These plans included major advancements in spacecraft capabilities, including a two-person spacecraft, the ability to change orbits, the capacity to perform an extravehicular activity (EVA), and the goal of docking with another spacecraft.[30] These represented major advances over the previous Mercury or Vostok spaceships, and Korolev felt the need to try to beat the Americans to many of these innovations.[73] Korolev already had begun designing the Vostok's replacement, the next-generation Soyuz spacecraft, a multi-cosmonaut spacecraft that had at least the same capabilities as the Gemini spacecraft.[74] However, Soyuz would not be available for at least three years, and it could not be called upon to deal with this new American challenge in 1964 or 1965.[75] Political pressure in early 1964–which some sources claim was from Khrushchev while other sources claim was from other Communist Party officials—pushed him to modify his four remaining Vostoks to beat the Americans to new space firsts in the size of flight crews, and the duration of missions.[73]

On October 12, 1964, the Chief Designer delivered another Soviet space-first when Voskhod 1 launched the first multi-person spacecraft, with three cosmonauts in a modified Vostok spacecraft.[76] The USSR touted another technological achievement during this mission: it was the first space flight during which cosmonauts performed in a shirt-sleeve-environment.[77] However, flying without spacesuits was not due to safety improvements in the Soviet spacecraft's environmental systems; rather this innovation was accomplished because the craft's limited cabin space did not allow for spacesuits. Flying without spacesuits exposed the cosmonauts to significant risk in the event of potentially fatal cabin depressurization.[77] This feat would not be repeated until the US Apollo Command Module flew in 1968; this later mission was designed from the outset to safely transport three astronauts in a shirt-sleeve environment while in space.

Between October 14–16, 1964, Leonid Brezhnev and a small cadre of high-ranking Communist Party officials, deposed Premier Khrushchev as Soviet government leader a day after Voskhod 1 landed, in what was called the "Wednesday conspiracy".[78] The new political leaders, along with Korolev, ended the technologically troublesome Voskhod program, cancelling Voskhod 3 and 4, which were in the planning stages, and started concentrating on the race to the moon.[79] Voskhod 2 would end up being Korolev's final achievement before his death, as it would become the last of the many space firsts that demonstrated the USSR's domination in spacecraft technology during the early 1960s. According to historian Asif Siddiqi, Korolev's accomplishments marked "the absolute zenith of the Soviet space program, one never, ever attained since."[80] There would be a two-year pause in Soviet piloted space flights while Voskhod's replacement, the Soyuz spacecraft, was designed and developed.[81]

On March 18, 1965, about a week before the first American piloted Project Gemini space flight, the USSR accelerated the Space Race competition, by launching the two-cosmonaut Voskhod 2 mission with Pavel Belyayev and Alexey Leonov.[82] Voskhod 2's design modifications included the first airlock to allow for extravehicular activity (EVA), also known as a spacewalk.[83] Leonov performed the first-ever EVA as part of the mission.[82] A fatality was narrowly avoided when Leonov's spacesuit expanded in the vacuum of space, preventing him from re-entering the spacecraft.[84] He had to improvise, and perform the potentially fatal partial depressurization of his spacesuit in order to re-enter the airlock.[84] He succeeded in safely re-entering the ship, but he and Belyayev faced further challenges when the spacecraft's atmospheric controls flooded the cabin with 45% pure oxygen, which had to be lowered to acceptable levels before re-entry.[85] The reentry involved two more challenges: an improperly timed retrorocket firing caused the Voskhod 2 to land 386 kilometers (240 mi) off its designated target area, the town of Perm; and the instrument compartment's failure to detach from the descent apparatus caused the spacecraft to become unstable during reentry.[85]

Project Gemini[edit]

Main article: Project Gemini
Gemini 12 lifts off

Focused by the commitment to a moon landing, in January 1962 the US introduced Project Gemini, a two-crew-member spacecraft that would support Apollo by developing the key spaceflight technologies of space rendezvous and docking of two craft, flight durations of sufficient length to simulate going to the Moon and back, Extra-vehicular Activity for extended periods, and accomplishing useful work rather than just "walking in space." Although Gemini took a year longer than planned to accomplish its first flight, Gemini took advantage of the USSR's two-year hiatus after Voskhod, which enabled the US to catch up and surpass the previous Soviet lead in piloted spaceflight. Gemini achieved several significant firsts during the course of ten piloted missions:

Most of the novice pilots on the early missions would command the later missions. In this way, Project Gemini built up spaceflight experience for the pool of astronauts who would be chosen to fly the Apollo lunar missions.

Soviet Moon program[edit]

Main article: Soviet Moonshot
Lunniy Korabl (LK)

The Soviet Union had planned to divide their lunar program into two separate manned programs: circumlunar flights in 1967 and lunar landings from 1968.

The circumlunar missions were to be launched by a UR-500 rocket, later known as the Proton. The cosmonauts would be flown to the Moon in the Soyuz 7K-L1 (Zond), which made four unsuccessful unmanned flights between 1967 and 1970. One flight of the Zond was, however, successful and returned its non-human passengers (tortoises) to Earth; had it been used for a manned circumlunar mission, the flight would have carried two cosmonauts.

The Soviet lunar landing missions would use spacecraft derived from the Soyuz 7K-L1. The orbital module (Soyuz 7K-L3), the "Lunniy Orbitalny Korabl" (LOK), had a crew of two. The LOK and a separate lunar lander, the "Lunniy Korabl" (LK), had 40% of the mass of the Apollo CSM/LM due to the launch vehicle's capabilities.

The launch vehicle would have been the N1 rocket, which was roughly the same height and takeoff mass as the American Saturn V, exceeded its takeoff thrust by 28%, and yet had roughly half the TLI payload capability. The N1 was unsuccessfully tested four times, exploding each time due to problems with the first stage's thirty engines.

The Soviet leadership cancelled the program in 1970 after the first two successful American Moon landings.

Fatalities and disasters of the 1960s[edit]

Probably the worst disaster during the Space Race was the Soviet Union's Nedelin catastrophe in 1960.[87] It happened on October 24, 1960, when Chief Marshal Mitrofan Nedelin gave orders to use improper shutdown and control procedures on an experimental R-16 rocket.[87] The hasty on-pad repairs caused the missile's second stage engine to fire straight onto the full propellant tanks of the still-attached first stage.[87] The resulting explosion, toxic-fuel spill, and fire killed anywhere from 92 to 150 top Soviet military and technical personnel.[87] Marshal Nedelin was vaporized, and his only identifiable remains were his war medals, especially the Gold Star of the Soviet Union.[87] His death was officially explained as an airplane crash.[87] It was also a huge set-back for the rocket's chief designer, Mikhail Yangel, who was trying to unseat Korolev as the person responsible for the Soviet human spaceflight program.[87][88] Yangel survived only because he went for a cigarette break in a bunker that was removed from the launch pad, but he would not rival Korolev during the rest of this period.[87] The Nedelin catastrophe would remain an official secret until 1989, and the survivors of the incident were not allowed to discuss it until 1990, thirty-one years after it occurred.[89]

In 1967, both nations faced serious challenges that brought their programs to a halt. Both nations had been rushing at full-speed on the Apollo and Soyuz programs, without paying due diligence to growing design and manufacturing problems. The results proved fatal to both pioneering crews.

In the United States, the crew of Apollo 1, the first manned Apollo mission, Command Pilot "Gus" Grissom, Senior Pilot Ed White, and Pilot Roger Chaffee, were killed by suffocation in a fire that swept through their spacecraft cabin during a ground test on January 27, 1967, less than a month before its planned February 21 launch. An investigative board determined the fire was probably caused by an electrical spark, and quickly grew out of control, fed by the spacecraft's pure oxygen atmosphere. Crew escape was made impossible by inability to open the inward-opening hatch cover due to the greater-than-atmospheric internal pressure.[90] The board also found design and construction flaws in the spacecraft, and procedural failings, including failure to appreciate the hazard of the pure-oxygen atmosphere, as well as inadequate safety procedures.[90] All these flaws had to be corrected over the next twenty-two months until the first piloted flight could be made.[90] Mercury and Gemini veteran Gus Grissom had been a favored choice of Deke Slayton, the grounded Mercury astronaut who became NASA's Director of Flight Crew Operations, to make the first piloted landing.

Meanwhile, the Soviet Union was having its own problems with Soyuz development. Engineers reported 200 design faults to party leaders, but their concerns "were overruled by political pressures for a series of space feats to mark the anniversary of Lenin's birthday."[citation needed] On April 24, 1967, the first in-flight death of a cosmonaut, Colonel Vladimir Komarov, the single pilot of Soyuz 1, occurred. This was planned to be a three-day mission to include the first Soviet docking with an unpiloted Soyuz 2, but the mission was plagued with problems. Early on, Komarov's craft lacked sufficient electrical power because only one of two solar panels had deployed. Then the automatic attitude control system began malfunctioning and eventually failed completely, resulting in the craft spinning wildly. Komarov was able to stop the spin with the manual system, which was only partially effective. The flight controllers aborted his mission after only one day. During the emergency re-entry, a fault in the landing parachute system caused the primary chutes to fail, and the reserve chutes tangled together; Komarov was killed on impact. Fixing these and other spacecraft faults caused an eighteen-month delay before piloted Soyuz flights could resume, similar to the US experience with Apollo. This, combined with Korolev's death, led to the quick unraveling of the Soviet Moon-landing program.

Fallen Astronaut and plaque commemorating 14 dead astronauts and cosmonauts, left on the Moon by the crew of Apollo 15

Other astronauts and cosmonauts died while training for space flight, including four Americans (Ted Freeman, Elliot See, Charles Bassett, and Clifton Williams) who all died in crashes of T-38 aircraft. Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space, died in the 1968 crash of his MiG-15 jet while training for a Soyuz mission. In 1971, Soyuz 11 cosmonauts Georgi Dobrovolski, Viktor Patsayev, and Vladislav Volkov asphyxiated during reentry. Astronaut Edward Givens died in an automobile accident in 1967, and Voskhod 2 commander Pavel Belyayev died in 1970 of complications following surgery. The crew of Apollo 15 left a memorial on the Moon's surface in August 1971, in honor of the 14 astronauts and cosmonauts then known to have died during the Space Race.

In 1986, in a series of newspaper articles in Izvestia, it was disclosed for the first time that the USSR had officially covered up the March 23, 1961 death of Soviet cosmonaut Valentin Bondarenko from massive third-degree burns from a fire in a high-oxygen isolation test chamber.[91] This revelation subsequently caused some speculation as to whether the Apollo 1 disaster might have been averted had NASA been aware of the incident.[92] Bondarenko, at age 24, was the youngest of the early Vostok cosmonauts.[93] The Soviet government had erased all traces of Bondarenko's existence in the cosmonaut corps upon his death.[94]

To the Moon[edit]

The United States recovered from the Apollo 1 fire, fixing the fatal flaws in an improved version of the Block II command module. The US proceeded with unpiloted test launches of the Saturn V launch vehicle (Apollo 4 and Apollo 6) and the Lunar Module (Apollo 5) during the latter-half of 1967 and early 1968.[95] Apollo 1's mission to check out the Apollo Command/Service Module in Earth orbit was accomplished by Grissom's backup crew commanded by Walter Schirra on Apollo 7, launched on October 11, 1968.[96] The eleven-day mission was a total success, as the spacecraft performed a virtually flawless mission, paving the way for the United States to continue with its lunar mission schedule.[97]

The Soviet Union also fixed the parachute and control problems with Soyuz, and the next piloted mission Soyuz 3 was launched on October 26, 1968.[98] The goal was to complete Komarov's rendezvous and docking mission with the un-piloted Soyuz 2.[98] Ground controllers brought the two craft to within 200 meters (660 ft) of each other, then cosmonaut Georgy Beregovoy took control.[98] He got within 40 meters (130 ft) of his target, but was unable to dock before expending 90 percent of his maneuvering fuel, due to a piloting error that put his spacecraft into the wrong orientation and forced Soyuz 2 to automatically turn away from his approaching craft.[98]

The Soviet Zond spacecraft was almost ready for piloted circumlunar missions in 1968, although testing was not yet complete. At the time, the Soyuz 7K-L1/Zond spacecraft was not yet ready for piloted missions after five unsuccessful and partially successful automated test launches: Cosmos 146 on March 10, 1967; Cosmos 154 on April 8, 1967; Zond 1967A September 27, 1967; Zond 1967B on November 22, 1967.[99] Zond 4 was launched on March 2, 1968, and successfully made a circumlunar flight.[100] After its successful flight around the Moon, Zond 4 encountered problems with its Earth reentry on March 9, and was ordered destroyed by an explosive charge 15,000 meters (49,000 ft) over the Gulf of Guinea.[101] The Soviet official announcement said that Zond 4 was an automated test flight which ended with its intentional destruction, due to its recovery trajectory positioning it over the Atlantic Ocean instead of over the USSR.[100]

Earthrise, as seen from Apollo 8, December 24, 1968 (NASA)

During the summer of 1968, the Apollo program hit another snag: the first pilot-rated Lunar Module (LM) was not ready for orbital tests in time for a December 1968 launch. NASA planners overcame this challenge by changing the mission flight order, delaying the first LM flight until early 1969, and sending Apollo 8 into lunar orbit without the LM in December on a new 'C-prime' mission.[102] This mission was in part motivated by intelligence rumors the Soviet Union might fly a piloted circumlunar Zond flight during late 1968.[103] In September 1968, Zond 5, a Soyuz 7K-L1 spacecraft, with tortoises on board, made a circumlunar flight and returned to Earth, accomplishing the first successful splashdown of the Soviet space program, in the Indian Ocean.[104] It also scared NASA planners, as it took them several days to figure out that it was only an automated flight, not a piloted flight with cosmonauts, because voice recordings were transmitted from the craft en route to the Moon.[105] On November 10, 1968 another automated test flight of the 7K-L1 spacecraft – Zond 6 – was launched, but this time, it encountered difficulties in its Earth reentry, and depressurized and deployed its parachute too early, causing it to crash-land only 16 kilometers (9.9 mi) from where it had been launched six days earlier.[106]

Apollo 8 launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first human-crewed spacecraft to leave low-Earth orbit and go to another celestial body, the Moon.[107] On December 24 Frank Borman, Jim Lovell, and Bill Anders became the first humans to enter into orbit around the Moon.[107] They orbited ten times, and transmitted one of the most watched TV broadcasts in history, with their Christmas Eve program from lunar orbit, that concluded with a reading from the King James Bible's Book of Genesis.[107] A few hours later, the crew performed the first-ever Trans-Earth injection (TEI) burn, to blast the Apollo 8 spacecraft out of lunar orbit and on to a trajectory back to the Earth.[107] Just over two days later, on December 27, Apollo 8 safely splashed down in the Pacific, completing another first: NASA's first dawn splashdown and recovery.[107]

It turned out there was no chance of a piloted Soviet circumlunar flight during 1968, due to the unreliability of the Zonds.[108] After the successive launch failures of the N1 rocket in 1969, Soviet plans for a piloted landing suffered first delay and ultimately cancellation.[109] The launch pad explosion of the N-1 on July 3, 1969 was a significant setback.[110] The rocket hit the pad after an engine shutdown, destroying itself and the launch facility.[110]

Apollo 11[edit]

Main article: Apollo 11
American Buzz Aldrin during the first moonwalk in 1969

1969 saw the final leg of the Moon Race, with the United States leading it after the flight of Apollo 8.[108] Unbeknownst to the Americans, the Soviet moon program was in deep trouble.[108] Without the N-1 rocket, the USSR had no way to land on the Moon.[111] The next two Apollo missions proved that the Lunar Module worked well, both in low-Earth orbit and in lunar orbit. It was time to proceed to an actual landing mission.[112] Under this backdrop, Apollo 11 was being prepared for a July encounter with the Moon.[113]

The Apollo 11 crew consisted of commander (CDR) Neil Armstrong, command module pilot (CMP) Michael Collins, and lunar module pilot (LMP) Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin.[114] They were selected as the crew in January 1969, and they trained for the mission until just before the actual launch day.[115] On July 16, 1969, at exactly 9:32 am EDT, the Saturn V rocket – serial number SA-506 – lifted off from Launch Complex 39A at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida with Apollo 11 on board.[116]

The lunar trip took just over three days.[117] After achieving orbit, Armstrong and Aldrin transferred into the Lunar Module, named Eagle, and began their descent. After overcoming several computer malfunctions, Armstrong took over manual flight-control at about 180 meters (590 ft), and guided the Lunar Module to a landing on the Moon's Sea of Tranquility at 4:17 pm EDT, July 20, 1969. The first humans on the Moon would wait another six hours before they ventured out of their craft. At 10:56:15 pm EDT, Armstrong became the first human to set foot on the Moon.[118]

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"That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind."

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The first step was witnessed by at least 500 million TV viewers on Earth.[119] His first words when he stepped off the LM's landing pad were, "That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind."[118] Aldrin joined him on the surface almost 20 minutes later.[120] Altogether, they spent just under two and one-quarter hours outside their craft.[121] The next day, they performed the first launch from another celestial body, and rendezvoused with the Columbia Command Module.[122]

Apollo 11 safely left lunar orbit and returned to Earth, landing in the Pacific Ocean on July 24, 1969.[123] When the spacecraft splashed down, 2,982 days had passed since Kennedy committed the United States to landing a man on the Moon and bringing him back safely to the Earth before the end of the decade; the mission was completed with just 161 days to spare.[124] With the safe completion of the Apollo 11 mission, the Americans won the race to the Moon.[125]

This was followed by successful lunar landings on Apollo 12 (November 1969), Apollo 14 (February 1971), Apollo 15 (July 1971), Apollo 16 (April 1972), and Apollo 17 (December 1972). One lunar landing attempt, Apollo 13 (April 1970), was unsuccessful, but the crew returned safely.

The 1970s[edit]

Apollo 17's Saturn V in 1972
Moonwalk, December 13, 1972.

The early 1970s were rounded out by several more U.S. manned Moon landings, which featured expanded tasks including more sample returns, experiments, and extended EVAs with a lunar rover. The USSR continued for a time with their N1 rocket, as well as more Soyuz flights to their Salyut stations. Unmanned spacecraft were in the limelight as well, with the USSR launching unmanned lunar sample return missions and probes to Mars and Venus. The US launched probes to Mars, Venus, Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, and beyond, as well as launching Skylab, an orbital space station. Together, the US and Soviet conducted an orbital rendezvous by manned spacecraft in 1975. By the end of the 1970s, both were working on Space Shuttles and launching science missions at a fever pitch.

Salyuts and Skylab[edit]

Having lost the race to the moon, the USSR decided to concentrate on orbital space stations. During 1969 and 1970, they launched six more Soyuz flights after Soyuz 3, then launched the first space station, the Salyut 1 laboratory designed by Kerim Kerimov, on April 19, 1971. Three days later, the Soyuz 10 crew attempted to dock with it, but failed to achieve a secure enough connection to safely enter the station. The Soyuz 11 crew of Vladislav Volkov, Georgi Dobrovolski and Viktor Patsayev successfully docked on June 7, and completed a record 22-day stay. The crew became the second in-flight space fatality during their reentry on June 30. They were asphyxiated when their spacecraft's cabin lost all pressure, shortly after undocking. The disaster was blamed on a faulty cabin pressure valve, that allowed all the air to vent into space. The crew was not wearing pressure suits and had no chance of survival once the leak occurred.

Salyut 1's orbit was increased to prevent premature reentry, but further piloted flights were delayed while the Soyuz was redesigned to fix the new safety problem. The station re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on October 11, after 175 days in orbit. The USSR attempted to launch a second Salyut-class station designated Durable Orbital Station-2 (DOS-2) on July 29, 1972, but a rocket failure caused it to fail to achieve orbit. After the DOS-2 failure, the USSR attempted to launch four more Salyut-class stations through 1975, with another failure due to an explosion of the final rocket stage, which punctured the station with shrapnel so that it wouldn't hold pressure. While all of the Salyuts were presented to the public as non-military scientific laboratories, some of them were actually covers for the military Almaz reconnaissance stations.

The United States also had plans to launch a piloted space laboratory as part of the Apollo Applications Program, using Apollo hardware. The original plans called for constructing the space laboratory using a spent Saturn S-IVB rocket stage (used to launch the Apollo craft into Earth orbit), however the space laboratory was ultimately pre-fabricated on Earth and launched by the modified first two stages of the Saturn V lunar launch vehicle, known as the Saturn INT-21. The orbital workstation Skylab, weighed 169,950 pounds (77,090 kg), was 58 feet (18 m) long by 21.7 feet (6.6 m) in diameter, with a habitable volume of 10,000 cubic feet (280 m3). Skylab 1, the mission to actually launch the space station, was launched on May 14, 1973, but was damaged during the flight, losing one of its solar panels and a meteoroid thermal shield. Subsequent human-crewed missions repaired the station, and the final mission's crew, Skylab 4, set the Space Race endurance record with 84 days in orbit, when the mission ended on February 8, 1974. Skylab stayed in orbit another five years before reentering the Earth's atmosphere over the Indian Ocean and Western Australia on July 11, 1979.

Apollo–Soyuz Test Mission[edit]

While the Sputnik 1 launch can be called the start of the Space Race, its end is harder to pinpoint. In May 1972, President Richard M. Nixon and Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev negotiated an easing of relations known as detente, creating a temporary "thaw" in the Cold War. In the spirit of good sportsmanship, the time seemed right for cooperation rather than competition, and the notion of a continuing "race" began to subside.

The two nations planned a joint mission to dock the last US Apollo craft with a Soyuz, known as the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP). To prepare, the US designed a docking module for the Apollo that was compatible with the Soviet docking system, which allowed any of their craft to dock with any other (e.g. Soyuz/Soyuz as well as Soyuz/Salyut). The module was also necessary as an airlock to allow the men to visit each other's craft, which had incompatible cabin atmospheres. The USSR used the Soyuz 16 mission in December 1974 to prepare for ASTP.

The joint mission began when Soyuz 19 was first launched on July 15, 1975 at 12:20 UTC, and the Apollo craft was launched with the docking module six and a half hours later. The two craft rendezvoused and docked on July 17 at 16:19 UTC. The three astronauts conducted joint experiments with the two cosmonauts, and the crew shook hands, exchanged gifts, and visited each other's craft.

After Apollo[edit]

In the 1970s, the United States began developing a new generation of reusable orbital spacecraft known as the Space Shuttle, and launched a range of unmanned probes. The USSR continued to develop space station technology with the Salyut program and Mir ('Peace' or 'World', depending on the context) space station, supported by Soyuz spacecraft. They developed their own large space shuttle under the Buran program. However, the USSR dissolved in 1991 and the remains of its space program were distributed to various Eastern European countries. The United States and Russia would work together in space with the Shuttle–Mir Program, and again with the International Space Station.

Retrospectives[edit]

Mir & Atlantis .. 1995

The meaning and nature of the space race are subject to periodic retrospectives in American and other cultures. One such occurrence was in 2003 when Columbia was lost with crew during re-entry.[126] Some more retrospectives took place with retirement of the U.S. Space Shuttle program in 2011 and the cancellation of Project Constellation in 2010.[127][128]

Legacy[edit]

Advances in technology and education[edit]

American concerns that they had fallen behind the Soviet Union in the race to space led quickly to a push by legislators and educators for greater emphasis on mathematics and the physical sciences in American schools. The United States' National Defense Education Act of 1958 increased funding for these goals from childhood education through the post-graduate level. To this day over 1,200 American high schools retain their own planetarium installations, a situation unparalleled in any other country[citation needed] and a direct consequence of the Space Race[citation needed].

The scientists educated through these efforts helped develop technologies that have been adapted for use in the kitchen, in transportation systems, in athletics, and in many other areas of modern life. Dried fruits and ready-to-eat foods (in particular food sterilization and package sealing techniques), stay-dry clothing, and even no-fog ski goggles have their roots in space science.[citation needed]

International Space Station in 2010

Today over a thousand artificial satellites orbit Earth, relaying communications data around the planet and facilitating remote sensing of data on weather, vegetation, and human movements for the nations who employ them. In addition, much of the micro-technology that fuels everyday activities, from time-keeping to enjoying music, derives from research initially driven by the Space Race.[citation needed]

Even with all the technological advances since the first Sputnik was launched, the original Soviet R-7 Semyorka rocket, which marked the beginning of the space race, is still in use today. It services the International Space Station (ISS) as the launcher for both the Soyuz and Progress spacecrafts. Most notably, during the post Space Race era it ferries both Russian and American crews to and from the station.

Environment[edit]

An unintended consequence of the Space Race is that it facilitated the environmental movement, as this was the first time in history that humans could see their homeworld as it really appears-–the first color pictures from space showed a fragile blue planet bordered by the blackness of space.[129] Pictures such as Apollo 8's Earthrise, which showed a crescent Earth peeking over the lunar surface, and Apollo 17's The Blue Marble, which for the first-time-ever showed a full circular Earth, became iconic to the environmental movement.[129] The first Earth Day was partially triggered by the Apollo 8 photo.[130] Astronauts returning from space missions also commented on how fragile the Earth looked from space, further fueling calls for better stewardship of the only home humans have—for now.[131]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cornwell (2003), p. 147
  2. ^ Cornwell (2004), p. 146
  3. ^ Cornwell (2003), p. 148
  4. ^ Cornwell (2003), p. 150
  5. ^ Burrows (1998), p. 96
  6. ^ Burrows (1998), pp. 99–100
  7. ^ Burrows (1998), pp. 98–99
  8. ^ Stocker (2004), pp. 12–24
  9. ^ Gainor (2001), p. 68
  10. ^ a b Schefter (1999), p. 29
  11. ^ Siddiqi (2003a), p. 41
  12. ^ Siddiqi (2003a), p. 24–41
  13. ^ a b Siddiqi (2003a), pp. 24–34
  14. ^ Siddiqi (2003a), pp. 4, 11, 16
  15. ^ a b c Schefter (1999), pp. 7–10
  16. ^ a b Siddiqi (2003a), p. 45
  17. ^ a b Gatland (1976), pp. 100–101
  18. ^ a b c Wade, Mark. "Early Russian Ballistic Missiles". Encyclopedia Astronautix. Archived from the original on 16 October 2006. Retrieved 24 July 2010. 
  19. ^ Burrows (1998), p. 123
  20. ^ a b Burrows (1998), pp. 129–134
  21. ^ a b c Burrows (1998), p. 137
  22. ^ a b Schmitz, (1999), pp. 149–154
  23. ^ a b c d e f Burrows (2012), pp. 147–149
  24. ^ Polmer and Laur (1990), pp. 229–241
  25. ^ a b Burrows (1998), pp. 149–151
  26. ^ Hall & Shayler (2001), p. 56
  27. ^ Siddiqi (2003a), pp. 468–469
  28. ^ a b c d e Wade, Mark. "Atlas". Encyclopedia Astronautix. Retrieved 24 July 2010. 
  29. ^ Burrows (1998), p. 138
  30. ^ a b Siddiqi (2003a), p.383
  31. ^ a b c d e Schefter (1999), pp. 3–5
  32. ^ a b Schefter (1999), p. 8
  33. ^ Schefter (1999), p. 6
  34. ^ a b c Schefter (1999), pp. 15–18
  35. ^ a b Cadbury (2006), pp.154–157
  36. ^ a b Siddiqi (2003a), p. 151
  37. ^ Siddiqi (2003a), p. 155
  38. ^ Garber, Steve (10 October 2007). "Sputnik and The Dawn of the Space Age". Sputnik 50th Anniversary. Washington: NASA History Website. 
  39. ^ Hardesty (2007), pp. 72–73
  40. ^ a b c Siddiqi (2003a), pp. 163–168
  41. ^ a b c Cadbury (2006), p. 163
  42. ^ a b Hardesty (2007), p. 74
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  44. ^ a b Brzezinski (2007), pp. 254–267
  45. ^ O'Neill, Terry. The Nuclear Age. San Diego: Greenhaven, Inc., 2002. (146)
  46. ^ Knapp, Brian. Journey into Space. Danbury: Grolier, 2004.(17)
  47. ^ O'Neill, Terry. The Nuclear Age. San Diego: Greenhaven, Inc., 2002.(146)
  48. ^ Barnett, Nicholas. '"Russia Wins Space Race": The British Press and the Sputnik Moment', Media History, (2013) 19:2, 182-195.
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  50. ^ Nicogossian, Arnauld E. (1993). Space and Biology: Space and Its Exploration. Washington, DC.: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. p. 285. 
  51. ^ Nicogossian, Arnauld E. (1993). Space Biology and Medicine: Space and Its Exploration. Washington, DC: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. p. 285. 
  52. ^ a b Angelo, Joseph, A. (2006). Encyclopedia of Space Astronomy. New York, NY: Facts On Files, Inc. p. 634. 
  53. ^ Angelo, Joseph, A. (2006). Encyclopedia of Space Astronomy. New York, NY: Facts On Files, Inc. p. 225. 
  54. ^ Bello, Francis (1959). "The Early Space Age". Fortune. Retrieved 5 June 2012. 
  55. ^ a b c d Hall (2001), pp. 149–157
  56. ^ Hall (2001), pp.157–163
  57. ^ Schefter (1999), pp. 138–143
  58. ^ Gatland (1976), pp. 153–154
  59. ^ Gatland (1976), pp. 115–116
  60. ^ a b Schefter (1999), pp. 156–164
  61. ^ a b c Kennedy, John F. (12 September 1962). "Address at Rice University on the Nation's Space Effort". Historical Resources. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved 16 August 2010. 
  62. ^ Quoted in John M. Logsdon, The Decision to Go to the Moon: Project Apollo and the National Interest (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1970) p. 111.
  63. ^ David Bell, Memorandum for the President, "National Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget Problem," 22 March 1961, NASA Historical Reference Collection; U.S. Congress, House, Committee of Science and Astronautics, NASA Fiscal 1962 Authorization, Hearings, 87th Cong., 1st. sess., 1962, pp. 203, 620; Logsdon, Decision to go to the Moon, pp. 94–100.
  64. ^ Kennedy to Johnson,"Memorandum for Vice President," 20 April 1961.
  65. ^ Johnson to Kennedy,"Evaluation of Space Program," 28 April 1961.
  66. ^ Kennedy, John F. (25 May 1961). "Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs". Historical Resources. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. p. 4. Retrieved 16 August 2010. 
  67. ^ Wolfe, Tom. The Right Stuff. New York: Picador, 1979.(179)
  68. ^ a b Sietzen, Frank. "Soviets Planned to Accept JFK's Joint Lunar Mission Offer". "SpaceCast News Service" Washington DC -. Retrieved 2 October 1997. 
  69. ^ Hall (2001), pp.183,192
  70. ^ Gatland (1976), pp.117–118
  71. ^ Hall (2001), pp. 185–191
  72. ^ a b c Hall(2001), pp. 194–218
  73. ^ a b c Siddiqi (2003a), pp.384–386
  74. ^ Schefter (1999), p. 149
  75. ^ Schefter (1999), p. 198
  76. ^ Special (13 October 1964). "Space Troika On Target". The Toronto Star (Toronto: Torstar). UPI. p. 1. 
  77. ^ a b Schefter (1999), p. 199–200
  78. ^ Gayn, Mark (16 October 1964). "Kremlin summit probably greased skids for Mr. K". The Toronto Star (Toronto: Torstar). p. 11. 
  79. ^ Siddiqi (2003a), pp. 510–511
  80. ^ Siddiqi (2003a), p. 460
  81. ^ Schefter (1999), p. 207
  82. ^ a b Tanner, Henry (19 March 1965). "Russian Floats in Space for 10 Minutes; Leaves Orbiting Craft With a Lifeline; Moscow Says Moon Trip Is 'Target Now'". The New York Times (New York). p. 1. 
  83. ^ Siddiqi (2003a), p. 448
  84. ^ a b Schefter (1999), p. 205
  85. ^ a b Siddiqi (2003a), pp.454–460
  86. ^ "THE WORLD'S FIRST SPACE RENDEZVOUS". Apollo to the Moon; To Reach the Moon – Early Human Spaceflight. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Retrieved 17 September 2007. 
  87. ^ a b c d e f g h Cadbury (2006), pp. 212–214
  88. ^ Hardesty (2007), p. ix
  89. ^ Siddiqi (2003a), p. 258
  90. ^ a b c Seamans, Robert C., Jr. (5 April 1967). "Findings, Determinations And Recommendations". Report of Apollo 204 Review Board. NASA History Office. Retrieved 7 October 2007. 
  91. ^ Siddiqi (2003a), p. 266
  92. ^ Hardesty (20070, p. 212
  93. ^ Hall (2001), p. 131
  94. ^ Oberg, James,Uncovering Soviet Disasters, Chapter 10: "Dead Cosmonauts", pp 156–176, Random House, New York, 1988. Retrieved 8 January 2008.
  95. ^ Cadbury (2006), pp. 310–312, 314–316
  96. ^ Burrows (1999), p. 417
  97. ^ Murray (1990), pp. 323–324
  98. ^ a b c d Hall (2003), pp. 144–147
  99. ^ Williams, David R. (6 January 2005). "Tentatively Identified Missions and Launch Failures". NASA NSSDC. Retrieved 30 July 2010. 
  100. ^ a b Siddiqi (2003b), pp. 616, 618
  101. ^ Hall (2003), p. 25
  102. ^ Kraft (2001), pp. 284–297
  103. ^ Chaikin (1994),pp.57–58
  104. ^ Siddiqi (2003b), pp.654–656
  105. ^ Turnhill (2003), p. 134
  106. ^ Siddiqi (2003b), pp.663–666
  107. ^ a b c d e Poole (2008), pp. 19–34
  108. ^ a b c Cadbury (2006), pp. 318–319
  109. ^ Siddiqi (2003b), pp. 665 & 832–834
  110. ^ a b Siddiqi (2003b), pp. 690–693
  111. ^ Parry (2009), pp.178–179
  112. ^ Parry (2009), pp. 144–151
  113. ^ Parry (2009), p. 148
  114. ^ Chaikin (1994), p. 138
  115. ^ Chaikin (1994), pp. 163–183
  116. ^ Parry (2009), pp. 38–44
  117. ^ Jones, Eric M. (1 January 2010). "Apollo 11 Press Kit". Apollo Lunar Surface Journal. p. 33. Retrieved 15 August 2010. 
  118. ^ a b Murray (1990), p. 356
  119. ^ Paterson, Chris (2010). "Space Program and Television". The Museum of Broadcast Communications. Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  120. ^ Jones, Eric M. (1 January 2010). "Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal". Apollo Lunar Surface Journal. p. MET 109:43:16. Retrieved 15 August 2010. 
  121. ^ Jones, Eric M. (1 January 2010). "Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal". Apollo Lunar Surface Journal. Retrieved 15 August 2010.  Mission elapsed time (MET) from when Armstrong states that he will step off the LM at 109hrs:24mins:13secs to when Armstrong was back inside the LM at 111hrs:38mins:38sec
  122. ^ Parry (2009), pp. 250– 251
  123. ^ Parry (2009), pp. 252–262
  124. ^ Murray (1990), p. 347
  125. ^ Schefter (1999), p. 288
  126. ^ Sandy Starr The end of the space race?. Spiked: Science. 13 February 2003. Retrieved on 26 November 2011.
  127. ^ Bob Collins The end of the 'space race'?. (2010). MPR News. Minnesota.publicradio.org. Retrieved on 26 November 2011.
  128. ^ Jim Abrams (29 September 2010). "NASA bill passed by Congress would allow for one additional shuttle flight in 2011". Associated Press. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  129. ^ a b Poole (2008), p. 13
  130. ^ Poole (2008), p. 152
  131. ^ Poole (2008), p. 108

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