Southern California

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Southern California
Megaregion of the U.S.
Skyline of Southern California
Southern California Images top from bottom, left to right: San Diego Skyline, Downtown Los Angeles, Village of La Jolla, Santa Monica Pier, Surfer at Black's Beach, Hollywood Sign, Disneyland, Hermosa Beach Pier
Southern California Images top from bottom, left to right: San Diego Skyline, Downtown Los Angeles, Village of La Jolla, Santa Monica Pier, Surfer at Black's Beach, Hollywood Sign, Disneyland, Hermosa Beach Pier
State California
Largest city Los Angeles
Population (2010)22,680,010
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This article is about the south of the U.S. state of California. For the peninsula in western Mexico, see Baja California peninsula. For the university in Los Angeles, see University of Southern California. For the Mexican state of the Sudcalifornianos, see Baja California Sur.
"SoCal" and "Socal" redirect here. For other uses, see SoCal (disambiguation).
Southern California
Megaregion of the U.S.
Skyline of Southern California
Southern California Images top from bottom, left to right: San Diego Skyline, Downtown Los Angeles, Village of La Jolla, Santa Monica Pier, Surfer at Black's Beach, Hollywood Sign, Disneyland, Hermosa Beach Pier
Southern California Images top from bottom, left to right: San Diego Skyline, Downtown Los Angeles, Village of La Jolla, Santa Monica Pier, Surfer at Black's Beach, Hollywood Sign, Disneyland, Hermosa Beach Pier
State California
Largest city Los Angeles
Population (2010)22,680,010

Southern California, often abbreviated as SoCal, is a megaregion or megapolitan area in the southern portion of the US state of California. Large urban areas include Greater Los Angeles and Greater San Diego. The region generally comprises California's southernmost 10 counties,[1][2] stretching along the coast from about San Luis Obispo County to the United States and Mexico border, and from the Pacific Ocean inland to the Nevada and Arizona borders. The heavily built-up urban area stretches along the coast from Ventura, through the Greater Los Angeles Area, the Inland Empire and down to San Diego. Southern California is a major economic center for the state of California and the United States.

Southern California's population encompasses eight metropolitan areas, or MSAs: the Los Angeles metropolitan area, consisting of Los Angeles and Orange counties; the Inland Empire, consisting of Riverside and San Bernardino counties; the San Diego metropolitan area; the Bakersfield metropolitan area; the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area; the Santa Barbara metro area; the San Luis Obispo metropolitan area; and the El Centro area. Out of these, three are heavy populated areas: the Los Angeles area with over 12 million inhabitants, the Riverside-San Bernardino area with over 4 million inhabitants, and the San Diego area with over 3 million inhabitants. For CSA metropolitan purposes, the five counties of Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura are all combined to make up the Greater Los Angeles Area with over 17.5 million people. With over 22 million people, southern California contains roughly 60% of California's population.

To the east of southern California are the Colorado Desert and the Colorado River at the border with the state of Arizona and the Mojave Desert at the border with the state of Nevada. To the south lies the international border with Mexico, and to the west lies the Pacific Ocean.


Sunset in Venice, a district in Los Angeles

Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas.[3] With a population of 3,792,621, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. To the south and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation.

Its counties of Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverside are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States and all five are the top 5 most populous counties in California.[4] The region is also home to Los Angeles International Airport, the second-busiest airport in the United States by passenger volume (see World's busiest airports by passenger traffic) and the third by international passenger volume (see Busiest airports in the United States by international passenger traffic); San Diego International Airport the busiest single runway airport in the world; Van Nuys Airport, the world's busiest general aviation airport; major commercial airports at Orange County, Bakersfield, Ontario, Burbank and Long Beach; and numerous smaller commercial and general aviation airports. Southern California is also home to the Port of Los Angeles, the United States' busiest commercial port; the adjacent Port of Long Beach, the United States' second busiest container port; and the Port of San Diego. Also of note in the region is the freeway system, which is the world's busiest. Six of the seven lines of the commuter rail system, Metrolink, run out of Downtown Los Angeles, connecting Los Angeles, Ventura, San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, and San Diego counties with the other line connecting San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties directly.

The Tech Coast is a moniker that has gained use as a descriptor for the region's diversified technology and industrial base as well as its multitude of prestigious and world-renowned research universities and other public and private institutions. Amongst these include 5 University of California campuses (Irvine, Los Angeles, Riverside, Santa Barbara, and San Diego); 12 California State University campuses (Bakersfield, Channel Islands, Dominguez Hills, Fullerton, Los Angeles, Long Beach, Northridge, Pomona, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Marcos, and San Luis Obispo); and private institutions such as the California Institute of Technology, Chapman University, the Claremont Colleges (Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Pitzer College, Pomona College, and Scripps College), Loma Linda University, Loyola Marymount University, Occidental College, Pepperdine University, University of Redlands, University of San Diego, and the University of Southern California.

Universal Studios at Hollywood

Southern California is also the entertainment (motion picture, television, and recorded music) capital of the world[citation needed] and is home to Hollywood, a district in Los Angeles and a name associated with the motion picture industry. Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company (which also owns ABC), Sony Pictures, Universal, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Brothers.

Besides the entertainment industry, southern California is also home to a large home grown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Volcom, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, and Body Glove are all headquartered in southern California. Professional skateboarder Tony Hawk, professional surfers Rob Machado, Tim Curran, Bobby Martinez, Pat O'Connell, Dane Reynolds, and Chris Ward, and professional snowboarder Shaun White live in southern California. Some of the world's legendary surf spots are in southern California as well, including Trestles, Rincon, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, and Malibu, and it is second only to the island of Oahu in terms of famous surf breaks. Some of the world's biggest extreme sports events, including the X Games,[5] Boost Mobile Pro,[6] and the U.S. Open of Surfing are all in southern California. Southern California is also important to the world of yachting. The annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or "Transpac", from Los Angeles to Hawaii, is one of yachting's premier events. The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time.

Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Professional teams that are located in the region include the Los Angeles Lakers, Los Angeles Clippers, Los Angeles Dodgers, Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, San Diego Padres, Los Angeles Kings, Bakersfield Condors, Anaheim Ducks, Los Angeles Galaxy, Chivas USA, and San Diego Chargers. Southern California also is home to a number of popular NCAA sports programs such as the UCLA Bruins, the USC Trojans, and the San Diego State Aztecs.

Southern California is culturally diverse and well known worldwide. Many tourists frequent the southern California coast for its popular beaches and the eastern desert for its dramatic open spaces.

Northern boundary of Southern California[edit]

California counties below the thirty sixth standard parallel
The famous Andaz West Hollywood Hotel on the Sunset Strip

"Southern California" is not a formal geographic designation, and definitions of what constitutes Southern California vary. Geographically, California's north-south midway point lies at exactly 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles (18 km) south of San Jose;[citation needed] however, this does not coincide with popular use of the term. When the state is divided into two areas (northern and southern California), the term "Southern California" usually refers to the ten southern-most counties of the state. This definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ north latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and San Bernardino counties. Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern boundary.

Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California, and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be admitted to the Union as a free state, preventing southern California from becoming its own separate slave state.

Subsequently, Californios (dissatisfied with inequitable taxes and land laws) and pro-slavery southerners in the lightly populated "Cow Counties" of southern California attempted three times in the 1850s to achieve a separate statehood or territorial status separate from Northern California. The last attempt, the Pico Act of 1859, was passed by the California State Legislature and signed by the State governor John B. Weller. It was approved overwhelmingly by nearly 75% of voters in the proposed Territory of Colorado. This territory was to include all the counties up to the then much larger Tulare County (that included what is now Kings, most of Kern, and part of Inyo counties) and San Luis Obispo County. The proposal was sent to Washington, D.C. with a strong advocate in Senator Milton Latham. However, the secession crisis following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 led to the proposal never coming to a vote.[7][8]

In 1900, the Los Angeles Times defined southern California as including "the seven counties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Ventura and Santa Barbara." In 1999, the Times added a newer county—Imperial—to that list.[9]

The state is most commonly divided and promoted by its regional tourism groups as consisting of northern, central, and southern California regions. The two AAA Auto Clubs of the state, the California State Automobile Association and the Automobile Club of Southern California, choose to simplify matters by dividing the state along the lines where their jurisdictions for membership apply, as either northern or southern California, in contrast to the three-region point of view. Another influence is the geographical phrase "South of the Tehachapis", which would split the southern region off at the crest of that transverse range, but in that definition, the desert portions of north Los Angeles County and eastern Kern and San Bernardino Counties would be included in the southern California region due to their remoteness from the central valley and interior desert landscape.

Population, Land Area & Population Density (07-01-2008 est.)
Los Angeles County[10]9,862,04970034060870000000004,060.8710,517.6170032428560000000002,428.56937.67
San Diego County[11]3,095,31370034199890000000004,199.8910,877.677002714560000000000714.56275.89
Orange County[12]3,010,7597002789400000000000789.402,044.5470033813980000000003,813.981,472.59
Riverside County[13]2,100,51670037207370000000007,207.3718,667.007002291440000000000291.44112.53
San Bernardino County[14]2,015,355700420052500000000020,052.5051,935.747002100500000000000100.5038.80
Kern County[15]800,45870038140960000000008,140.9621,084.99700198319999999999998.3237.96
Ventura County[16]797,74070031845300000000001,845.304,779.317002432310000000000432.31166.92
Santa Barbara County[17]405,39670032737010000000002,737.017,088.827002148120000000000148.1257.19
San Luis Obispo County[18]265,29770033304320000000003,304.328,558.15700180290000000000080.2931.00
Imperial County[19]163,97270034174729999999994,174.7310,812.50700139280000000000039.2815.17
Southern California22,422,614700456512350000000056,512.35146,366.317002396770000000000396.77153.19

Urban landscape[edit]

Southern California consists of a heavily developed urban environment, home to some of the largest urban areas in the state, along with vast areas that have been left undeveloped. It is the third most populated megalopolis in the United States, after the Great Lakes Megalopolis and the Northeastern megalopolis. Much of Southern California is famous for its large, spread-out, suburban communities and use of automobiles and highways. The dominant areas are Los Angeles, Orange County, San Diego, and Riverside-San Bernardino, each of which is the center of its respective metropolitan area, composed of numerous smaller cities and communities. The urban area is also host to an international metropolitan region in the form of San Diego–Tijuana, created by the urban area spilling over into Baja California.

Traveling south on Interstate 5, the main gap to continued urbanization is Camp Pendleton. The communities along Interstate 15 and Interstate 215 are so inter-related that Temecula and Murrieta have as much connection with San Diego metropolitan area as they do with the Inland Empire. To the east, the United States Census Bureau considers the San Bernardino and Riverside County areas, Riverside-San Bernardino area as a separate metropolitan area from Los Angeles County. While many commute to L.A. and Orange Counties, there are some differences in development, as most of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties (the non-desert portions) were developed in the 1980s and 1990s. Newly developed exurbs formed in the Antelope Valley north of Los Angeles, the Victor Valley and the Coachella Valley with the Imperial Valley. Also population growth was high in the Bakersfield-Kern County, Santa Maria and San Luis Obispo areas.

The Downtown Los Angeles skyline seen at sunset on an October day. At 1,018 feet (310 m), 73 floors, the U.S. Bank Tower stands as the West Coast's tallest building since 1989.

Natural landscape[edit]

Autumn in Southern California.

Southern California consists of one of the more varied collections of geologic, topographic, and natural ecosystem landscapes in a diversity outnumbering other major regions in the state and country. The region spans from Pacific Ocean islands, shorelines, beaches, and coastal plains, through the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges with their peaks, into the large and small interior valleys, to the vast deserts of California.

Introductory categories include:


Satellite view of southern California, including the Channel Islands

Southern California is also divided into:

Geographic features[edit]

View from La Jolla Cove in San Diego.
Peaks in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains, Angeles National Forest, San Bernardino County.
Yucca Valley after a winter storm in the Morongo Basin.
Ocean Beach Sunset in San Diego.



On August 26, 2012, southern California and western Arizona experienced a 5.3 magnitude earthquake and another one at 5.5. This map is the intensity of the 5.3 throughout southern California and Arizona.

Each year, the southern California area has about 10,000 earthquakes. Nearly all of them are so small that they are not felt. Only several hundred are greater than magnitude 3.0, and only about 15–20 are greater than magnitude 4.0.[20]

On August 26, 2012 an earthquake occurred, which was a swarm of over 200 events, two which had magnitudes of 5.3 and 5.5.[21][22] Many faults are able to produce a magnitude 6.7+ earthquake, such as the San Andreas Fault, which can produce a magnitude 8.0 event. Other faults include the San Jacinto Fault, the Puente Hills Fault, and the Elsinore Fault Zone.



The Oceanside Pier on the San Diego County coast.

Southern California is divided culturally, politically, and economically into distinctive regions, each containing its own culture and atmosphere, anchored usually by a city with both national and sometimes global recognition, which are often the hub of economic activity for its respective region and being home to many tourist destinations. Each region is further divided into many culturally distinct areas but as a whole combine to create the southern California atmosphere.

*Part of multiple regions


As of the 2010 United States Census, southern California has a population of 22,680,010. Despite a reputation for high growth rates, southern California's rate grew less than the state average of 10.0% in the 2000s as California's growth became concentrated in the northern part of the state due to a stronger, tech-oriented economy in the Bay Area and an emerging Greater Sacramento region.

Southern California consists of one Combined Statistical Area, eight Metropolitan Statistical Areas, one international metropolitan area, and multiple metropolitan divisions. The region is home to two extended metropolitan areas that exceed five million in population. These are the Greater Los Angeles Area at 17,786,419, and San Diego–Tijuana at 5,105,768.[23][24] Of these metropolitan areas, the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana metropolitan area, Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario metropolitan area, and Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura metropolitan area form Greater Los Angeles;[25] while the El Centro metropolitan area and San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos metropolitan area form the Southern Border Region.[26][27] North of Greater Los Angeles are the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and Bakersfield metropolitan areas.


Los Angeles (at 3.7 million people) and San Diego (at 1.3 million people), both in southern California, are the two largest cities in all of California (and two of the eight largest cities in the United States). In southern California there are also twelve cities with more than 200,000 residents and 34 cities over 100,000 in population. Many of southern California's most developed cities lie along or in close proximity to the coast, with the exception of San Bernardino and Riverside.




Southern California's economy is diverse and one of the largest in the United States. It is dominated and heavily dependent upon abundance of petroleum, as opposed to other regions where automobiles not nearly as dominant, the vast majority of transport runs on this fuel. Southern California is famous for tourism and Hollywood (film, television, and music). Other industries include software, automotive, ports, finance, tourism, biomedical, and regional logistics. The region was a leader in the housing bubble 2001–2007, and has been heavily impacted by the housing crash.

Since the 1920s, motion pictures, petroleum and aircraft manufacturing have been major industries. In one of the richest agricultural regions in the U.S., cattle and citrus were major industries until farmlands was turned into suburbs. Although military spending cutbacks have had an impact, aerospace continues to be a major factor.[28]

Major central business districts[edit]

Irvine Taco Bell Headquarters

Southern California is home to many major business districts. Central business districts (CBD) include Downtown Los Angeles, Downtown San Diego, Downtown San Bernardino, Downtown Bakersfield, South Coast Metro and Downtown Riverside.

Within the Los Angeles Area are the major business districts of Downtown Burbank, Downtown Santa Monica, Downtown Glendale and Downtown Long Beach. Los Angeles itself has many business districts including the Downtown Los Angeles central business district as well as those lining the Wilshire Boulevard Miracle Mile including Century City, Westwood and Warner Center in the San Fernando Valley.

The San Bernardino-Riverside area maintains the business districts of Downtown San Bernardino, Hospitality Business/Financial Centre, University Town which are in San Bernardino and Downtown Riverside.

Orange County is a rapidly developing business center that includes Downtown Santa Ana, the South Coast Metro and Newport Center districts; as well as the Irvine business centers of The Irvine Spectrum, West Irvine, and international corporations headquartered at the University of California, Irvine. West Irvine includes the Irvine Tech Center and Jamboree Business Parks.

Downtown San Diego is the central business district of San Diego, though the city is filled with business districts. These include Carmel Valley, Del Mar Heights, Mission Valley, Rancho Bernardo, Sorrento Mesa, and University City. Most of these districts are located in Northern San Diego and some within North County regions.

Theme parks and waterparks[edit]

Los Angeles

Orange County

Riverside & San Bernardino

San Diego

Vinyard-Winery AVA districts[edit]

California wine AVA-American Viticultural Areas in southern California:


One of the large LAX signs that greet visitors to LAX. This sign is at the Century Boulevard entrance to Los Angeles International Airport
See: Category: Transportation in Southern California


The following airports currently have regularly scheduled commercial service:

Freeways and highways[edit]

I-10, 215 Interchange traffic, downtown San Bernardino.
California State Routes
SignFreeways and State Route
California 1.svgPacific Coast Highway (PCH)
Lincoln Boulevard
Sepulveda Boulevard
Oxnard Boulevard
Coast Highway
Camino las Ramblas
State Route 1
California 2.svgAngeles Crest Highway
Glendale Freeway
Santa Monica Boulevard
Alvarado Street
Glendale Boulevard
State Route 2
California 14.svgAntelope Valley FreewayState Route 14
California 18.svgWaterman AvenueState Route 18
California 19.svgRosemead Boulevard
Lakewood Boulevard
State Route 19
California 22.svgSeventh Street
Garden Grove Freeway
State Route 22
California 23.svgDecker Road
Decker Canyon Road
Mulholland Highway
Westlake Boulevard
State Route 23
California 27.svgTopanga Canyon BoulevardState Route 27
California 33.svgOjai FreewayState Route 33
California 38.svgState Route 38
California 39.svgSan Gabriel Canyon Road
Azusa Avenue
Whittier Boulevard
Beach Boulevard
State Route 39
California 42.svgManchester Ave
Manchester Boulevard
Firestone Boulevard
State Route 42
California 47.svgTerminal Island Freeway
Seaside Avenue
Vincent Thomas Bridge
State Route 47
California 52.svgSoledad FreewayState Route 52
California 54.svgSouth Bay Freeway
Filipino-American Highway
State Route 54
California 55.svgCosta Mesa Freeway
Newport Boulevard
State Route 55
California 56.svgTed Williams FreewayState Route 56
California 57.svgOrange FreewayState Route 57
California 60.svgPomona Freeway
Moreno Valley Freeway
State Route 60
California 66.svgFoothill Boulevard
E Street
State Route 66
California 67.svgJulian Road
San Vicente Freeway
State Route 67
California 71.svgCorona Expressway
Chino Valley Freeway
State Route 71
California 72.svgWhittier BoulevardState Route 72
California 73.svgSan Joaquin Hills Transportation Corridor (toll road)State Route 73
California 74.svgOrtega Highway
Pines to Palms Highway[29]
State Route 74
California 75.svgSan Diego-Coronado Bridge
Silver Strand Boulevard
State Route 75
California 76.svgMission Avenue
Pala Road
Cuyamaca Highway
State Route 76
California 78.svgVista Freeway
San Pasqual Valley Road
State Route 78
California 79.svgWinchester Road
Temecula Parkway
Firefighter Steven Rucker Memorial Highway
State Route 79
California 83.svgEuclid AvenueState Route 83
California 86.svgIndio BoulevardState Route 86
California 90.svgMarina Freeway
Imperial Highway
Richard Nixon Freeway
State Route 90
California 91.svgArtesia Boulevard
Gardena Freeway
Artesia Freeway
Riverside Freeway
State Route 91
California 94.svgMartin Luther King Jr. Freeway
Campo Road
State Route 94
California 107.svgHawthorne BoulevardState Route 107
California 110.svgPasadena FreewayState Route 110
California 111.svgGrapefruit BoulevardState Route 111
California 118.svgRonald Reagan FreewayState Route 118
California 125.svgLa Mesa FreewayState Route 125
California 126.svgSanta Paula FreewayState Route 126
California 133.svgEastern Transportation Corridor (toll road)
Laguna Canyon Road
State Route 133
California 134.svgVentura FreewayState Route 134
California 138.svgState Route 138
California 142.svgCarbon Canyon Road
Chino Hills Parkway
State Route 142
California 163.svgCabrillo FreewayState Route 163
California 170.svgHollywood Freeway
Highland Avenue
State Route 170
California 195.svgPierce StreetState Route 195
California 209.svgCatalina Boulevard
Canon Street
Rosecrans Street
State Route 209
California 210.svgFoothill FreewayState Route 210
California 213.svgWestern AvenueState Route 213
California 241.svgFoothill
Eastern Transportation Corridor (toll road)
State Route 241
California 259.svgState Route 259 FreewayState Route 259
California 274.svgBalboa AvenueState Route 274
California 282.svg3rd/4th StreetState Route 282
California 371.svgCahuilla RoadState Route 371
California 905.svgOtay Mesa Freeway
Otay Mesa Road
State Route 905
Note: highway segments with names listed in italics are surface streets and not freeways.
Interstate Highways
SignFreeways and Interstate
I-5 (CA).svgGolden State Freeway
Santa Ana Freeway
San Diego Freeway
Montgomery Freeway
Interstate 5
I-8 (CA).svgOcean Beach Freeway
Mission Valley Freeway
Interstate 8
I-10 (CA).svgSanta Monica (Rosa Parks) Freeway
Golden State Freeway
San Bernardino Freeway
Indio (Dr. June McCarroll) Freeway
Blythe Freeway
Interstate 10
I-15 (CA).svgMojave Freeway
Barstow Freeway
Ontario Freeway
Corona Freeway
Temecula Valley Freeway
Escondido Freeway
Interstate 15
I-105 (CA).svgCentury (Glenn Anderson) FreewayInterstate 105
I-110 (CA).svgHarbor FreewayInterstate 110
I-210 (CA).svgFoothill FreewayInterstate 210
I-215 (CA).svgBarstow Freeway
San Bernardino Freeway
Moreno Valley Freeway
Escondido Freeway
Interstate 215
I-405 (CA).svgSan Diego FreewayInterstate 405
I-605 (CA).svgSan Gabriel River FreewayInterstate 605
I-710 (CA).svgLong Beach FreewayInterstate 710
I-805 (CA).svgJacob Dekema FreewayInterstate 805
I-905 (CA).svgFuture Interstate 905Interstate 905
U.S. Highway system
SignFreeways and US Route
US 6 (1961 cutout).svgU.S. Route 6
US 95 (CA).svgU.S. Route 95
US 101 (CA).svgVentura Freeway
Hollywood Freeway
Santa Ana Freeway
El Camino Real
U.S. Route 101
US 395 (CA).svgU.S. Route 395

Public transportation[edit]

See: Category: Public transportation in Southern California


Map of some major area codes in Greater Los Angeles

Telephone area codes[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Parks and recreation areas[edit]

Sports teams[edit]

Los Angeles Angels of AnaheimBaseballAmerican League (Major League Baseball)Angel Stadium of Anaheim
Los Angeles DodgersNational League (Major League Baseball)Dodger Stadium
San Diego PadresPETCO Park
Los Angeles ClippersBasketballNational Basketball AssociationStaples Center
Los Angeles Lakers
Los Angeles SparksWomen's basketballWomen's National Basketball AssociationStaples Center
San Diego ChargersFootballNational Football LeagueQualcomm Stadium
Anaheim DucksIce hockeyNational Hockey LeagueHonda Center
Los Angeles KingsStaples Center
Chivas USASoccerMajor League SoccerStubHub Center
Los Angeles Galaxy

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Figures Show California's Motoring Supremacy". Touring Topics (Los Angeles, California: Automobile Club of Southern California) 8 (2): 38–9. March 1916. 
  2. ^ Cooley, Timothy J. (2014). Surfing about Music. University of California Press. p. 46. ISBN 9780520957213. 
  3. ^ The three metropolitan areas are:
    1. Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana (the second largest in the US),
    2. Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario (the Inland Empire) and
    3. San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos – see: United States metropolitan areas
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ Yoon, Peter (August 7, 2006). "X Games Take a Turn for the Better". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 23, 2010. 
  6. ^ Higgins, Matt (September 13, 2006). "Construction Stirs Debate on Effects on 'Perfect Wave'". The New York Times. Retrieved September 13, 2008. 
  7. ^ Michael DiLeo, Eleanor Smith, Two Californias: The Truth about the Split-state Movement, Island Press, Covelo, California, 1983. pp. 9–30.
  8. ^ J. M. Guinn, HOW CALIFORNIA ESCAPED STATE DIVISION, The Quarterly, Volumes 5–6 By Historical Society of Southern California, Los Angeles County Pioneers of Southern California
  9. ^ Leilah Bernstein, "Then and Now", Los Angeles Times, December 31, 1999, page 1 A library card is needed to access this link.
  10. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Los Angeles County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  11. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), San Diego County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  12. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Orange County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  13. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Riverside County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  14. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), San Bernardino County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  15. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Kern County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  16. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Ventura County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  17. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Santa Barbara County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  18. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), San Luis Obispo County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  19. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Imperial County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009 
  20. ^ "USGS facts". data from Southern California Earthquake Center. Retrieved March 18, 2009. 
  21. ^ "M5.3 – Southern California". USGS. August 26, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2012. 
  22. ^ "Series of earthquakes rattle southern California". San Diego. Associated Press. August 26, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2012. 
  23. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (CSV). 2009 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 23, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2010. 
  24. ^ "World Gazatteer; San Diego-Tijuana". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on October 1, 2007. Retrieved March 20, 2011. 
  25. ^ U.S. Census Bureau – Combined statistical area population and estimated components of change: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008
  26. ^ "California Coast, Los Angeles to San Diego Bay". 
  27. ^ Loucky, James (ed.). Transboundary policy challenges in the Pacific border regions of North America. University of Calgary Press. p. 8. ISBN 1-55238-223-0. Retrieved February 19, 2011. 
  28. ^ Peter J. Westwick, ed. Blue Sky Metropolis: The Aerospace Century in southern California Huntington Library/University of California Press
  29. ^ Lech, Steve (2012). For Tourism and a Good Night's Sleep: J. Win Wilson, Wilson Howell, and the Beginnings of the Pines-to-Palms Highway. Riverside, CA: Steve Lech. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-9837500-1-7. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 34°00′N 117°00′W / 34.000°N 117.000°W / 34.000; -117.000