South African Navy

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South African Navy
Naval Ensign of South Africa.svg
Ensign of the South African Navy
Active1861 – present[Note 1]
Country South Africa
TypeNavy
Size6,104 (Active)
1,000 (Reserve)
Part ofSouth African National Defence Force
Garrison/HQSaldanha Bay, Simon's Town, Durban
ColorsGreen and White
Commanders
Minister of Defence and Veteran AffairsNosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula
Chief of the NavyVice Admiral Mosuwa Samuel Hlongwane
Master at Arms of the NavySenior Chief Warrant Officer Pragasen Moodley[1]
Notable
commanders
ADM Hugo Biermann
Insignia
Naval BadgeSA Navy Badge.png
 
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South African Navy
Naval Ensign of South Africa.svg
Ensign of the South African Navy
Active1861 – present[Note 1]
Country South Africa
TypeNavy
Size6,104 (Active)
1,000 (Reserve)
Part ofSouth African National Defence Force
Garrison/HQSaldanha Bay, Simon's Town, Durban
ColorsGreen and White
Commanders
Minister of Defence and Veteran AffairsNosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula
Chief of the NavyVice Admiral Mosuwa Samuel Hlongwane
Master at Arms of the NavySenior Chief Warrant Officer Pragasen Moodley[1]
Notable
commanders
ADM Hugo Biermann
Insignia
Naval BadgeSA Navy Badge.png

The South African Navy (SAN) is the navy of the South African National Defence Force. The role of the navy is to prepare for and to conduct naval operations in defence of the RSA, its citizens and interests and to carry out peacetime operations in support of other national objectives.[2]

Other tasks include the maintenance, preservation and the provision of naval services in support of other state departments and authorities, including search and rescue, protection of maritime resources, and diplomatic sea transport support.

History[edit]

The South African Navy can trace its official origins back to the SA Naval Service, which was established on 1 April 1922 following the donation of HMS Thames which became the training ship General Botha.[3] Unofficially, however, the SAN can trace its history even further back, to the Natal Naval Volunteers (NNV), which was formed in Durban on 30 April 1885 as well as to the Cape Naval Volunteers (CNV), which was formed in Cape Town in 1905. On 1 July 1913 these two units were amalgamated to form the South African Division of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (RNVR). During World War I a total of 164[4] members of the RNVR (SA) served in the Royal Navy and a total of 412 South Africans served in the RNVR (SA) during the war, while the naval base at Simons Town played a strategic role to the Allies.

SAS Immortelle, circa 1935

The first ships acquired (on permanent loan from the Royal Navy)[5] by the newly formed navy were HMSAS Protea (a hydrographic survey vessel), HMSAS Sonneblom and HMSAS Immortelle (both minesweeping trawlers). However the Great Depression meant the government had to cut back and the ships acquired by the Navy were handed back to the Royal Navy (HMSAS Protea in 1933 and the remaining ships in 1934).

World War II[edit]

Members of the South African Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve serving on board HMS Nelson (28) during WWII

When World War II broke out the Navy the South African Naval Service was virtually non-existent, with only 3 officers and 3 ratings. In January 1940 a new naval unit, called the Seaward Defence Force, was formed.[6]:338 Rear-Admiral Guy Hallifax CMG, who had retired in South Africa from the Royal Navy, was appointed Director of the Seaward Defence Force.[7] This unit was to be responsible for operating the minesweepers, anti-submarine ships, and the other inspection and signalling duties in South African waters. From 1941 a number of SDF anti submarine trawlers served in the Mediterranean.[8]

The Seaward Defence Force and the South African RNVR were consolidated on 1 August 1942 to form the South African Naval Forces (SANF).[9] Due to the strong Royal Navy influence on its origins, South African naval forces began using Royal Navy ranks.

Post World War II[edit]

On 1 May 1946 the SANF was reconstituted as part of the Union Defence Force and in 1951 the South African Naval Forces became the South African Navy. The title of HMSAS (His Majesty's South African Ship) was changed to SAS (South African Ship) in 1952,[10] and the Crown in the SAN cap badge was replaced with the Lion of Nassau from the crest of the country's coat of arms in 1959, two years before South Africa became a republic.

SAS Jan van Riebeeck pictured when still named HMS Wessex

In 1947, the SANF acquired three additional ships: the Algerine-class minesweepers HMSAS Rosamund (later renamed HMSAS Bloemfontein), HMSAS Pelorus (later renamed HMSAS Pietermaritzburg), and the Flower-class corvette HMSAS Rockrose (later converted into a hydrographic survey ship and renamed HMSAS Protea). The SAN's first destroyer, SAS Jan van Riebeeck (the former British W-class destroyer HMS Wessex) was transferred to South Africa on 29 March 1950.[11] The SAN's second destroyer, SAS Simon van der Stel (the former HMS Whelp, and a sister-ship of the Jan van Riebeeck, was handed over to the Navy on 23 February 1953.

Meanwhile, negotiations were taking place between the British and South African governments on the future of the Royal Navy's base at Simon's Town. The outcome of these talks was that the base was transferred to the Union on 2 April 1957 under the terms of the Simonstown Agreement, and that the Navy would purchase four additional frigates, ten coastal minesweepers and five seaward defence boats from Britain. In 1963 the first of the Type-12 President-class frigates were delivered[12] and in 1970 the Navy received the first of its three Daphné-class submarines from France.

Political unrest in Soweto and elsewhere prompted the apartheid government to take even sterner measures in an attempt to keep the opposition under control which in turn, led to a mandatory arms embargo against South Africa in 1977. As a result of this, two corvettes and two Agosta-class submarines[13] that had been ordered for the Navy were not delivered. Instead, South Africa covertly ordered the Strike craft from Israel, three being built in Israel and six in South Africa.[14]

In 1977 the then Chief of the South African Defence Force changed the Navy's focus to that of a coastal navy and as the Border War began to escalate, the Navy's budget was cut dramatically.[15] The Border conflict ended in April 1989 and was followed by cut backs in all arms of the South African Defence Force and the Navy had to retrench approximately 23% of its personnel.[16]

Post 1994[edit]

South African Navy frigate SAS Amatola (F145) and the US Navy guided-missile destroyer USS Arleigh Burke (DDG 51) underway together during a drill

After the first democratic elections in South Africa, the South African Navy once again started showing the flag around the world and began participating in exercises with other navies.[17] In 1997 the South African Navy celebrated 75 years with 15 countries sending ships for the festivities.[18]

The need to re-equip the Navy was addressed by what is known as the Arms Deal and the Navy acquired four frigates (the South African Air Force also acquired helicopters for the frigates) as well as three submarines.[19]

The Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre (MRCC) was located in a bunker at Silvermine.[20] In 2004 this function passed from the Department of Defence to the South African Maritime Safety Authority (SAMSA), an agency of the Department of Transport (South Africa). The MRCC is located within the SAMSA Centre for Sea Watch and Response.[21]

A budget of roughly R2.55 billion ($303 million at 2012 exchange rates) was allocated for the Navy for the 2012–2013 fiscal year.[22] Despite an updated fleet, AllAfrica reported in December 2010 that the navy's capabilities are limited and it would have difficulty contributing to anti-piracy efforts off Somalia.[23] AllAfrica reported in January 2011 that with the navy's current budget it would only be able to put one frigate and support ship to sea at any given time. It was thought that such a deployment would deplete the 2011 annual operational budget.[23][24]

Decommissioned ships[edit]

Marines[edit]

The South Africa Marine Corps was set up as a sub-branch of the Navy in 1979,[6]:339 with the primary purpose of protecting harbours. Marines were also deployed at Katima Mulilo in South West Africa during the South African Border War, where they were responsible for patrolling the Zambezi River. The Marines also acted as regular infantry at the Border until 1988 as well as performing counter-insurgency operations inside South Africa. During township duties in the mid-1980s the detachment used facilities at SAS Rand in Johannesburg and on Signal Hill outside of Heidelberg. The Marines had an amphibious landing capability by operating from Tafelberg and Drakensberg. An elite company, named the Marine Amphibious Company (MAC), was formed to ensure the beach-head capability for landing large task forces. The Marines trained and fielded a small elite reconnaissance detachment between 1983 and 1989, under the direct control of the Marine CO, they received airborne, diver and urban counter measures training from other army units within the SADF.

The Marines were disbanded on 18 January 1990,[25] following a major restructuring of the Navy at the end of the South African Border War.

Ensign[edit]

1922-1946 
1946-1951 
1951-1952 
1952-1981 
1981-1994 
1994-present 

Command, control & organisation[edit]

The command structure is depicted below.[26][27] The Chief of the Navy, based at Navy Headquarters at the Navy Office (SAS Immortelle) located in Pretoria, heads up the South African Navy. All operational forces, including ships and submarines, fall under the control of the Flag Officer Fleet who is based in Simon's Town.

South African Navy command organogram.jpg

RoleIncumbent
Chief of the NavyVice Admiral Refiloe Mudimu
Deputy Chief of the NavyRear Admiral Samuel Hlongwane[28]
Flag Officer FleetRear Admiral Bubele Mhlana[29]
Chief of Naval StaffRear Admiral Robert Higgs
Chief Director Maritime StrategyRear Admiral Hanno Teuteberg
Inspector General NavyRear Admiral (JG) Edward Ratala[30]
Flag CaptainCapt Andre Katerinic[31]

Fleet Command[edit]

Fleet Command includes all vessels and units of the Navy other than Naval Headquarters, Pretoria. Fleet Command is based in Simon's Town under control of Flag Officer Fleet.[32]

Four directorates are responsible for the day to day control of Fleet Command:[33]

Naval bases[edit]

The Navy operates the following naval bases:[34]

A view of Simon's Town and the naval base

Training units[edit]

Personnel[edit]

As at 1 September 2011[39] there are approximately 6104 active uniformed members augmented by 1313 civilians and 1000 reserve members. The seven old Navy Reserve units were closed down during 2006. They were modeled on the Royal Naval Reserve unit system. A new Navy Reserve system was created consisting of roughly 1000 reserve posts. These posts are pooled and members drawn from them as needed to augment full-time units and ships' companies.

Uniforms[edit]

From 1922 to the 1950s the SA Navy was effectively part of the Royal Navy and wore the same uniforms and similar insignia. In 1959 the Crown in the SAN cap badge was replaced with the Lion of Nassau from the crest of the country's coat of arms. A black beret replaced the peaked cap in working uniforms.[40]

In 2000 the new Coat of Arms was unveiled and the Chief of the Navy tasked Fleet Command to look at revising the Navy uniforms to reflect the new coat of arms.[41] This saw new rank insignia for non commissioned officers being implemented as well as the introduction of a side cap.

Ranks[edit]

The rank system is based on that of the (British) Royal Navy.[42]

Officers[edit]
Rank insignia of the South African Navy
Officer ranksAdmiralVice admiralRear admiralRear admiral junior gradeCaptainCommanderLieutenant commanderLieutenantSub lieutenantEnsignMidshipman

South African Navy
Generic-Navy-O11.svg
Generic-Navy-O10.svg
Generic-Navy-O9.svg
Generic-Navy-O8.svg
Generic-Navy-O7.svg
Generic-Navy-O5.svg
Generic-Navy-O4.svg
Generic-Navy-O3.svg
Generic-Navy-O1.svg
SA Navy O1 rank.jpg
Warrant Officers and other ranks[edit]
Rank insignia of the South African Navy
Warrant officers and other ranksSenior chief warrant officerChief warrant officerMaster warrant officerSenior warrant officerWarrant officer class 1Warrant officer class 2Chief petty officerPetty officerLeading seamanAble seamanSeaman

South African Navy
SAN Navy CPO rank insignia.png
SAN Navy PO rank insignia.png
SAN Navy LS rank insignia.png
SA Navy AB rank insignia.png
SA Navy E0.jpg

The warrant officer ranks were expanded in 2008,[43] with ranks that had been substantive based on the post now becoming a rank that the person maintained.

Ships and weapons[edit]

Ships[edit]

Combat Fleet[edit]

ImageClass/nameTypeNumberEntered service
South African Navy frigate SAS Amatola (F 145).jpg
Valour classFrigate42004[44]
SAS Charlotte Maxeke (S-102).jpg
Heroine classSubmarine32005[45]
US Navy 100315-N-4774B-200 The Chilean navy Sa'ar 4-class fast-attack craft Angamos and Casma perform tactical maneuvering exercises in the Strait Of Magellan.jpg
Warrior classOffshore patrol vessel4[46][47]1979[48]
River class minesweeper.jpg
River classMine counter measures vessels4[46][47]1981[49]
T classInshore patrol vessel31992[48]
Namacurra harbour patrol boat.jpg
Namacurra classHarbour patrol boat211981[48]

Support fleet[edit]

ImageClass/nameTypeNumberEntered service
SAS Drakensberg (A301).jpg
SAS DrakensbergReplenishment vessel (AOR)11987[50]
SAS Protea.jpg
SAS ProteaHecla-class survey vessel11972[50]
TugboatHarbour tug31969, 1978 & 1995[51]
Lima-class utility landing craftLanding Craft Utility61990[52]

Air Force maritime aircraft[edit]

Although the SAN does not operate any aircraft itself, aircraft used on ships or supporting the SAN are operated by 22 Squadron SAAF:

There is a planned programme to equip the frigates with UAVs to supplement the helicopters. Previously before its retirement the SAAF operated the Westland Wasp for the SAN in the anti-submarine warfare role.

Naval weapons systems[edit]

Other weapon systems include:

Maritime Reaction Squadron[edit]

The Maritime Reaction Squadron provides an amphibious, diving and small boat capability to the Navy,[54] deploying infantry-trained South African Navy personnel in various peacekeeping roles within the African continent and to assist in boarding operations at sea, humanitarian operations and disaster relief.[54] The Maritime Reaction Squadron was formed as the Naval Rapid Deployment Force (NRDF) in 2005.[55]

The squadron consists of the following components:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Port Elizabeth Naval Volunteer Brigade that was raised in 1861

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Navy top brass don't have to go to sea". Flyafrica.info. Retrieved 2012-07-12. 
  2. ^ "Role of the SA Navy – Page 3". Navy.mil.za. Retrieved 2012-07-12. 
  3. ^ van der Waag, Ian (2000). "The Union Defence Force between the Two World Wars, 1919-1940". Scientaria Militaria 30 (2). 
  4. ^ Wessels, André (2009). "The South African Navy and its Predecessors, 1910–2010: A Century of Interaction with Commonwealth Navies". Department of History, University of the Free State. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  5. ^ Bennett, C. H. and Söderlund, A. G. (2008). South Africa's Navy : A Navy of the People and for the People. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-620-41446-3. 
  6. ^ a b "5 – National Security" (PDF). South Africa: a country study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. 1997. ISBN 0-8444-0796-8. 
  7. ^ "NAVY, South African". Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa 8. Nasou Limited. 1971. pp. 113–5. ISBN 978-0-625-00324-2. 
  8. ^ Wessels, Andre (December 1994). "The first two years of war: the development of the Union Defence Forces". Journal for Contemporary History. 19(3). 
  9. ^ "History of the SA Navy". Navy.mil.za. Retrieved 2012-07-12. 
  10. ^ South African Navy – Unlikely Ambassadors
  11. ^ Du Toit, Allan (1992). South Africa's fighting ships past and present. Ashanti Publishing. pp. 193–200. ISBN 978-1874800507. 
  12. ^ Wessels, Andre (November 2005). "The South African Navy's frigates, 1944–1985". Naval Digest 11: 1–36. 
  13. ^ Du Toit, Allan (1992). South Africa's fighting ships past and present. Ashanti Publishing. pp. 281–289. ISBN 978-1874800507. 
  14. ^ Du Toit, Allan (1992). South Africa's fighting ships past and present. Ashanti Publishing. p. 303. ISBN 978-1874800507. 
  15. ^ Bennett, C. H. and Söderlund, A. G. (2008). South Africa's Navy : A Navy of the People and for the People. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-620-41446-3. 
  16. ^ Bennett, C. H. and Söderlund, A. G. (2008). South Africa's Navy : A Navy of the People and for the People. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-620-41446-3. 
  17. ^ "South African Navy - Unlikely Ambassadors". Navy.mil.za. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  18. ^ "The SA Navy and an African Renaissance - Occasional Paper No 27 - November 1997". Iss.org.za. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
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  25. ^ Pitta, Robert (1993). South African Special Forces. Osprey. 
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  28. ^ "senior appoint". Dod.mil.za. Retrieved 2012-07-23. 
  29. ^ Wingrin, Dean (31 January 2014). "Navy bids farewell to Admiral Schoultz". DefenceWeb. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
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  38. ^ Bennett, C. H. and Söderlund, A. G. (2008). South Africa's Navy : A Navy of the People and for the People. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-620-41446-3. 
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  41. ^ Bennett, C. H. and Söderlund, A. G. (2008). South Africa's Navy : A Navy of the People and for the People. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-620-41446-3. 
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  43. ^ Pale, Lt Col Frans. "Minister approves new ranks for Warrant Officers". Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
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  45. ^ a b "Submarines". Navy.mil.za. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  46. ^ a b http://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/south-african-navy-mulls-future-requirements-as-fleet-remains-active-2013-10-04
  47. ^ a b http://www.bairdmaritime.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=14234:sa-navy-in-process-of-refurbishing&catid=114:workboats&Itemid=209
  48. ^ a b c "Patrol Forces". Navy.mil.za. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  49. ^ "Mine Warfare Forces". Navy.mil.za. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  50. ^ a b "Auxiliary Equipment". Navy.mil.za. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  51. ^ "Tugs". Navy.mil.za. Retrieved 2012-08-03. 
  52. ^ "SA Navy to commission Maritime Reaction Squadron". defenceweb. Retrieved 2014-07-19. 
  53. ^ Fact File on DefenceWeb
  54. ^ a b "Maritime Protection Squadron". Navy.mil.za. 2011-02-02. Retrieved 2012-07-23. 
  55. ^ Engelbrecht, Leon (21 November 2005). "Navy setting up rapid deployment force for peacekeeping". DefenceWeb. Retrieved 21 July 2014. 
  56. ^ "SA Navy to commission Maritime Reaction Squadron". DefenceWeb. 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2012-07-23. 

External links[edit]