Southern Victory Series

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The Southern Victory Series or Timeline-191 are fan names given to a series of eleven "alternate history" novels by author Harry Turtledove, beginning with How Few Remain (1997) and published over a decade. The period addressed in the series begins during the American Civil War and spans nine decades, up to the mid-1940s. In the series, the Confederate States of America defeats the United States of America in 1862, thereby making good its attempt at secession and becoming an independent nation. Subsequent books are built on imagining events based on this alternate.

The secondary name is derived from General Robert E. Lee's Special Order 191, which detailed the Confederate States' Army of Northern Virginia's invasion of the Union through the border state Maryland in September 1862. Turtledove creates a divergence at September 10, 1862, when three Union soldiers do not find a copy of Special Order 191, as they in fact did historically. Historians believe their find helped General George B. McClellan of the Army of the Potomac prepare for his confrontation with Lee, and contributed to the Union's eventual victory at the Battle of Antietam.

The series has sub-series within it. These include The Great War trilogy (1998-2000), The American Empire trilogy (2001-2003), and The Settling Accounts tetralogy (2003-2007).

The First and Second Wars between the States[edit]

1861–1862: The First War Between the States (War of Secession)[edit]

HowFewRemain(1stEd).jpg

Before the Battle of Antietam, Federal troops accidentally recovered a copy of Special Order 191, which detailed Lee's plan for the invasion of Maryland. Using this intelligence, Federal forces under George B. McClellan moved north and forced the Battle of Antietam, ending the invasion.

In Turtledove's alternate history, Confederate troops recover Lee's orders before the papers fall into Union hands. The resulting Confederate advance catches McClellan and the U.S. by surprise. General Lee forces McClellan into a battle on the banks of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania and destroys the Army of the Potomac in the Battle of Camp Hill on October 1, 1862.

After this decisive Confederate victory, Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia move eastward to occupy Philadelphia. The Confederate States of America earn diplomatic recognition from the UK and France. The two European nations force mediation on the United States; the Confederate States achieve independence. This War of Secession ends in less than two years.

While considering the mediation offer, Abraham Lincoln mentions to the British ambassador Richard Lyons that he has a proclamation that would have freed the slaves in the Confederacy. Lincoln has discussed the proclamation with his cabinet, but after the U.S. defeat at Camp Hill, he decides against issuing it. Lyons warns Lincoln that to have issued the proclamation would have been seen as acting in desperation. The US at the time was ready to officially concede defeat.

1862–1881: American Changes[edit]

Shortly after the conclusion of the Camp Hill Battle, Confederate general Braxton Bragg completes the conquest of Kentucky. Sometime after the U.S. agreed to mediation, Kentucky becomes the twelfth state to enter the Confederacy. In addition, the pro-Confederate Five Civilized Tribes of the Indian Territory are given territory of their own in the C.S., later to become the State of Sequoyah. In 1878 the Confederate States purchased the Caribbean island of Cuba from Spain for $3,000,000, and admit it as the 14th Confederate State.

Lincoln and his vice president Hannibal Hamlin are defeated in the 1864 elections by Horatio Seymour, Governor of New York. A Republican president is not elected again until 1880. The Republicans become the minority in Congress. In 1880 voters, tired of the Democrats' soft line against the Confederate States, vote Republican candidates into the US Congress as a majority.

In the 1860s, Russia offers Alaska to the United States with a purchase price of seven million dollars. (The historical Alaska Purchase occurred in 1867 during President Andrew Johnson's tenure.) In the alternate history, the US is financially drained and cannot purchase the territory. It continues as a Russian Empire colony.

The United States continues with the conquest and settlement of the Great Plains. George Armstrong Custer and his brother Thomas Custer are still alive in 1881 because there was no Little Bighorn. In reaction to the (historical) Sioux uprising of 1862, the US Army conducts a war of extermination against them. Prior to the Great War (World War I), Dakota Territory enters the Union as a single state. The Army had swiftly pacified its indigenous tribes.

In addition, the U.S.A. had a victorious conclusion to the Indian Wars prior to the alternative Second Mexican War. In the Presidential election of 1880, Republican James G. Blaine of Maine defeats the incumbent Democrat Samuel J. Tilden of New York. Blaine runs on a hard-line platform, which ultimately brings about a war against the Confederate States over the Southern nation's purchase of the Mexican province/territory Sonora and the State of Chihuahua. This purchase allowed the Confederate States to build their own Trans-Continental railway lines, along the southern route (as had been advocated historically by Senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi). They avoided having to use the heavily taxed United States lines further North through the Rocky Mountains.

1881–1882: Second War Between the States (Second Mexican War)[edit]

Early on in the war, Confederate troops under Jeb Stuart capture a large quantity of gold and silver ore from a Union mining town after successfully occupying the newly purchased Mexican provinces. Meanwhile, Union Colonel George Armstrong Custer in Kansas uses Gatling guns against Kiowa Indians and Confederate cavalry. The United Kingdom and France, both Confederate allies, blockade and bombard US port cities.

During the war, the Mormons in Utah Territory rebel by severing transcontinental communication, and transportation around Salt Lake City is disrupted. John Pope is appointed as the military governor, puts down the revolt, and imposes martial law. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is classified as a political organization and the Mormon leaders are executed, including the historical Brigham Young.

The United States' attempt to invade Virginia is easily thrown back by Gen. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson as the United States struggles to find a man his equal. A key reason for the Confederate success in the war, in addition to fighting a defensive war, is that the Confederates are led by excellent generals like Jackson, while the United States' military, despite possessing an advantage in numbers and resources, suffers from incompetent leadership. William Rosecrans, the commander of the US army, says at one point that there is no overall strategy for winning the war whatsoever. He envisions the opposing armies trading counteroffensives and believes the US can win. This lack of strategy leaves the German/Prussian military observer, Alfred von Schlieffen, aghast. (This purportedly influences him to develop his own invasion plans for use by Germany against its enemies.)

The United States begins to invade Louisville to repel the Confederates out of Kentucky. It is fought to a stalemate by the Confederates, commanded by "Stonewall" Jackson. The Union's use of the technology of breech-loading artillery and repeating rifles is seen to hamper its ability to take a position. Under Jackson, the Confederate Army never goes into US territory which it did not control before the war. First, it does not have the resources for an offensive into hostile lands. Second, the Confederacy's success hinges on the support of Britain and France, who feel they are aiding a smaller nation wrongfully attacked by a larger one. Invading US territory might cost the Confederacy its allies. Galled by orders to wage a purely defensive war, Jackson takes them to the extreme, pioneering tactics of full-scale trench warfare, which devastates Louisville (these scenes refer to the history of events in World War I). The Louisville campaign quickly bogs down for the United States, and results in a bloodbath with little territory gained. The United Kingdom and France continue to shell the Great Lakes ports; France also shells the small southern California town of Los Angeles (and coastal San Pedro), while the British bombard San Francisco and raid the Mint.

The United States receives some good news when a young volunteer cavalry colonel, Theodore Roosevelt, and George Armstrong Custer rout a British division under Gen. Charles "Chinese" Gordon, invading Montana from Canada's western province of Saskatchewan. However, the British invade northern Maine in the East and annex it to the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Finally, facing defeat on almost all fronts, Republican president James G. Blaine is forced to capitulate. The U.S.A. officially surrenders on April 22, 1882, ending the alternative Second Mexican War.

Confederate President James Longstreet, in an attempt to appear the conciliator, offers generous terms to end the war, and asks the US to officially recognize the Confederate acquisition of the two Mexican provinces. Most of northern Maine is annexed to Canada, demanded by the British for their participation in the war. President Blaine takes the end of the war hard.

Both American nations experience major changes after the war. In the United States, many Republicans are voted out of Congress in the 1882 elections. Stung with the loss in the Second Mexican War, Blaine is ousted as president two years later. The elections of 1882 and 1884 begin Democratic control over Congress and the White House, which lasts 36 years.

In return for British and French governments' assistance, Confederate President James Longstreet proposes the nominal manumission ("emancipation") of the country's slaves, which proceeds throughout the 1880s.

The defeated United States, realizing it needs powerful allies to counter the Confederate alliances with Britain and France, begins an alliance with the newly unified German Empire. It adopts many of the latter's military and economic practices under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck.

Following the collapse of the Republican Party, former President Abraham Lincoln, now an orator, allies with American socialists and leads left-wing Liberal Republicans into their fledgling Socialist party. The Republicans fade into a party representing only the Midwest (which is booming in the late 19th and early 20th centuries) They do not win the presidency or another Congressional majority. About one-third of its members go to the Democrats, and another third to the Socialists. Both of these groups are attracting many of the new European immigrants, who comprise the working class in the US industrial cities.

Great War[edit]

1914: Declaration and invasion[edit]

Map of the world with the participants in World War I in the Southern Victory Series history. The "Entente" (sometimes referred to as "The Allies") are depicted in green, the "Central Powers" in orange, and neutral countries in grey.

The Austro-Hungarian Imperial Crown Prince and Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophia are both killed by a bomb while touring the city of Sarajevo in the newly annexed Austrian province of Bosnia-Herzegovina in June 1914. The Austrian government quickly learns that a Serb group was responsible, and Austrian-Hungarian Empire accuses the government of nearby Serbia of colluding with the terrorists. Tsar Nicholas II of Russia backs Serbia, while Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany backs Austria-Hungary. The major powers of each system mobilize their militaries, effectively signifying their intent to go to war. In August 1914, the "Great War" begins, initially pitting Great Britain, France, and Russia against the Empires of Germany and Austria-Hungary (this is exactly how the real-life, later-to-be-known World War I got started).

Across the Atlantic, Democratic President Theodore Roosevelt orders the U.S. military to mobilize in late July, following Germany's lead. In response, Confederate President Woodrow Wilson orders the C.S. military to do the same. Fighting soon breaks out on their common border and the high seas.

The United States officially brings the war to North America when Roosevelt declares war on the Confederate States in early August 1914. Confederate President Wilson responds in kind, although he had hoped to avoid a war. Wilson's speech, given in a tightly-packed public square of Richmond, Virginia decorated with statues of southern war heroes George Washington and Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston from the War of Secession, becomes particularly famous.

Hoping to emulate General Lee, the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia (ANV) launches a massive invasion of Maryland and Pennsylvania in August, targeting the northern "de facto" capital of Philadelphia. The ANV quickly overruns the "de jure" capital of Washington, D.C. and pushes on through Maryland.

The U.S. Army takes a different approach and orders the U.S. First Army under Lieutenant General George Custer and the U.S. Second Army under Major General John Pershing to cross the Ohio River and invade Kentucky. Although Confederate resistance is high, especially from river gunboats modeled after the original iron-clad U.S.S. "Monitor" of the 1860s, the U.S. succeeds in establishing a bridgehead on the southern bank. U.S. forces also invade western Virginia, aiming for the rail junction at Big Lick, Virginia (Roanoke in our timeline).

A separate U.S. invasion of Sonora, intended to capture the Confederacy's sole Pacific Ocean port of Guaymas, soon becomes bogged down. A young army captain named Irving Morrell is wounded in this venture, and spends much of the next six months in Tucson, New Mexico (real-life Tucson, Arizona) recuperating.

The U.S. also launches attacks on the British Dominion of Canada, specifically in Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec. Perhaps the most successful manoeuvre during these early stages of war is the U.S. Navy's capture of the British base at Pearl Harbor in the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) in a surprise attack.

1915: Stalemate and rebellion[edit]

Both American offensives soon stall, however; the U.S. armies find it difficult to push south, and the Army of Northern Virginia is slowed by the winter of 1914–15. The Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania soon grinds to a halt at the Susquehanna River, only 50 miles from Philadelphia. From that high-water–mark, U.S. forces slowly start to push the Confederates back into Maryland.

Although the U.S. forces easily conquer the southern bank of the St. Lawrence River, crossing it proves another matter. The geography of the Niagara Peninsula soon bottlenecks the invading army. Though Winnipeg, Manitoba, as a major rail junction, lies relatively close to the U.S. border, the War Department allocates too few troops to capture it.

Trench warfare becomes ubiquitous as each side digs in for protection from machine guns. Troops huddle in these trenches as heavy artillery in their rear pounds the enemy lines night and day. They dread the order "Over the top!" which means they have to leave the safety of their lines to charge into No man's land, in the hope of capturing the enemy trenches on the other side. The US, drawing on German chemical expertise, seeks to push forward using chemical warfare. The use of chlorine gas, however, makes only minor gains. Far from the quick, glorious conquest each side had imagined, the "Great War" becomes a long, bloody stalemate.

Early in 1915, another front opens when the Utah Mormons attempt to secede from the United States and declare themselves the independent nation of Deseret. Mormon relations with the rest of the country had been hostile since the Utah War of the 1850s and the brief uprising during the Second Mexican War. They wrongly believe that the distracted U.S. government will be unable to subdue them. However, as Utah sits on one of the major transcontinental rail lines, President Roosevelt states the U.S. will not tolerate unlawful rebellion. The Mormon rebellion rages until mid-1916, when it is finally crushed and Salt Lake City is captured. Utah is then placed under military rule by Roosevelt, a situation that will continue until the 1930s.

In the autumn of 1915, as the armies of the Confederacy are fighting those of the United States along the border regions, the C.S.A.'s blacks rise up in revolt. Bitter over their treatment by the whites, and fueled by a rhetoric of Marxism and the teachings of Abraham Lincoln, the blacks declare "Red Revolution" in several areas across the C.S.A. and establish "socialist republics," while massacring whites and seeking justice against their former white masters; most trials are shams, however, and the executions brutal. These rebellions are gradually crushed by 1916, although white justice mellows somewhat as thoughts are preoccupied with winning the war. Ironically, the lasting effect of the "Red Revolt" is to make white people start to believe in the military potential of blacks.

1916: Slaughter[edit]

Taking advantage of the Confederacy's plight, the U.S. First Army marches into western Tennessee after slogging through western Kentucky, while the C.S. Army of Northern Virginia is pushed south toward Washington. In mid-spring of 1916, a new armored technical advance called the "barrel" (referred to as a tank by the British) is introduced to combat for the first time by U.S. forces operating in the Roanoke River Valley of southwestern Virginia.

In this case, as in our time line, the name of the vehicle comes from the cover name used. In Britain, those assembling the vehicle were told they were mobile water tanks; in this time line, they are coded 'barrel,' though there is some indication something called a 'barrel' was coming. Private Reginald Bartlett, escaping with a Confederate naval officer, heard U.S. soldiers singing a song, "Roll Out the Barrel" (not related to our timeline's Czech/Bohemian polka music "Rosalinda", which became popular in 1938 and was given the English-language lyrics "Roll Out the Barrel").

While in Tennessee, Lieutenant General Custer transforms his tactics for cavalry into a doctrine for the new barrels (which anticipates the German "blitzkrieg" tactics of World War II in our time line), but the U.S. War Department is not interested. When Custer's summer offensive begins, tens of thousands of U.S. soldiers are lost attacking Confederate lines, and the new barrels, deployed singly in an infantry support role rather than massed as an armored fist, break down in the hilly terrain to little effect.

The lack of British troops in Canada means that the U.S.A., while initially held back by the Canadians, slowly advances toward their triple objectives of Quebec City, Toronto, and Winnipeg. Largely thanks to the efforts of Irving Morrell, U.S. forces push up to Banff, Alberta in the Canadian Rockies and cut off the second of three mountain passes that connect the Pacific coast to the rest of Canada.

At sea, the great Battle of the Three Navies between the U.S.A. on one side, and the United Kingdom and Japan on the other, prevents the "Entente" from recapturing the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii). With the Central Pacific in American hands, a U.S. Navy flotilla makes its way south toward the Cape Horn of South America and the Atlantic on the other side, with the intent of cutting off Argentine grain and beef shipments to Great Britain.

On the Maryland front, the state is cleared of Confederate soldiers, save for those holding Washington, the "de jure" U.S. capital. In the autumn, the U.S. continues to attack Nashville, Tennessee to no avail, raising the spectre of a possible Democratic loss at the polls, and the possibility that a Socialist President will seek peace with the C.S.A. and renounce all the bloody gains. Except for a local attack on the Roanoke Front that pushes the U.S. out of western Virginia, the Confederates stay on the defensive through the autumn, attempting to drain the U.S.A dry in the hope that the U.S. population will become sick of the war.

Nevertheless, for all the wishes of the Socialist Party and the Confederates, Northern President Theodore Roosevelt easily beats Socialist Eugene V. Debs in the November election. In Richmond, however, the hopes of new President Gabriel Semmes (a descendent of naval commander Raphael Semmes), elected in 1915, and his Cabinet are dashed. At this stage, the U.S. government now has another four years to crush the C.S.A. before needing to seek re-election, while the Confederates are running out of their own white soldiers to further the conflict. President Semmes successfully proposes a bill to authorize the training and arming of Negro troops to serve in the lines, with civil rights (excepting interracial marriage) to follow after the war, including citizenship in the C.S.A. Meanwhile, the U.S. begins the process of formally returning Kentucky to the Union.

In Europe, the war seems little changed from our own real timeline, with the exception of the French fortress of Verdun's capture by the Germans, and an apparently heavier use of North African infantry by the French Army. In addition, Italy remains neutral in the conflict and the "Easter Rising" by the nascent Irish Republican Army (IRA) in Dublin is not put down, spreading to the rest of Ireland.

1917: Breakthroughs[edit]

Lieutenant General Custer secretly develops a scheme for the U.S. to quickly win the war, using a massed-barrel formation forbidden by the War Department. Disguising his true intentions to all but his adjutant, Major Abner Dowling, and Lieutenant Colonel Irving Morrell, and lying to President Roosevelt, Custer launches his Barrel Roll Offensive on Remembrance Day — April 22, 1917 — and quickly breaks through the Confederate trench lines north of the Tennessee capital of Nashville.

The Confederates withdraw to a line centered on Nashville, where Custer hits them again three weeks later by outflanking the city using a plan concocted by Morrell. Nashville soon falls, despite the best efforts of the newly formed C.S. colored regiments to stave off Custer's barrels, and the state capital becomes the U.S. First Army's headquarters.

From Nashville, in July, Custer attacks the C.S. lines in the direction of Murfreesboro. Near Nolensville the U.S. receives a Confederate request for a local armistice. President Roosevelt assents, and peace on the North American front comes to Tennessee a week before the rest of the U.S. – C.S. Frontline. Custer is outraged at the halt, but Roosevelt explains that it would be difficult for the U.S.A. to defend the large salient into Tennessee it has captured, and at the same time, the southeastern chunk of Kentucky that still remains in Confederate hands would prove a nuisance in postwar years as Kentuckians elected to the Confederate Congress would constantly demand a new war against the U.S.A. to recapture lost territory in their state. Thus, Roosevelt's plan involves a bit of horse-trading whereby the U.S.A. withdraws from the parts of Tennessee it has captured in exchange for all remaining parts of Kentucky.

On the same day that the "Barrel Roll Offensive" began in Tennessee, the U.S. Army in northern Virginia attacks southward toward Manassas at the same time that U.S. troops enter occupied Washington, D.C. The "de jure" U.S. capital is recaptured after several days of intense street fighting, which levels the city and its famous landmarks (such as the Washington Monument and the executive mansion, White House).

In northern Virginia, several U.S. attacks force the C.S. Army of Northern Virginia to retreat south. In battles at Round Hill, Centreville, and Bull Run creek, rear-guard actions led by a few battered batteries of the "First Richmond Howitzers" prevent the complete destruction of the latest incarnation of Robert E. Lee's fabled army. However, it is obvious the war is on the verge of being lost; this is a notion that does not bode well with several Confederate soldiers, who reckoned the war was won only a few months before.

The Confederate States of America started sending peace feelers to Philadelphia as early as the fall of Nashville, but Theodore Roosevelt refused to grant a cease-fire until certain that the C.S.A. was severely hammered elsewhere. The last hammers on the Confederate Army come in late July, when fighting reaches the town of Fredericksburg, Virginia, only fifty miles from the Confederate States capital. With a cease-fire already in effect in Tennessee, Sequoyah is overrun, and fighting out west in Texas and Arkansas sputtering down, the C.S.A. agrees to a general armistice on land and at sea. For the first time since August 1914, the guns fall silent in North America.

At sea, however, the submarine C.S.S. "Bonefish", led by Confederate States Navy man Roger Kimball, carries out a sneak attack on the U.S.S. "Ericsson" (named for Swedish-born inventor/engineer John Ericsson who developed the iron-clad ships and transformation of naval power during the War of Secession) despite being fully aware of the war's end. For a few years after the war, both the U.S. and C.S. believe that the ship's destruction was the work of the British Royal Navy, the war between the U.S.A. and the British Empire at sea still not over at this point.

At the same time, in Europe, mutinies in the French Republic Army prove serious enough to lead to France's exit from the war. (In reality, these mutinies — caused by French soldiers' disgust at being ordered into suicidal and utterly pointless attacks across "no-man's" land — resulted in the French Army command agreeing to order no more offensives in exchange for French soldiers continuing to fight only defensively until the Hundred Days Offensive.) Without the addition of U.S. troops, it causes France to surrender. The Empire of Russia now collapses into revolution and anarchy (similarly to reality), leaving only the Confederate States and Great Britain to fight against the United States, Germany, and Austria-Hungary. Italy remains neutral and the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) lately joins the war on the side of the "Central Powers". In South America, Brazil abandons the neutrality it had held since the beginning of the War and allies with Chile (which supports the "Central Powers") against Argentina (which supports the "Allies" (Entente), threatening the South Atlantic supply line to Britain.

In Canada, Custer's barrel methods are used to break through the Anglo-Canadian lines, leading to the fall of Quebec City, Quebec and Winnipeg, Manitoba. The United States establishes the Republic of Quebec out of the Canadian province, and American and French-speaking "Québécois" forces charge towards Toronto, Ontario. By this point the C.S. has been defeated, and with all the U.S. soldiers on the U.S. - C.S. Front now ready to head to Canada, the British Empire requests a cease-fire, which is granted in early June 1917. With U.S.–German-Brazilian naval operations cutting off Great Britain from its Argentine and Australian food suppliers, the United Kingdom sues for peace later that summer; the U.K. was the last opponent of the "Quadruple Alliance" that was still in the war.

The American Empire[edit]

1918: Old Animosities Rekindled[edit]

The United States celebrates hard during 1918, revelling in the euphoria of having finally won revenge on the Confederate States, with parades and parties lasting well into the autumn. President Roosevelt and General Custer (General being his true "Regular Army" rank now, Roosevelt having promoted the aging officer in Nashville towards the end of the war) ride together in the Philadelphia Remembrance Day Parade, the biggest to date. The tradition of showing the national flag upside down to show distress is put aside to show that the U.S.A. had reversed the outcomes of both 1862 and 1882.

Longer term ramifications of war begin to be felt, and both the U.S. and C.S. navies have to deploy minesweepers to clear their harbors, an activity which continues through to the late 1920s and early 1930s.

Not everyone in the victorious United States shares in the celebration of the victory, however. Returning veterans find scabs working for cheaper wages in the factories and mines they worked at before going away to fight. More veterans find themselves being put down by capitalists and factory owners, and go on strike in industrial centers like Pittsburgh and Toledo. The owners deploy the "Pinkertons" of the famous Civil War-era detective agency and police against the strikers, but the war veterans, who had faced far worse challenges in the trenches, repel them. The country seems to be on the verge of revolution, and the Socialist Party capitalizes on gains among the lower classes. In November 1918, they capture the U.S. House of Representatives for the first time, disrupting Theodore Roosevelt's future plans for domestic and foreign affairs.

Meanwhile, citizens of the defeated and truncated Confederacy are hardly in a mood to celebrate. President Roosevelt forced humiliating terms upon them in return for peace, President Semmes having no choice but to agree to them. Significant amounts of territory were lost: Kentucky had already rejoined the Union in 1916; western Texas had been admitted into the Union in 1917 as the State of Houston, with its capital at Lubbock, and the Territory of Sequoyah was under occupation. Pieces of Arkansas, Sonora, and Virginia held by U.S. troops at the Armistice were also annexed into Missouri, New Mexico (a state that comprises our modern American states: New Mexico and Arizona), and West Virginia respectively.

In addition, the post-war settlement severely curtails the size of the C.S. Army and Navy, and demands the payment of massive reparations to Philadelphia. These terms contribute further to Confederate anger. The reparations cause the Confederate dollar to spiral out of control, as hyperinflation ruins the C.S.A. economy. (This is directly analogous to the inflation in the newly proclaimed German Republic at Wiemar after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles.)

As a result, anti-U.S.A. sentiment among the white population increases, and several reactionary political parties form across the Confederate States. One of these fringe groups is the Freedom Party, founded by Anthony Dresser in Richmond, Virginia, sometime after the end of the "Great War". (Note: in our real history, the original early founder of the then-fringe National Socialist German Workers Party Nazi Party — later ousted by Adolf Hitler — was named Anton Drexler).

As for the British Empire, President Roosevelt forces London to recognize the Republic of Quebec (established in April 1917 as the war in Canada was drawing to a close) and the Republic of Ireland (including all of Ulster in northern Ireland), and to relinquish claims to the Atlantic island chains of the Bahamas, Bermuda, the Sandwich Islands, and all of the Dominion of Canada in North America.

The German Empire annexes the French Congo and Belgian Congo colonies in central Africa, occupies Belgium, and sets up the puppet states to the east of Ukraine and the Kingdom of Poland, which "has the same relation to Germany as Quebec has to America". The exact status of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) is unsure, but they are mentioned as being neutral in the "Settling Accounts" series.

In Canada, the Dominion government is declared an illegal assembly. The U.S. Army sets up its occupation headquarters in Winnipeg and turns each province into a military district. The U.S. Army uses a harsh policy of hostage taking to prevent Canadians from rising up. If a U.S. soldier is shot or another act of rebellion occurs, U.S. forces take anywhere from 10 to 30 hostages and demand that the perpetrator turn him or herself in. If he or she does not by the given deadline, the hostages are executed by firing squad. "Occupied Canada" is declared U.S. territory as part of the new "American Empire", "stretching from the Gulf of California to the Arctic Ocean." In 1919, General George Custer requests and is granted the post of governor-general of "Occupied Canada" in retribution for what he perceives to be the Canadian "murder" of his brother Tom in the previous fighting of 1881.

1919–1924: American Blood & Iron[edit]

The Freedom Party finds itself achieving successes in Richmond. Its chief speaker — a vengeful, spiteful, and bitter ex-sergeant named Jake Featherston (analogous to Adolf Hitler) — harangues crowds at public meetings and squares about how the Confederacy has been "stabbed in the back" by the Whig Party, the War Department, and, most of all, the black minority, who rose up in Red rebellion in 1915. Featherston's angry mannerisms connect him and his Party to the masses, and soon the Freedom Party becomes the white man's proto-version of the Socialists popular with Confederate blacks and Northerners in the U.S.A. Featherston comes to be seen as the Party's true leader, and the "Sarge" wins the Party's leadership in a power struggle against Dresser in mid-1919. Once comfortably settled in his new office, Featherston reorganizes the Freedom Party into a political party revolving around his goals and ambitions, and white-shirted "stalwarts" are soon elected into the Confederate Congress, while their assault squads take on Featherston's enemies.

(The "stab in the back" was a common trope employed by conservative Germans in real life to explain Germany's defeat. Influential figures such as former Imperial German Gen. Erich Ludendorff blamed the "Kaiserreich" 's defeat squarely on leftists and Jews. This rhetoric later became the bread and butter of the Nazis as led by the former German Army corporal Adolf Hitler, who is mentioned in one of the books - for all of two pages - as an unnamed Imperial German Army sergeant - the reader is left to infer who this unnamed character is via clues given that compare his political views to those of Jake Featherston, or otherwise work within the context of the story line.)

The victorious United States, with its "American Empire", ignores political events occurring in the C.S.A. Most members of the American Congress pay no attention to the rise of the Freedom Party, save for Flora Hamburger, a worried Socialist Representative from New York City. Despite her calls for action, her party takes no notice, instead focusing on voting President Roosevelt out of office in 1920. The Socialists succeed, with their candidate Upton Sinclair defeating Roosevelt in the election that November — the first time since the election of 1880 that a Democrat has lost a presidential race. Sinclair is inaugurated president of the United States on March 4, 1921 to much rejoicing from the Socialist party.

Later in 1921, Jake Featherston runs for office against Wade Hampton V of the Whigs and Ainsworth Layne of the Radical Liberals. Featherston loses by a narrow margin to Hampton, but resolves to fight on. In 1923, Grady Calkins, a deranged Freedom Party stalwart, assassinates President Hampton at a Birmingham, Alabama rally. The Freedom Party immediately begins to lose support, suffering losses in the elections of 1923 and 1925. Another factor limiting the Freedom Party's chances for success is American President Sinclair's lifting of the war reparations (requested by Hampton's successor, Burton Mitchel), which removes a key plank from the Freedom Party's platform. Featherston and his most ardent stalwarts spend the next several years in the "political wilderness".

(It may be of note that historically, in real life, France, to whom the bulk of German reparations were owed, offered to forgive the (Weimar) Republic of Germany's debts if the United States would offer to forgive debts owed to the United States by France. President Herbert Hoover rejected the plan, since many (if not most) of the loans to be forgiven, were made by private banks. Reparations continued to be a defining issue in Weimar German politics in the "alternative world", just as in the real 20th century).

In Canada, Governor-General Custer rules the former Dominion with an iron-felt glove, surviving several assassination attempts by Manitoban farmer Arthur McGregor. Custer kills McGregor in the farmer's final attempt as he is parading through Winnipeg, Manitoba. At this point, the war hero is retiring, having been forced out by the new Socialist administration. Sinclair aims to return the U.S. to the days of peace, hoping that by treating its neighbors with respect there will never be another war. He is popular enough to win re-election in 1924 — the same year the Freedom Party begins to involve its stalwarts in the Mexican Civil War (compare to the real-world Spanish Civil War of 1936-39), an action where the U.S. supported the Republican rebels, but its meagre support was limited, compared to the supplies, weapons, and barrels that the C.S.A. gave to Emperor Maximilian's (a former Austrian prince, brother of Crown Prince and Archduke Franz Ferdinand, installed by French Emperor Napoleon II back in 1862, while the U.S.A. was distracted by the Civil War from its "Monroe Doctrine" policy [also in real life]).

1924–1934: The Center Cannot Hold[edit]

Flag of the Freedom Party.

As in the real world, the new medium of "radio" offers novel ways for politicians to reach the people. Jake Featherston is the first politician to realize its potential, and soon people sitting in their homes can hear his raspy, thundery voice shouting from their radio sets, telling them the "truth" about the Yankees, Whigs, and blacks. Even with this broadened appeal to the masses, the Freedom Party's hopes ebb further with Featherston's defeat at the polls in 1927 against incumbent Burton Mitchel III. The Confederate people are just starting to enjoy the fruits of peace and prosperity, and the War and black uprisings are coming to be seen as part of the past, despite Featherston and his stalwarts, doing their utmost to keep them alive in the collective memory. Things change when, in early 1929, the world's stock markets crash and financial and economic depression results.

In the C.S.A., Burton Mitchel III is blamed. In the U.S.A. which came out of the 1920s with a booming economy and with the Canadian revolt having been crushed in 1925, newly elected President Hosea Blackford takes the heat, with shantytowns and slums being named "Blackfordburghs" (in imitation of our actual timeline's of "Hoovervilles"). Millions lose their jobs, and in Utah, (occupied since 1916), Mormon fanatics gun down Governor-General John Pershing. When Japan and the U.S.A. go to war in 1932 after Japan is caught smuggling weapons to the occupied Canadian province of British Columbia by the U.S.S "Remembrance", and Japanese bombers attack Los Angeles, President Blackford is easily turned out of office by the Democratic ticket of Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts and Vermont and his running mate Herbert Hoover of Iowa. On January 5, 1933, Coolidge dies before he could take office (Coolidge died on the same date in our modern timeline, but AFTER serving as President, 1923-1929). Hoover assumes the presidency, practicing Coolidge's campaign policy of government non-intervention in the economy.

At the same time in the C.S.A., whole cities are echoing to the boot-steps of marching Freedom Party stalwarts, their ranks flowing once more with the angry and the wrathful, preparing for Election Day 1933. Jake Featherston attacks the Mitchel Confederate Administration with the most vulgar venom and hate, blaming Mitchel for the Crash, and condemning his ineffectual response to the (real historical) floods that devastated the Mississippi River valley in 1927. Millions of Confederates lap it up and shout for more, which Featherston provided. On taking the oath of office on March 4, 1934, the world holds its breath: "Freedom" is on the march.

In Europe, the storm clouds are also beginning to gather. The final vestiges of the Bolshevik Communist revolution were crushed by 1927; among the last holdouts was the Volga town of Tsaritsyn under the "Man of Steel" (Joseph Stalin) and his second in command "The Hammer" (Vyacheslav Molotov, the foreign minister). Under Tsar Michael, Russia remains a primarily agricultural, backward country. Frequent anti-Semitic pogroms and foreign loans manage to deflect further restlessness but the latter were a contributing factor in the 1929 crash when Austria-Hungary demanded the repayment of a loan that Russia was unable to fulfill.

Austria-Hungary itself remains a united empire but only the Austrians and Hungarians feel any loyalty to the Habsburg Dynasty monarchs. In fact, the multi-ethnic federation seems to be held together only by German aid and bayonets. The Ottoman Empire (Turkey) also appears to be in the same boat, undertaking the genocide of its Armenian population. Despite strong censure from the United States, and more lukewarm protests from Berlin, the Turks continue the genocide until the Ottoman Empire is mostly devoid of Armenians. (In our timeline, the genocide occurred in 1915 during World War I, ending shortly after the war.)

Kaiser Wilhelm II rules a strong Germany and his troops continue to occupy Belgium, the Ukraine, and the puppet Kingdom of Poland, but post-war relations with the U.S. soured to the point that many people on both sides of the Atlantic believed that Germany and the United States would someday be engaged in a full-fledged war. The Business Collapse puts an end to that, however, and the old allies reassert themselves once more.

After the Collapse, France finds itself under "Action Française" and its restored Bourbon Dynasty king Charles XI, who begins talking about the return of Alsace-Lorraine to French rule. In Britain, the fascist-inspired "Silver Shirts" under Oswald Mosley hold similar views, and support "Action Française", though they never become more than a minority in the British Parliament. Italy never comes under Mussolini's Fascist rule but, other than this, little information is provided about its history in this alternative timeline.

In the Pacific, Japan is far from quiet. Prior to the Pacific War with the United States, Japan pressured both France and the Netherlands to cede Indochina (future Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia), and the East Indies (future Indonesia), respectively, with proper compensation. Great Britain fears that its Pacific colonies of Hong Kong, Malaya, Singapore, and possibly India will also be annexed by Japan; however, Japan shows no interest in doing so. Japan also gains much influence in the Nationalists' Republic of China during this period and seems to have established a puppet state of Manchukuo in the northeast of Manchuria as well. This empire is in addition to Japan's possessions in the Philippines which it "liberated" from Spain in the early years of the 20th century (eliminating the modern history of American temporary colonization).

1934–1941: The Victorious Opposition[edit]

The Depression lingers on in the U.S.A. and "Occupied Canada" through 1934 and 1935, with millions of men out of work and productivity down. President Hoover's only highlight during this time is ending the Japanese War but many people continue to question why it was fought in the first place. In the U.S. Congress, Flora Hamburger Blackford questions why Hoover and the Democrats are allowing the Confederate States to enlarge its army in violation of the peace treaty. At the same time, Congress has to deal with several Freedom Party congressmen from the former Confederate states of Kentucky and Houston (formerly part of Texas), who disrupt Congressional sessions with calls for a plebiscite in their home states. When Socialist Governor of New York, Alfred E. Smith is elected over Hoover in 1936, the Freedom Party's shouts start to be heeded.

The Freedom Party in the Confederate States has begun to turn the country into a one-party state, with the Confederate Congress passing laws proposed by President Jake Featherston. He faces no opposition from the Confederate Supreme Court, having maneuvered the high court into making its position vulnerable, whereupon he merely extended executive power and abolished the judicial branch. Forced elections in 1935 and 1937 solidify and confirm Freedom Party control of the House and Senate, with state legislatures and governorships captured as well. The Army is purged in 1936 and conscription recommences in 1938. The troublesome Vice President Willy Knight is removed from office after his attempt on Featherston's life later that year and soon imprisoned. The police force is slowly padded with stalwarts and soon, with a nod from the national administration and Attorney General Ferdinand Koenig, the states are installing correctional camps for "riotous" and "unruly" Whigs and Radical Liberals.

Radical Liberal Louisiana is toppled by Freedom stalwarts, with Governor Huey Long assassinated in 1938, his regime being replaced by an administration more compliant with Featherston's interests. With black rebellions flaring up all over the C.S.A., Featherston has begun looking for quiet and suitable places to exact revenge for real or imagined (mostly imagined) wrongs that the blacks have committed. Louisiana is the perfect place to begin "reducing population."

In late 1940, Al Smith finally agrees to hear Jake Featherston's demands for the former Confederate states of Houston, Kentucky, and Sequoyah. In the resulting plebiscites of January 7, 1941, Kentucky and west Texas (Houston) vote to return to the CSA. Featherston promises not to remilitarize them, or to ask for Sequoyah (which votes pro-U.S.A.) or other former C.S.A. territory such as the annexed areas of Virginia, Arkansas and Sonora. Within weeks, Featherston breaks his promise and plants his modernized and expanded Confederate Army on the Ohio River, convincing Smith that the time to face Featherston down has finally come.

Tensions rise in Europe when Germany's longtime ruler dies. The new Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm V refuses to return the former French territory of Alsace-Lorraine that France's ruling party had demanded. Britain, France and the C.S.A. soon declare war on Germany, with Russia joining in days later.

With war breaking out in Europe, Jake Featherston feels it is time to have his revenge against his greatest enemy: the United States of America. On the first day of summer in 1941, he orders Operation Blackbeard to begin. The next day — June 22, 1941 — the Confederate States of America bring the war to North America with a surprise attack on Philadelphia and southern Ohio.

(The Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union — in our timeline — occurred on the same day. The name of the German invasion plan was Operation Barbarossa, named after a well-known German Emperor in the Middle Ages who had according to legend, 'a great red beard', thus the CSA's operation's name.)

Settling Accounts[edit]

World Map showing the participants in "Great War II".
The Entente are depicted in brown, the C.S.A. in red, the Central Powers in blue, the Japanese Empire in yellow, the Chinese Empire in green and neutral countries in grey.

1941–1942: Return Engagement[edit]

At 3:30 am on June 22, 1941 (the same time that Nazi Germany invaded the U.S.S.R. in our real timeline), the North American war kicks off with massive bombing raids on Philadelphia and military installations all over southern Ohio. In an immediate joint session of Congress, President Smith calls for — and receives — a unanimous declaration of war against the Confederate States. Soon afterwards, Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of Great Britain and the rest of the Entente announce hostilities against the U.S.A.

Philadelphia expects Featherston to strike in the east, following the pattern of the last war, but instead the Confederate blow takes the form of a massive combined-arms assault into Ohio. Brigadier General Abner Dowling and Colonel Irving Morrell know better and have prepared for the coming strike as best they could, but U.S. forces in Ohio simply do not have the equipment or manpower needed to halt the Confederate Army under George Patton.

Within two months, Sandusky on Lake Erie falls to Confederate soldiers, preventing raw materials in the west from reaching the factories of the east. Just before Sandusky fell, radical Mormons armed with Confederate weapons begin a new drive for independence in Utah, capturing the Wasatch Front - settlement belt from Ogden in the north to Provo in the south; "see Utah Troubles".

At sea, the U.S. fares little better although neither side wins control of the sea lanes. In July, the Royal Navy lures the carriers U.S.S. Remembrance and Sandwich Islands away from Bermuda. The island, a strategically valuable submarine and air base, falls to a joint Anglo-Confederate task force as a result. The Bahamas are next to fall, the U.S. Marines being forced to fight island by island before surrendering.

Stalemate characterizes the war in the Pacific throughout most of 1941. The first major clash between Japan and the U.S. comes at the Battle of Midway (which takes place on a Sunday morning two and a half weeks before Christmas: December 7, 1941, the date of the attack on Pearl Harbor in modern reality). During the battle the USS "Remembrance", transferred to the Pacific after the loss of Bermuda, is sunk and the island itself taken. Although Japan suffers one carrier sunk and another damaged, the U.S. Pacific Fleet is now left devoid of aircraft carriers and reliant upon land-based air cover. (Unlike in our timeline, in this one the Panama Canal is never constructed due to the hostility between the USA and CSA. Naval ships must sail around Cape Horn at the southern tip of South America to transfer between the two oceans).

The war in Europe spawns early triumphs for the Entente. In Ukraine, the local soldiers and population welcome the arriving Russians as liberators, ensuring that most of the German satellite nation is lost. Elsewhere the manpower-swarming tactics of the Russians, unchanged from the last war, ensure that they suffer heavy losses for small gains. The Kaiser's army, particularly its panzers and 88mm flak cannons, prove instrumental in preventing the loss of East Prussia and the satellite Kingdom of Poland.

In South America, a tense peace is maintained between Argentina and Chile, who both decide that they have had enough fighting in the First Great War. All of South America's nations are apparently neutral in this new conflict.

In the West, the French Army swiftly recaptures Alsace-Lorraine (and possibly captures the Rhineland of eastern Germany) and stands on the Rhine River. Ireland is overrun by the British, while the Anglo-French thrust through the Low Countries succeeds beyond all expectations. The Belgians welcome the Entente as liberators. The Dutch, though more pro-German, are brushed aside, and some of the North German Plain was overrun.

Yet victory does not follow. A British end-run through Norway, made for unclear reasons — possibly for access to either Swedish iron ore through Narvik or for use of Norwegian naval bases (or both) — fails spectacularly. Churchill's bright idea does nothing more than drive the furious Norwegians into the "Central Powers"' camp. France proves unable to cross the Rhine and the Germans on that front soon rally. Austria-Hungary, despite its clear weakness, remains united, and though Bulgaria wavers as a German ally she never abandons Berlin entirely. Only the Low Countries campaign still shows promise for the Entente by the end of 1941, but Hamburg still remains unconquered. By February 1942, the German Army feels confident enough to launch counter-offensives against the British outside Hamburg and the Russians in the Ukraine.

In North America, the post-Blackbeard season proves uninspiring for both sides. Shortly after Sandusky fell, Jake Featherston declares that he will make peace with the U.S. if his 'reasonable' demands are met. All the 'unredeemed territory' is to be handed back, the post-"Great War" reparations that destroyed the C.S.A. economy are to be repaid and the Northern (but not Southern) side of the border is to be demilitarized. President Smith replies that night with the heaviest air raid on the Confederate capital Richmond yet, but not before announcing on the "wireless": "I have not yet begun to fight!"

Yet despite Smith's bravado, the situation for the U.S. seemed bleak into February 1942. A counter-attack in northern Virginia under Daniel MacArthur soon bogs down. With too many men sandwiched between the Appalachians and the Atlantic, the U.S. Army crosses the Rappahannock River but is held at the Rapidan line. A subsequent Confederate counterattack under Patton fails to dislodge the U.S., and both sides settle in for the winter.

After the stalling of the Virginia front, Featherston realizes that another knock-out blow is needed, and begins planning for a drive eastwards in the spring of 1942. Ohio remains quiet, with nothing more than local offensives. The revolt in Mormon Utah shows no signs of ending; by Christmas 1941 U.S. forces are stalled within Provo.

Neither side achieves a decisive advantage in the air war, which is characterized by Clarence Potter as a "duel with machine guns at a pace and a half." Both air forces soon resort to only night attacks on the East Coast, as flak and fighters make daylight raids too costly. Farther west, daytime raids continue. On a tactical level, dive bombers prove effective at hitting ground targets but vulnerable to fighters and flak; Confederate "Asskickers" suffer enormously from both. Neither U.S. Wright-27s nor Confederate "Hound Dog" fighters have any great advantage over the other.

It is during this time that the "population reductions" in the South begin in earnest. Any black man whose passbook is out of order is immediately arrested and shipped out to a camp; in the cities Negroes are used as war plant labor while suffering reprisals for black car bombs and other terrorist acts.

In the Louisiana camps, the slaughter begins with submachine guns, a method that proved inefficient. The camps simmer at the edge of rebellion, while most guards cannot stomach the job and some commit suicide. Soon poison gas is found to be superior for the guards' minds and is more efficient. Sealed trucks are ostensibly used to transfer blacks between camps; in practice the fumes would leave them dead and ready for disposal in mass graves.

Despite the Freedom Party's best efforts, news of the killings reached the American capital at Philadelphia. Congresswoman Flora Blackford announces the Confederacy's crimes to the world, only to receive scathing comparisons with Utah from the Entente and sympathetic but indifferent reactions from U.S. citizens.

In February 1942, Confederate bombers, which have been bombarding Philadelphia since the war's beginning, manage to hit the Powel House, destroying the building and its underground bunker. Al Smith is in the bunker during the bombing and is killed. His vice president Charles La Follette is sworn in as president shortly afterward. In his first speech as president, La Follette vows to continue the war and win it for the United States.

1942–1943: Drive to the East[edit]

The U.S. determination to keep fighting, even though it is now separated into two pieces of territory after the Ohio campaign, is a major setback to Confederate plans; the C.S.A. is relying on a short war and quick victory. The Confederates decide to concentrate troops in Ohio for an attack into western Pennsylvania to capture Pittsburgh, a major industrial centre for the United States. In order to have enough troops, the C.S.A. is forced to pull troops from other fronts, as well as under-equipped, unenthusiastic allied forces from the Empire of Mexico.

The campaign succeeds in reaching Pittsburgh but is unable to occupy the city fully. General Nathan Bedford Forrest III, the chief of staff, commanding the Confederate military, advises that the fighting in Pittsburgh has achieved its strategic aim of destroying the city's industrial capacity and recommends pulling the Confederate troops out. However, President Featherston refuses to allow any withdrawal. U.S. forces under Brigadier General Morrell next attack and surround Pittsburgh, destroying the light Mexican screening force. Still, Featherston refuses to allow the encircled forces to attempt a breakout. The Confederate Army is whittled down to a few ragged survivors by determined U.S. resistance and brutal house-to-house fighting. On February 2, 1943, the Confederates still inside Pittsburgh are forced to surrender. As a result of this defeat, General Forrest begins to discuss with Clarence Potter the possibility of overthrowing Featherston. (This is likely a reference to the Battle of Stalingrad in our own real-life timeline.)

In other plotlines, Rep. Flora Blackford becomes more hawkish on the war, opposing the Administration's attempt to negotiate a settlement in Utah, where the Mormon uprising continues. She finds herself frequently agreeing with Robert A. Taft, the Democratic Senator from Ohio.

In Utah, the Mormon rebels have realized that they cannot achieve a conventional military victory and so resort to a series of suicide bombings throughout the United States, first with car bombs and then with suicide "people bombs." Blacks in the CSA soon begin imitating these attacks.

The extermination campaign against the C.S.A.'s black population continues and is expanded, with Jefferson Pinkard remaining a pivotal figure. Cyclone poison gas, originally used for pest extermination, is brought into the camps. (analogous to the gas chambers in Nazi concentration camps). However, the Confederates are worried when a diversionary attack, launched at the same time as the Pittsburgh campaign and led by Major General Dowling, threatens to capture the main extermination camp in Texas and expose its operations to the world.

The naval war remains inconclusive. The U.S. beats off a Japanese attack against the Sandwich Islands and achieves an advantage in the Pacific. In the Atlantic, the main activity is preventing British convoys from bringing supplies to the Canadian underground. The Royal Navy and the Imperial German High Seas Fleet meet in battle late in 1942, with both sides claiming victory.

Britain and France are still bogged down in western Germany, while Confederate newspapers report that the Russians are driving on Warsaw. Partisan and insurgent resistance rises on all fronts: Britain contends with Irish rebellion, Russia fights Jews, Finns, Chechens, and Azerbaijanis, while the Empire of Austria-Hungary bleeds from (amongst others) Serb, Bosnian, and Romanian rebels, with people bombs killing several prominent military leaders.

By 1943 both the United States and the Confederacy, along with other countries, have initiated programs to develop atomic weapons. While no power has developed a weapon yet, it appears that the United States and German programs are ahead of the Confederate one, with Germany the closest to completion. Around the turn of the New Year in 1943, the U.S. achieves its first sustaining chain reaction at its plant in Hanford, Washington. The British and the French are also rumored to be working on atomic weapons.

1943: The Grapple[edit]

Following the defeat of the Confederate Army at Pittsburgh, the Southern forces find themselves on the defensive in Ohio. Neither the U.S. nor the Confederate forces have adequate supplies for a major push; however, the U.S. position is getting stronger daily. After sufficient buildup, a massive invasion from Indiana crosses the Ohio River and enters Kentucky. General Morrell employs the "blitzkrieg"-like tactics which the CSA first brought to the battlefield, surrounding and bypassing any center of Confederate resistance.

Meanwhile, the Mormon rebellion in Utah is finally suppressed. Mormons outside of the ruins of Salt Lake City surrender to occupying U.S. troops. Plans are put forth in Congress to expel the rebels from Utah, possibly to the Sandwich Islands. These same soldiers are sent to put down the flames of revolt in Canada. In mid-1943, Winnipeg is surrounded and under siege by the U.S. and Québécois armies.

Mexican Army forces begin to be deployed to provide internal security in the Confederacy, replacing white Confederate soldiers sent to the front lines. Their efficiency against experienced guerrilla bands is limited, and the guerrillas' hit-and-run attacks become more and more brash.

To the surprise of the U.S. Navy, an assault on Midway Island reveals the Japanese have completely abandoned their garrison there. Many suspect that the Japanese are concentrating their resources for an assault on British-held Malaya and Singapore. An amphibious assault on Wake Island in the western Pacific some months later regains U.S. control of the island but also finds no signs of the Japanese.

C.S.A. President Featherston demands more progress from the Confederate nuclear program, fearing that the U.S. will develop the weapon first. In an attempt to slow down the U.S. nuclear program, C.S. bombers fly a long-range mission to bomb the "uranium works" in Hanford, Washington. No serious damage is incurred, and the program continues under heightened security. A later U.S. bombing raid on the Confederate atomic program in Lexington, Virginia, kills several prominent Confederate nuclear physicists.

The U.S. conquest of the Baja California peninsula takes place soon after the beginning of the lull in Pacific operations. Marines land midway down the peninsula and take Cabo San Lucas on the southern tip, while the U.S. Army pushes from San Diego in Upper California, down deep into the territory, seizing control of the remainder of Baja. Harassment operations soon begin against the Confederate forces in Guaymas and the Sonoran coast.

A seaborne operation led by the U.S. to re-recapture Bermuda from British and C.S. forces succeeds. The United States begins running guns to Irish rebels fighting against the British occupiers. As these operations continue, the U.S. also sends arms to anti-Freedom Party rebels in Confederate Cuba.

General Dowling's Eleventh Army continues to put pressure on Lubbock, Texas, the linchpin of Confederate defenses in the west. After Lubbock is captured, and the State of Houston subsequently revived, Brigade Leader Jefferson Pinkard destroys records and gas chambers at Camp Determination before the Yankees break through. Freedom Party Guard Units are deployed to slow down the U.S. advance, delaying the capture of Camp Determination for a time. These fanatical Featherston loyalists, analogous to the historical Waffen-SS, wear camouflage rather than butternut uniforms and are notorious for brutality and refusal to surrender. Pinkard is put in charge of Camp Humble, not far from Houston, Texas, to continue population reductions. The United States use the mass graves at Camp Determination as a propaganda theme.

In Europe, the German Army drives British forces out of their territory and over the Netherlands border. Subsequent operations are undertaken to free the Netherlands and "liberate" Belgium from Franco-British forces. In the east, German armored units deal a decisive blow to Russian forces outside of Kiev, tightening German control in the Ukraine area. Another thrust is aimed at the capital of Petrograd, which the Russians unsuccessfully try to turn back. Russia is no longer able to mount offensive operations, now trying to defend their "Motherland" with a battered and wounded army. Austria-Hungary is wracked by terrorist attacks but continues reprisals against the Serbians.

Facing off against Confederate General Patton, Morrell grinds down through Tennessee to capture the railroad junction of Chattanooga. In August 1943, United States airborne forces seize Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, overlooking Chattanooga, Tennessee, forcing the collapse of the Confederate defenses of the city; General Patton plans to treat the city as a "Second Pittsburgh", forcing a bloody attrition battle on the U.S. Instead, Confederate forces are forced to retreat to northwest Georgia. After several more counterattacks by the ill-equipped Confederate forces, the United States is poised to capture Atlanta, the last major transportation hub still linking both halves of the Confederacy.

As the U.S. Army moves through Tennessee (and even when that state is not even halfway occupied by the U.S.), plans are put forth in Congress to return Kentucky and Tennessee to the United States (under martial law), along with a revived State of Houston.

With the surprising success in its war effort, U.S. President La Follette, in a speech to the American Congress in fall 1943, demands that Confederate President Featherston surrender unconditionally, with him and his inner circle being banished to a distant island. Paralleling Al Smith's refusal of a similar demand in 1941, Featherston refuses this latest demand, responding to it by ordering two rockets to be fired into Philadelphia, proving to the United States that he is unwilling to give up so easily.

1943–1944: In at the Death[edit]

U.S. forces continue to advance across the board as 1944 opens. Major General Irving Morrell moves to encircle Atlanta, forcing Patton's Confederate army there to escape to the south and west. Mechanized elements of the U.S. Army penetrate deep into eastern Georgia and South Carolina, eventually reaching the sea and cutting the Confederacy in half, in a 1940s analogue of Sherman's March to the Sea. Major General Abner Dowling is recalled to Philadelphia from the newly re-created State of Houston to assist in the new thrust on Richmond being planned by General MacArthur.

The world is shocked when Germany uses the first superbomb to destroy Petrograd (St. Petersburg), Russia. The Confederates aren't far behind and Featherston sends Potter with a jury-rigged plutonium (Jovium to Confederate scientists) truck bomb to infiltrate and attack Philadelphia. The carnage is fearsome, but critical government buildings are spared atomic destruction. Soon after, Featherston is forced to flee Richmond, while Patton pulls back to Alabama—desperately defending the Confederate munitions works at Huntsville and Birmingham. U.S. planes drop a uranium bomb on Newport News, Virginia, narrowly missing the Confederate President, who is giving a speech in nearby Hampton Roads. The U.S. drops a second superbomb, this time on Charleston, in apparent revenge for South Carolina being the first state to secede from the Union back in 1860.

Germany uses its next superbomb against Paris, while Britain strikes Hamburg with its own superbomb. Germany retaliates with three superbombs on English cities nearly simultaneously, London is the most prominent, along with Norwich and Brighton. Winston Churchill promises a swift response, but a German turbo airplane shoots down the British bomber containing the second British bomb in Belgium "somewhere between Bruges and Ghent", sparing Germany.

In the wake of German atomic attacks, Russia, France and Britain, after a change of government, request armistices; the U.S. continues to gain territory and further squeeze the Confederacy. The U.S. recognizes an independent Republic of Texas, which splits the Confederacy yet again, cutting off Sonora and Chihuahua from the rest of the C.S. The new President of the Republic of Texas (in reciprocity for the U.S. diplomatic move) arranges for U.S. forces to liberate the death camps in his state. Jefferson Pinkard is arrested for crimes against humanity.

With Patton's army surrendering in Alabama under threat of atomic attack, Featherston attempts to flee to what remains of unoccupied Confederate territory by aircraft. Patrolling U.S. fighters shoot down the dictator's plane, and he and his party, surviving, attempt to proceed on foot. In a chance encounter, the black guerrilla Cassius (the son of Scipio/Xerxes, and sole survivor of his family) recognizes Featherston and shoots him dead. Confederate Vice President Donald Partridge thus becomes President long enough to sign a statement of unconditional surrender, which is accepted by General Morrell on behalf of the United States. With this, the Confederate States of America, after 83 years of independence, ceases to exist.

U.S. troops settle in garrisons for the long occupation of the defeated CSA. The black population of the Confederacy, decimated by genocide, has been reduced to scattered bands of guerillas who aid the victorious Yankees. The final infantry campaigns have been brutal, and the U.S. Army has to deal with "bush whacker" insurgents who take up small arms and explosives in widespread raids against the Yankee occupiers. In retaliation, they shoot tens or hundreds of Confederate civilians for every attack against U.S. forces. (There is mention of 1,500 random hostages being shot at Miami on a single day). The U.S. also holds criminal trials to punish crimes against humanity in a similar manner to the "Nuremberg Trials" of our current timeline, executing the deposed Attorney General and Director of Communications, as well as numerous camp guards. A defiant Jefferson Pinkard is among them, tried and executed in Texas.

The final dispensation of the defeated warring powers' territory is unclear, though the U.S. makes it clear that it plans to eventually absorb the entire Confederacy into the Union. In Canada, the simmering rebellion is put down after the U.S.A. agrees to treat captured Canadians as P.O.W.s, and also threatening to superbomb Saskatoon in Saskatachewan.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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