Sonic the Hedgehog (character)

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Sonic the Hedgehog
Sonic the Hedgehog character
Sonic modern and classic designs.png
Modern and classic Sonic designs,
as they appear in Sonic Generations
First game
Created byYuji Naka
Naoto Ōshima
Designed byVideo games
Naoto Ōshima (Sonic the Hedgehog)
Artwork
Akira Watanabe (Sonic the Hedgehog)
Yuji Uekawa (Sonic Adventure,
Latest release: Sonic Generations)
Voiced by (English)Video games
Keiko Utoku (Sonic CD)
Ryan Drummond (1998-2004)
Jason Griffith (2005-2010)
Roger Craig Smith (2010-Present)
Cartoons
Jaleel White (AoStH, SatAM, Sonic Underground)
Samuel Vincent (Sonic Underground (singing voice)
Anime
Martin Burke (Sonic OVA)
Jason Griffith (Sonic X)
Voiced by (Japanese)Video games
Takeshi Kusao (1993)
Junichi Kanemaru (1998-present)
Tomokazu Seki (Werehog form, Sonic Unleashed)
Cartoons
Kappei Yamaguchi (AoStH and SatAM)
Keiko Toda (Sonic Underground)
Anime
Masami Kikuchi (Sonic OVA)
Junichi Kanemaru (Sonic X)
Fictional profile
NicknameThe Blue Blur
SpeciesHedgehog
LikesChili dogs
Skills

Supersonic speed (running) [1] Super transformation

Ball Spin
 
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Sonic the Hedgehog
Sonic the Hedgehog character
Sonic modern and classic designs.png
Modern and classic Sonic designs,
as they appear in Sonic Generations
First game
Created byYuji Naka
Naoto Ōshima
Designed byVideo games
Naoto Ōshima (Sonic the Hedgehog)
Artwork
Akira Watanabe (Sonic the Hedgehog)
Yuji Uekawa (Sonic Adventure,
Latest release: Sonic Generations)
Voiced by (English)Video games
Keiko Utoku (Sonic CD)
Ryan Drummond (1998-2004)
Jason Griffith (2005-2010)
Roger Craig Smith (2010-Present)
Cartoons
Jaleel White (AoStH, SatAM, Sonic Underground)
Samuel Vincent (Sonic Underground (singing voice)
Anime
Martin Burke (Sonic OVA)
Jason Griffith (Sonic X)
Voiced by (Japanese)Video games
Takeshi Kusao (1993)
Junichi Kanemaru (1998-present)
Tomokazu Seki (Werehog form, Sonic Unleashed)
Cartoons
Kappei Yamaguchi (AoStH and SatAM)
Keiko Toda (Sonic Underground)
Anime
Masami Kikuchi (Sonic OVA)
Junichi Kanemaru (Sonic X)
Fictional profile
NicknameThe Blue Blur
SpeciesHedgehog
LikesChili dogs
Skills

Supersonic speed (running) [1] Super transformation

Ball Spin

Sonic the Hedgehog (Japanese: ソニック・ザ・ヘッジホッグ Hepburn: Sonikku za Hejjihoggu?), trademarked Sonic The Hedgehog,[2] is the title character and protagonist of the Sonic the Hedgehog series released by Sega, as well as numerous spin-off comics, four animated shows, and an animated OVA. The first game was released on June 23, 1991, to provide Sega with a mascot to rival Nintendo's flagship character Mario (see 1991 in video gaming).[3][4] Since then, Sonic has become one of the world's best-known video game characters, with his series selling more than 80 million copies.[5] In 2005, Sonic was one of the first game character inductees into the Walk of Game, alongside Mario and Link.[6]

While many individuals at Sega had a hand in Sonic's creation, programmer Yuji Naka and artist Naoto Ōshima are generally credited with the creation of the character.[7] Sonic is a blue 15-year-old anthropomorphic hedgehog, who has the ability to run at supersonic speeds and the ability to curl into a ball, primarily to attack enemies. Throughout the course of his video games, Sonic most commonly has to race through levels, collect power up rings and surviving against a host of natural obstacles and minions to achieve his goal.

Origins and history

While Sega was seeking a flagship series to compete with Nintendo's Mario series along with a character to replace Alex Kidd as the company's mascot, several character designs were submitted by its Sega AM8 research and development department. Many results came forth from their experiments with character design, including an armadillo (who later developed into Mighty the Armadillo), a dog, a Theodore Roosevelt look-alike in pajamas (who would later be the basis of Dr. Robotnik/Eggman's design), and a rabbit (who would use its extendible ears to collect objects, an aspect later incorporated in Ristar).[8][9] Eventually, Naoto Ōshima's spiky teal hedgehog, initially codenamed "Mr. Needlemouse",[3] was chosen as the new mascot. Sonic's blue pigmentation was chosen to match Sega's cobalt blue logo, and his shoes were a concept evolved from a design inspired by Michael Jackson's boots with the addition of the color red, which was inspired by both Santa Claus and the contrast of those colors on Jackson's 1987 album Bad; his personality was based on Bill Clinton's "Get it done" attitude.[8][10][11][12] Sonic was created without the ability to swim because of a mistaken assumption by Yuji Naka that all hedgehogs could not do so.[13] A group of fifteen people started working on the first Sonic the Hedgehog game, and renamed themselves Sonic Team. The game's soundtrack was composed by Masato Nakamura of the band Dreams Come True. Sega sponsored the group's "Wonder 3" tour, painting Sonic on the tour bus, distributing pamphlets advertising the game, and having footage of the game broadcast above stage prior to its release.[14]

The original concepts gave Sonic fangs and put him in a band with a human girlfriend named Madonna. However, a team from Sega of America, led by Madeline Schroeder, who calls herself "Sonic's mother",[8] "softened" the character up for an American audience by removing those elements. This sparked a heated issue with Sonic Team. Naka later admitted that it was probably for the best.[8] Sonic's appearance varies greatly depending on the medium and the style in which he is drawn. In the video games, Sonic's original design by Oshima was short and round, with short quills, a round body, and no visible irises. Artwork featuring this design and drawn by Akira Watanabe was displayed on the package artwork for Sonic the Hedgehog.[15] Sonic's proportions would change for the release of Sonic the Hedgehog 2 on the Mega Drive. Sonic's head to height ratio was changed from 1:2 to 1:2.5 for appeared.[15] For the 1998 release of Sonic Adventure, Sonic was redesigned by Yuji Uekawa as a character with longer legs and a less spherical body, longer and more drooping quills, and green-colored irises.

Actor portrayal

Different actors have provided Sonic's voice in his game appearances. Sonic originally had a few voice samples in Sonic CD, with Keiko Utoku providing the voice. Sonic's first true voice actor was Takeshi Kusao for the arcade game SegaSonic the Hedgehog, with Junichi Kanemaru continually voicing the role beginning with the release of Sonic Adventure. In Sonic Unleashed, Sonic was voiced by Tomokazu Seki whilst in Werehog form. Sonic's first English voice actor was Jaleel White in the three animated series Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog, Sonic the Hedgehog (SatAM) and Sonic Underground.

Sonic's first English game voice was provided by Ryan Drummond beginning with Sonic Adventure, a role he continued until 2004, when he was replaced by Jason Griffith, who previously voiced the character in the American dub of the series Sonic X. Griffith was later replaced by Roger Craig Smith, starting with Sonic Free Riders and Sonic Colors in November 2010.[16] In an interview, Drummond states he was offered the chance by Sega to re-audition for the role of Sonic, but rejected the role since it required him to quit his talent union.[17]

Appearances

Sonic 4 Episode 2Sonic GenerationsSonic ColorsSonic Free RidersSonic 4 Episode 1Sonic and the Black KnightSonic UnleashedSonic Chronicles The Dark BrotherhoodSonic Riders Zero GravitySonic and the Secret RingsSonic the Hedgehog (2006 video game)Sonic RidersSonic RushSonic Advance 3Sonic HeroesSonic BattleSonic Advance 2Sonic AdvanceSonic Adventure 2Sonic ShuffleSonic Pocket AdventureSonic AdventureSonic RSonic 3D BlastSonic LabyrinthSonic & KnucklesSonic the Hedgehog 3Sonic SpinballSonic the Hedgehog CDSonic the Hedgehog 2 (8-bit)Sonic the Hedgehog (1991 video game)

Sonic the Hedgehog series video games

Sonic's debut in his very own game in 1991, Sonic the Hedgehog.

Sonic's first appearance in video games was in the racing game Rad Mobile. Sonic's first major appearance was in the platform game Sonic the Hedgehog for the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis, which also introduced his nemesis Dr. Robotnik. His two-tailed fox friend Tails joined him in the game's 1992 sequel, Sonic the Hedgehog 2. Sonic CD, released in 1993, introduced Sonic's self-appointed girlfriend Amy Rose and recurring robotic doppelgänger Metal Sonic as Sonic traveled through time to ensure a good future for the world. Sonic 3 and its direct sequel Sonic & Knuckles, both released in 1994, saw Sonic and Tails battle Robotnik again, with the additional threat of Knuckles, who is tricked by Robotnik into thinking Sonic is a threat. Sonic 4 (2010-2012) continues where the story of Sonic 3 left off, reducing Sonic to the only playable character and releasing in episodic installments. The second episode sees the return of both Tails as Sonic's sidekick and Metal Sonic as a recurring enemy.

Other two-dimensional platformers starring Sonic include Sonic Chaos (1993), Sonic Triple Trouble (1994), Sonic Blast (1996), Sonic the Hedgehog Pocket Adventure (1999), Sonic Advance (2001), Sonic Advance 2 (2002), Sonic Advance 3 (2004), Sonic Rush (2005), Sonic Rush Adventure (2007), and Sonic Colors (DS) (2010), all in which were released for handheld consoles.

Sonic Adventure (1999) was Sonic Team's return to the character for a major game. It featured Sonic returning from vacation to find the city of Station Square under attack by a new foe named Chaos, under the control of Dr. Robotnik (now known as Dr. Eggman). It was also the first Sonic game to feature a complete voice-over. Sonic Adventure 2 (2001) placed Sonic on-the-run from the military (G.U.N.) after being mistaken for Shadow the Hedgehog. Sonic Heroes (2003) featured Sonic teaming up with Tails and Knuckles, along with other character teams like Team Rose and Chaotix, against the newly rebuilt Metal Sonic, who had betrayed his master with intentions of world domination. Sonic the Hedgehog (2006) features Sonic in the city of water, "Soleanna," where he must rescue Princess Elise from Dr. Eggman while trying to avoid a new threat to his own life, Silver the Hedgehog. He is the only playable character in Sonic Unleashed (2008), in which he unwillingly gains a new personality, "Sonic the Werehog," the result of Sonic being fused with Dark Gaia's power. He gains strength and flexibility in exchange for his speed, and new friends including a strange creature named Chip who helps him along the way. In Sonic Colors (2010), Eggman tries to harness the energy of alien beings known as "Wisps" for a mind-control beam. The anniversary title Sonic Generations (2011) features two playable incarnations of Sonic: the younger "classic" Sonic, whose gameplay is presented in a style reminiscent of the Mega Drive/Genesis titles, and present-day "modern" Sonic, who uses the gameplay style present in Unleashed and Colors, going through stages from past games to save their friends. Sonic Generations features various theme songs including modern and retro versions that are able to be selected from throughout Sonic's twenty year history.[18]

Sonic and the Secret Rings (2007) features Sonic in the storybook world of One Thousand and One Nights. A sequel, titled Sonic and the Black Knight (2009), continued the storybook theme, this time taking place within the realm of the Arthurian legend.

Sonic has also been featured in other games of many genres other than 2D and 3D platform games. These include Sonic Spinball, Sonic Labyrinth (1995), the racing games Sonic Drift (1994), Sonic Drift 2 (1995), Sonic R (1996), Sonic Riders (2006), Sonic Rivals (2006), Sonic Rivals 2 (2007), Sonic Riders: Zero Gravity (2008), and Sonic Free Riders (2010), the fighting games Sonic the Fighters (1996) and Sonic Battle (2003), the mobile game Sonic Jump (2005), and the role-playing video game Sonic Chronicles: The Dark Brotherhood (2008).

Video games such as Dr. Robotnik's Mean Bean Machine (1993), Knuckles' Chaotix (1995), Tails' Skypatrol (1995), Tails Adventure (1995), and Shadow the Hedgehog (2005) starred supporting characters of the Sonic series, although Sonic himself cameos in most of these titles.

Sonic has appeared in several crossover titles, including a playable appearance in Super Smash Bros. Brawl (2008). He appeared in the crossover party game Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games and in its sequels Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Winter Games and Mario & Sonic at the London 2012 Olympic Games. Sonic is also a playable character in all three Sega Superstars titles.

In April 2013, Sega announced that Sonic Lost World would launch in October 2013 for the Wii U and Nintendo 3DS.[19]

Non-Sonic games

Sonic has made many cameo appearances in different games, most notably in other Sega games, such as being a power-up in Billy Hatcher and the Giant Egg, walking around the main hallway in Phantasy Star Universe on the anniversary of his first game's release (June 23), and appearing in the 2008 remake of Samba de Amigo. He is also a playable character in Christmas NiGHTS into Dreams. Nintendo, Sega's rival, made reference to Sonic in Donkey Kong Country 2, by showing Sonic's shoes next to a trash can that reads "No Hopers" on the Cranky's Video Game Heroes screen.[20]

Animation

In 1993, the first animated series was the Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog. It was a comical take on Sonic and Tails' adventures battling Robotnik. Filled with slap-stick humor which loosely used the plot of the games. Pierre De Celles, an animator who worked on Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog, described the show as "fun and humorous."[21] Also premiering in 1993 was Sonic the Hedgehog. It was a more dramatic series which portrayed Sonic as a member of a band of Freedom Fighters that fight to free their world from the literally iron-fisted rule of the evil dictator Dr. Robotnik. In 1996, two episodes of an OVA titled ソニック・ザ・ヘッジホッグ Sonikku za Hejjihoggu (Sonic the Hedgehog?) were released in Japan. For the American release, the two episodes combined and released as the Sonic the Hedgehog: The Movie by ADV Films.[22] In 1999, a third series with a separate canon was released under the title Sonic Underground. It featured the introductions of Sonic's triplet siblings Sonia the Hedgehog and Manic the Hedgehog, and Sonic's mother Queen Aleena, who must defeat Robotnik and rule Mobius as the "Council of Four". In 1999, a new series titled Sonic X, was released. The 76 episode anime series details Sonic's struggle to protect the Chaos Emeralds from Eggman and new villains. Featuring a cross-world and interstellar journey, Sonic X depicts Sonic and his friend Chris Thorndyke in an new quest to save the world. Another animation, titled Sonic: Night of the Werehog is a short film by Sega's VE Animation Studio, released to coincide with the release of Sonic Unleashed. In the film, Sonic and Chip enter a haunted house, and must deal with two ghosts trying to scare them.

Sonic makes multiple cameo appearances in the Disney film, Wreck-It Ralph. The most prominent scene involves Sonic giving a Public Service Announcement, and several brief appearances including the background and credits of the film[23]

Print media

Sonic's first comic appearance was in a promotional comic printed in Disney Adventures magazine (and also given away as a free pull-out with a copy of Mean Machines magazine), which established a backstory for the character involving the origin of his color and abilities and the transformation of kindly scientist Dr. Ovi Kintobor into the evil Dr. Ivo Robotnik. Numerous British publications, including "Sega handbook" Stay Sonic (1993), four novels published by Virgin Books (1993–1994) and the comic book Sonic the Comic (1993–2001), published by Fleetway Publications/Egmont Publishing, used this premise as their basis.[24]

The American comics published by Archie Comics, Sonic the Hedgehog (1993–), Sonic X (2005–2008), and Sonic Universe (2009-) are based on the settings established by earlier animated TV series, the ABC "SatAM" cartoon, the Sonic X anime, and an expansion to the series, respectively. The former series is currently the second longest-running licensed comic series in the history of American comic books, second only to Marvel's Conan series (first issue released in 1970). In France two comic books named "Sonic Adventures" were published by Sirène in 1994. Guinness World Records recognized Sonic comic as the longest-running comic based in a game.[25] Archie Comics will be releasing a twelve part crossover with Mega Man beginning in 2013.[25]

Sonic has also been featured in two different manga. One series was simply called Sonic the Hedgehog, and featured a story about a normal boy named Nicky Parlouzer who can change into Sonic.[26] The other series was a compilation of short stories and was separated into two volumes, the first being called Dash and Spin, and the other called Super Fast Sonic!!.

Characteristics

Super Sonic's character design from Sonic Adventure onward.

According to various official materials from Sega, Sonic is described as a character who is "like the wind":[27] a drifter who lives as he wants,[28] and makes life a series of events and adventures.[1] Sonic hates oppression and staunchly defends freedom.[29] Although he is mostly quick-witted and easygoing,[28] he has a short temper[28] and is often impatient with slower things.[27] Sonic is a habitual daredevil hedgehog who is honest, loyal to friends, keeps his promises,[1] and dislikes tears.[30] He took the young Tails under his wing like a little brother,[31] and is uninterested in marital proposals from Amy Rose.[32] In times of crisis, he focuses intensely on the challenge[27] as if his personality had undergone an astonishing change.[1]

Sonic is known as the world's fastest hedgehog.[29] Sonic's greatest strength is his running speed, which is faster than the speed of sound.[30] Many of his abilities are variations on the tendency for hedgehogs to roll into tight balls for protection with the addition of spinning his body. Since his introduction in 1991's Sonic the Hedgehog, Sonic's primary offensive maneuver is the basic "Spin Attack" (or "Sonic Spin Attack").[33] Later games in the series expanded on this basic attack and two of these enhancements have become mainstays of his: the Spin Dash which was introduced in Sonic the Hedgehog 2 and involves Sonic spinning on the spot before blasting off at full speed,[34] and the Homing Attack, officially introduced in Sonic Adventure, in which Sonic dashes toward a target in midair.[29] Sonic's only weakness is that he cannot swim, sinking like a rock if plunged to a deep body of water.[30] When the seven Chaos Emeralds are collected and used, Sonic transforms into "Super Sonic", a faster and invulnerable version of himself that can fly.[35]

Reception and legacy

As Sega's mascot and one of the key reasons for the company's success during the 16-bit era of video game consoles, Sonic is one of the most famous video game characters in the world. In 1996, Sonic was the first video game character to be seen in a Rose Parade. Sonic is also the first video game character (later followed by Pikachu) to have a balloon in Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade.[3] Sonic was one of the three game characters inducted on the inaugural Walk of Game class in 2005, along with former rivals Mario and Link (both from Nintendo).[6] One of a class of genes involved in fruit fly embryonic development, called hedgehog genes, has been named "sonic hedgehog" after the character.[36]

Sonic has also been used as a symbol for Sega's various sponsorships. Between 1993 and 1997, Sega sponsored the JEF United Ichihara Chiba football team, during which period Sonic appeared in the team's uniform.[37] During the 1993 Formula One championship, Sega sponsored the Williams Grand Prix team, which won the Constructors' Championship that year, as well as the team's lead driver, Alain Prost, winning the Drivers' Championship.[38] Sonic was featured in the cars, helmets, and their rivals McLaren used to paint a squashed hedgehog after winning races over Williams.[39] The 1993 European Grand Prix featured a Sonic balloon and Sonic billboards. Sonic also appears on some versions of the willow video store logo. According to a poll conducted during Sonic's height of popularity in 1990, the character was more recognizable to American children than Mario and Mickey Mouse.[40]

Nintendo Power listed Sonic as their sixth favorite hero, stating that while he was originally Mario's arch nemesis, he seems at home on Nintendo platforms. They added that he has remained as one of gaming's greatest icons.[41] In 2004, the character won a Golden Joystick Award for "The Sun Ultimate Gaming Hero".[42] On October 21, 2008, out of 500 people, Sonic was voted the most popular video game character in the UK with a 24% vote while his old rival Mario came second with 21% of the vote.[43][44] Then in late 2008, MSN held a poll of who's the most iconic video game character, Sonic was ranked #1 as the most iconic video game character of all in gaming while Mario and Lara Croft were voted less in second and in third respectively.[45] In 2011, Empire ranked him as the 14th greatest video game character.[46] And he was voted 10th out of the top 50 video game characters of all time in Guinness World Records 2011 Gamers' Edition.[47] Sonic ranked ninth on GameDaily's Top 10 Smash Bros characters list.[48] GameDaily also listed his "next-generation stumble" in their list of video game characters' worst moments, using his relationship with a human female as one of the worst parts of it.[49]

Ken Balough, Sega's associate brand manager, said that Sonic's appeal endured because the character is "a gaming legend, first and foremost" who originated "from a series of games that defined a generation in gaming history, and his iconic personality was the epitome of speed in the early ‘90s, pushing the limits of what gamers knew and expected from high-speed action and platforming games."[50]

Theme songs

The Sonic the Hedgehog video games have featured several theme songs for the character. Most are performed by Crush 40, who have also performed many other songs produced for the franchise. The majority of them also serve as final boss themes as well where stated below.

See also

Book icon Sonic the Hedgehog at Wikipedia books

References

  1. ^ a b c d Sonic Team. "Sonic's official character profile". Sega of Japan. Archived from the original on 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2006-04-12. 
  2. ^ Kent, Steven. "Chapter 23". The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. p. 428. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4. "the "t" in Sonic the Hedgehog is capitalized. Sega marketing genius Al Nilsen had the "the" registered as Sonic's middle name." 
  3. ^ a b c Kennedy, Sam. "The Essential 50: Sonic the Hedgehog". 1up.com. Retrieved 2006-06-03. 
  4. ^ Davis, Cameron and Shoemaker, Brad The History of Sonic the Hedgehog, GameSpot. Retrieved June 16, 2008.
  5. ^ http://www.sonicstadium.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/4ihg.jpg
  6. ^ a b "Walk of Game 2005 inductees". Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  7. ^ Horowitz, Ken (2005-06-22). "Sega Stars: Yuji Naka". Sega-16. Archived from the original on 2010-11-14. Retrieved 2010-11-14. 
  8. ^ a b c d Sonic the Hedgehog GameTap Retrospective. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  9. ^ "Sega Visions Interview with Yuji Naka". October 1992. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 
  10. ^ Sheffield, Brandon (4 December 2009). "Out of the Blue: Naoto Ohshima Speaks". Gamasutra. UBM plc. Retrieved 15 February 2012. "The original Nights was chiefly made with the Japanese and European audiences in mind -- Sonic, meanwhile, was squarely aimed at the U.S. market.…[Sonic is] a character that I think is suited to America -- or, at least, the image I had of America at the time. … Well, he's blue because that's Sega's more-or-less official company color. His shoes were inspired by the cover to Michael Jackson's Bad, which contrasted heavily between white and red -- that Santa Claus-type color. I also thought that red went well for a character who can run really fast, when his legs are spinning." 
  11. ^ Yahoo Playback. "Yahoo Playback #94". Yahoo, Inc. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  12. ^ Brian Ashcraft. "Sonic's Shoes Inspired by Michael Jackson". Kotaku. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  13. ^ "Revealed: Why Sonic can't swim". February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-27. 
  14. ^ "Masato Nakamura interview" (flash). Sonic Central. Retrieved 2006-02-07. 
  15. ^ a b Sega Video Game Illustrations. Nippon Shuppan Hanbai (Deutschland) GmbH. 1994. ISBN 3-910052-50-9. 
  16. ^ "Out of the mouths of hedgehogs". Sega. 2010-07-15. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  17. ^ Oliver, Tristan. "Report: Drummond Re-Auditioned for Sonic VA During Generations Development". TSSZ News. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 
  18. ^ "A Look Back at 20 Years of Music History with Sonic". Kotaku. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  19. ^ "Sonic: Lost World plots a path to retail October 22". Joystiq. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  20. ^ "Sonic Cameos". Sonic World. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  21. ^ "Chris Wood (2007-07-25). "Pierre De Celles on Animating Sonic the Hedgehog and Other Tales". news.toonzone.net. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  22. ^ "Full credits of "Sonic the Hedgehog: The Movie"". IMDb. 1999. Retrieved 2006-06-27. 
  23. ^ "[UPDATE: Roger Craig Smith Confirmed] Sonic Cameo Set For Wreck-It Ralph!". The Sonic Stadium. 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  24. ^ Allan Sugarbaker (24 September 2001). "Interviews: James Wallis". OgreCave.com. Retrieved 22 January 2012. "I teamed up with Carl Sargent and Marc Gascoigne to produce four more Sonic books, novels this time, for Virgin Publishing, under the pseudonym of 'Martin Adams'." 
  25. ^ a b "Sonic the Hedgehog, Mega Man team up for first time". USA Today. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  26. ^ "1992". The Green Hill Zone. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  27. ^ a b c Sega of America. "Sonic's official character profile from Sega of America". Sega of America. Retrieved 2008-03-10. 
  28. ^ a b c Sega (2004). Sonic Heroes instruction manual, pp. 6
  29. ^ a b c Sega (1999). Sonic Adventure instruction manual, pp. 18
  30. ^ a b c Sega (1997). Sonic Jam, Sega Saturn. Sonic World's Character Profiles (in English)
  31. ^ Sega of America. "Tails's official character profile from Sega of America". Sega of America. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  32. ^ Sega of America. "Amy's official character profile from Sega of America". Sega of America. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  33. ^ Sega (1991). Sonic the Hedgehog instruction manual, pp. 3
  34. ^ Sega (1991). Sonic the Hedgehog 2 instruction manual, pp. 6
  35. ^ Sonic Team. "Super Sonic's official character profile from Sonic Team accessdate=2008-06-25". Sega of America. Archived from the original on 2008-07-01. 
  36. ^ Yarris, Lynn (2005-11-05). "Sonic the Hedgehog and the Fate of Neural Stem Cells". Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Retrieved 2006-06-23. 
  37. ^ "The Long, Strange History Of Video Games Sponsoring Football Teams". Kotaku. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  38. ^ "The Day a Sporting Legend Became an Unwitting Sonic the Hedgehog Icon". Kotaku. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  39. ^ "Today in 1993: Senna’s last great race at Donington". F1 Fanatic. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  40. ^ "A Rivalry Ends: Nintendo and Sega, Mario and Sonic". Gamecubicle. Retrieved 18 July 2013. 
  41. ^ Nintendo Power 250th issue!. South San Francisco, California: Future US. 2010. pp. 40, 41. 
  42. ^ "Golden Joystick Awards 2004: Winners announced!". Computer & Video Games. Retrieved 2009-05-25. 
  43. ^ Moore, Matthew. "Sonic voted favourite character in UK". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2006-06-03. 
  44. ^ "Sonic Trounces Mario in UK Favourites Poll at C3 News". Cubed3.com. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  45. ^ Douglas, Jane. "Top 10 iconic game characters". UK MSN Tech & Gadgets. Retrieved 2009-05-25. 
  46. ^ Dyer, James; McComb, David; Plumb, Alastair; Scarborough, David (May 26, 2010). "The 50 Greatest Video Game Characters - 14. Sonic". Empire. Retrieved August 2, 2013. 
  47. ^ "Guinness Names Top 50 Video Game Characters Of All Time". Game Informer. Retrieved 2011-02-19. 
  48. ^ "Top 10 Smash Bros. Characters - Page 2". GameDaily. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  49. ^ Sliwinski, Alexander (2013-03-08). "Joystiq". Gamedaily.com. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 
  50. ^ Gamespot Staff. "Sonic the Hedgehog Q&A." Gamespot. September 8, 2009. Retrieved on November 29, 2009.

External links