Son of perdition

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Son of perdition is a phrase that appears in the New Testament in the Gospel of John 17:12 and in the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians 2:3. Many theologians and scholars also consider "the beast that goes into perdition" mentioned in Revelation 17:8 and 17:11 to be references to the "Son of Perdition."[1][2]

According to modern criticism Jesus, Paul, and John derived the "Son of Perdition" (and "Man of Sin") concepts from Daniel and 1 Maccabees 2:48 (some editions), et al.[3] John related the "Son of Perdition" concepts by language, referring to "the star that fell from heaven" Revelation 9:1 by two names, one Greek, and the other Hebrew. (Revelation 9:11) The Greek name is "Apollyon" (Greek: Aπολλυων), from the Greek root word "apollumi" (Greek:απολλυμι).[4] It refers to utter loss, eternal destruction, and disassociation." [Strong's 622] The Hebrew name is "Abaddon" (Greek: Aβαδδων), from the Aramaic root word "'abad", which means the same thing as the Greek root word. Strong's 07 Daniel 7:11 says that the eventual destiny of the "great beast" is to be slain, and his body "destroyed" ('abad), and given to the eternal flames (generally accepted by religious scholars to be a reference to hell).

Most historians and critics, and some Jewish and Christian scholars believe that the Book of Daniel is about the events that occurred in Israel from the beginning of the Babylonian Captivity to the end of the Maccabean Revolt.[5][6] [also see Book of Daniel]

Many scholars[7] and theologians[8] down through history, including Hyppolytus,[9] Luther,[10] Wesley,[11] Manton,[12], Schaff,[13] et al, say that first "Son of Perdition" reference is to Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the man who attacked the First Temple in Jerusalem and defiled it by sacrificing a pig on the altar, erecting a statue of Zeus as himself in the temple, raiding the Temple treasury and minting coins saying "Theos Epiphanes" (God manifest), etc. Even those theologians who advocate an interpretation of Daniel that includes the Roman Empire in their analysis recognize Antiochus as a prototype.[14]

Matthew Henry wrote:

"Of the kings that came after Antiochus nothing is here prophesied, for that was the most malicious mischievous enemy to the church, that was a type of the son of perdition, whom the Lord shall consume with the breath of his mouth and destroy with the brightness of his coming, and none shall help him."[15]

In John 17:12, Jesus, in reference to Judas Iscariot, says that of all his disciples, none has been lost except the "son of perdition". The New International Version translates the phrase as "the one doomed to destruction." D. A. Carson suggests that this verse refers both to Judas' character and to his destiny.[16]

In 2 Thessalonians 2:3, Paul referred to "the Son of Perdition" in some future sense from the point in time in which he wrote his epistle. He also equated this person with the Man of Sin.

In Revelation 17:8 and 17:11, John refers to "the beast that goeth into perdition."

In Mormon theology

"Son of perdition" is also a phrase used in Mormonism to describe a person who will not take part in the glory of God in the afterlife. This is in contrast to the vast majority of people, who will receive a "kingdom of glory" after the Final Judgment, and enter into one of three degrees of glory after the resurrection: Celestial, Terrestrial, or Telestial Kingdoms.

See also


  1. ^ Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible, Jamieson, Fausset, Brown, et al Chapter 17
  2. ^ "Doctrinal Divinity" by John Gill, Chapter 14: Of the Spiritual Reign of Christ
  3. ^ Commentary Critical and Explanatory of the Whole Bible, Revelation chapter 17, point 11
  4. ^ Albrecht Oepke (1964). "ἀπολλυμι". In Gerhard Kittel. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Volume I. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans. p. 397. 
  5. ^
  6. ^ "annette reed "babylonian captivity" - Google zoeken". 2010-01-30. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  7. ^ Commentary Critical: Daniel ch. 11
  8. ^ "Revelation," The People on the Earth: Chapters 2-3, Letter to Ephesus, v 13. Bullinger
  9. ^ ANF05, Hippolytus
  10. ^ "Table Talk," Martin Luther
  11. ^ Commentary on [Daniel] Chapter XI, Wesley,
  12. ^ of perdition#highlight Sermon III
  13. ^ NPNF (V2-06), Phillip Schaff
  14. ^ "Antiochus Epiphanes". Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  15. ^ Matthew Henry's Complete Commentary on the Bible, Daniel, chapter 11
  16. ^ D. A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Leicester: Apollos, 1991), 563.