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A flowering Brugmansia suaveolens
from the US Botanic Garden
Scientific classification


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A flowering Brugmansia suaveolens
from the US Botanic Garden
Scientific classification


The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants. The family ranges from herbs to trees, and includes a number of important agricultural crops, medicinal plants, spices, weeds, and ornamentals. Many members of the family contain potent alkaloids, and some are highly toxic, but many cultures eat nightshades, in some cases as a staple food. The family belongs to the order Solanales, in the asterid group dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida).[2] The solanaceae family consists of approximately 98 genera and some 2,700 species,[3] with a great diversity of habitats, morphology and ecology.

The name Solanaceae derives from the genus Solanum "the nightshade plant". The etymology of the Latin word is unclear. The name may come from a perceived resemblance of certain solanaceous flowers to the sun and its rays. At least one species of Solanum is known as the "sunberry". Alternatively, the name could originate from the Latin verb solari, meaning "to soothe", presumably referring to the soothing pharmacological properties of some of the psychoactive species of the family.

The family has a worldwide distribution being present on all continents except Antarctica. The greatest diversity in species is found in South America and Central America.

Solanaceae includes a number of commonly collected or cultivated species. Perhaps the most economically important genus of the family is Solanum, which contains the potato (Solanum tuberosum, in fact, another common name of the family is the "potato family"), the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and the aubergine or eggplant (Solanum melongena). Another important genus Capsicum produce both chilli peppers and bell peppers.

The genus Physalis produces the so-called groundcherries, as well as the tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica), the Cape gooseberry and the Chinese lantern. The genus Lycium contains the boxthorns and the wolfberry Lycium barbarum. Nicotiana contains, among other species, the plant that produces tobacco. Some other important members of Solanaceae include a number of ornamental plants such as Petunia, Browallia and Lycianthes, the source of psychoactive alkaloids, Datura, Mandragora (mandrake), and Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade). Certain species are universally known for their medicinal uses, their psychotropic effects or for being poisonous.

With the exception of tobacco (Nicotianoideae) and petunia (Petunioideae), most of the economically important genera are contained in the subfamily Solanoideae. Finally, but not less importantly, the solanaceas include many model organisms which are important in the investigation of fundamental biological questions at a cellular, molecular and genetic level, such as tobacco and the petunia.


Illustration of Solanum dulcamara, 1.- Flower, 2.- Flower in longitudinal section, without the petals; 3.- Androecium; 4.- Ovary, in transverse section; 5.- Seed viewed from above; 6.- Seed in transverse section, note the curved embryo surrounding the endosperm; A.- Branch with leaves and flowers; B.- Stem with immature and mature fruit

Solanacea plants are herbaceous plants that can take the form of herbs, shrubs, trees or sometimes vines. They can be annuals, biennials or perennials, upright or decumbent. They can also have subterranean tubers. They do not have laticifers, nor latex, nor coloured saps. They can have a basal or terminal group of leaves or neither of these types. The leaves are generally alternate or alternate to opposed (that is, alternate at the base of the plant and opposed towards the inflorescence). The leaves can be herbaceous, leathery or they can be transformed into spines. The leaves are generally petiolate or sub-sessile, rarely sessile. They are frequently inodorous, but on occasions they are aromatic or fetid. The foliar lamina can be either simple or compound, the latter can be either pinnatifid or ternate. The leaves have reticulate venation and lack a basal meristem. The laminas are generally dorsiventral and lack secretory cavities. The stomata are generally confined to one of a leaf's two sides, they are rarely found on both sides.

The flowers are generally hermaphrodites, although there are some monoecious, andromonoecious or dioecious species (such as for example, some Solanum or Symonanthus). Pollination is entomophilous. The flowers can be solitary or grouped into terminal, cymose or axillary inflorescences. The flowers are medium-sized, fragrant (Nicotiana), fetid (Anthocercis) or inodorous. The flowers are usually actinomorphic, slightly zygomorphic or markedly zygomorphic (such as, for example, in flowers with a bilabial corolla in Schizanthus species). The irregularities in symmetry can be due to the androecium, to the perianth or both at the same time. In the great majority of species the flowers have a differentiated perianth with a calyx and corolla (with 5 sepals and 5 petals respectively) an androecium with 5 stamens and 2 carpels forming a gynoecium with a superior ovary[4] (they are therefore referred to as pentamers and tetracyclic). The stamens are epipetalous and are typically present in multiples of four or five, most commonly four or eight. They usually have a hypogynous disk. The calyx is gamosepalous (as the sepals are joined together forming a tube), with the (4)5(6) segments equal, it has 5 lobes, with the lobes shorter than the tube, it is persistent and it is often accrescent. The corolla usually has 5 petals that are also joined together forming a tube. Flower shapes are typically rotate (wheel-shaped, spreading in one plane, with a short tube) or tubular (elongated cylindrical tube), campanulate or funnel-shaped.

The androecium has (2)(4)5(6) free stamens within it, oppositsepals (that is, they alternate with the petals), they are usually fertile or, in some cases (for example in Salpiglossideae) they have staminodes. In the latter case, there is usually either 1 staminode (Salpiglossis) or 3 (Schizanthus). The anthers touch on their upper end forming a ring, or they are completely free, dorsifixed or basifixed with poricide dehiscence or through small longitudinal cracks. The stamen’s filament can be filliform or flat. The stamens can be inserted inside the coralline tube or exserted. The plants demonstrate simultaneous microsporogenesis, the microspores are tetrad, tetrahedral or isobilateral. The pollen grains are bicellular at the moment of dehiscence, usually open and angular.

The gynoecium is bi-carpelar (rarely 3- or 5-locular) with a superior ovary and 2 locules. The locules may be secondarily divided by false septa, as is the case for Nicandreae and Datureae. The gynoecium is located in an oblique position relative to the flower’s median plane. They have 1 style and 1 stigma, the latter is simple or bilobate. Each locule has 1 to 50 ovules that are anatropous or hemianatropous with axillar placentation. The development of the embryo sack can be the same as for Polygonum or Allium species. The embryo sack’s nuclear poles become fused before fertilization. There are 3 antipodes, usually ephemeral or persistent as in the case of Atropa. The fruit of the solanaceas can be a berry as in the case of the tomato or wolfberry, a dehiscent capsule as in Datura or a drupe. The fruit has axial placentation. The capsules are normally septicidal or rarely loculicidal or valvate. The seeds are usually endospermic, oily (rarely starchy) without obvious hairs. The seeds of most Solanaceae are round and flat, about 2–4 millimetres (0.079–0.16 in) in diameter. The embryo can be straight or curved and has two cotyledons. Most species in the Solanaceae have 2n=24 chromosomes,[5] but the number may be a higher multiple of 12 due to polyploidy. Wild potatoes, of which there are approximately 200, are predominantly diploid (2 × 12 = 24 chromosomes), but triploid (3 × 12 = 36 chromosomes), tetraploid (4 × 12 = 48 chromosomes), pentaploid (5 × 12 = 60) and even hexaploid (6 × 12 = 72 chromosome) species or populations exist. The cultivated species Solanum tuberosum has 4 × 12 = 48 chromosomes. Some Capsicum species have 2 × 12 = 24 chromosomes, while others have 26 chromosomes.

The diversity of some characteristics among the solanaceas[edit]

Despite the previous description, the solanaceas exhibit a large morphological variability, even in their reproductive characteristics. Examples of this diversity include:[6][7]

In general all the solanaceas have a gynoecium formed by two carpels. However, there are genera with a monocarpelar gynoecium (Melananthus), or with 3 or 4 carpels such as Capsicum, or with 3 to 5 carpels, such as Nicandra, some species of Jaborosa and Trianaea. Lastly, there is at least one recorded case of a species (Iochroma umbellatum) that possesses a gynoecium with 4 carpels.

The number of locules in the ovary is usually the same as the number of carpels. However, there are species in which the numbers are not the same due to the existence of false septa (internal walls that subdivide each locule), such as for example in Datura and some members of the Lycieae (the genera Grabowskia and Vassobia).

The ovules of the solanaceas are generally anatropous. However, there are genera with anacampilotropous ovules (for example Phrodus, Grabowskia or Vassobia), hemitropous (Cestrum) or hemicampilotropous (Capsicum, Schizanthus and Lycium). The number of ovules per locule also varies from a few (two pairs in each locule in Grabowskia, one pair in each locule in Lycium) and very occasionally there is only one ovule in each locule as for example in Melananthus.

The great majority of the fruit of the solanaceas are berries or capsules (including pyxidia) and less often drupes. Berries are common in the subfamilies Cestroideae, Solanoideae (with the exception of Datura, Oryctus, Grabowskia and the tribe Hyoscyameae) and the tribe Juanulloideae (with the exception of Markea). Capsules are characteristic of the subfamilies Cestroideae (with the exception of Cestrum) and Schizanthoideae, the tribes Salpiglossoideae, Anthocercidoideae and the genus Datura. The tribe Hyoscyameae has pyxidia. Drupes are typical of the Lycieae tribe and in Iochrominae.


Alkaloids are nitrogenous organic substances that are produced by plants as a secondary metabolite and which have an intense physiological action on animals even at low doses. Solanaceae are known for having a diverse range of alkaloids. As far as humans are concerned, these alkaloids can be desirable, toxic, or both. The tropanes are the most well known of the alkaloids that are found in the solanaceas. The plants that contain these substances have been used for centuries as poisons. However, despite being recognized as a poison many of these substances have invaluable pharmaceutical properties. The solanaceas are characterized by having many species that contain a variety of alkaloids that are can be more or less active or poisonous, such as scopolamine, atropine, hyoscyamine and nicotine. They are found in plants such as the henbane (Hyoscyamus albus), belladonna (Atropa belladonna), datura or jimson (Datura stramonium), mandrake (Mandragora autumnalis), tobacco and others. Some of the main types of alkaloids found in the solanaceas are:

Chemical structure of solanine.
Chemical structure of the tropanes.
Chemical structure of nicotine.
Chemical structure of capsaicin


Map showing the distribution of the Solanaceas throughout the world (green areas)

Even though the solanaceas are found on all the continents except Antarctica the greatest variety of species are found in Central America and South America. Another two centres of diversity include Australia and Africa. The solanaceas occupy a great number of different ecosystems, from deserts to rainforests and they are often found in the secondary vegetation that colonizes disturbed areas.


The following is a taxonomic synopsis of the solanaceas, including subfamilies, tribes and genera, this is based on the most recent molecular phylogenetics studies of the family.[2][3][17][18]

Cladogram showing the relationship between the three genera of the Solanaceae family.

Cestroideae (sin.:Browallioideae)[edit]

Cestrum elegans, a cestroidea used as an ornamental.
Browallia americana.
Flower of Salpiglossis sinuata, Botanischer Garten Jena, Germany.

This is a subfamily characterised by the presence of pericyclic fibres, an androecium with 4 or 5 stamens, frequently didynamous. The basic chromosome numbers are highly variable, from x=7 to x=13. The subfamily consists of 8 genera (divided into 3 tribes) and approximately 195 species distributed throughout the Americas. The Cestrum genus is the most important as it contains 175 of the 195 species in the subfamily. The Cestreae tribe is unusual because it includes taxa with long chromosomes (from 7.21 to 11.511 µm in length), when the rest of the family generally possess short chromosomes (for example between 1.5 and 3.52 µm in the Nicotianoideae


This subfamily is characterized by the presence of drupes as fruit and seeds with curved embryos and large fleshy cotyledons. The basic chromosome number is x=13. It includes 4 genera and 5 species that are distributed throughout the Greater Antilles. Some authors suggest that molecular data indicates that the monotypic genera Tsoala should be included in this subfamily Bosser & D'Arcy (1992), endemic to Madagascar, and Metternichia to the south east of Brazil. Goetzeaceae Airy Shaw is considered as a synonym of this subfamily.[19]


Nierenbergia frutescens, a petunoidea.

Molecular phylogenetics indicates that Petunioideae is the sister clade of the subfamilies with chromosome number x=12 (Solanoideae and Nicotianoideae). They contain calistegins, alkaloids similar to the tropanes. The androecium is formed of 4 stamens (rarely 5), usually with two different lengths. The basic chromosome number of this subfamily can be x=7, 8, 9 and 11. It consists of 13 genera and some 160 species distributed throughout Central and South America. Molecular data suggests that the genera originated in Patagonia Benthamiella, Combera and Pantacantha form a clade that can be categorized as a tribe (Benthamielleae) that should be in the subfamily Goetzeoideae.


Zygomorphic flowers, with bilabiate corolla of Schizanthus pinnatus, a schizanthoidea ornamental.

Includes annual and biannual plants with tropane alkaloids, without pericyclic fibres, with characteristic hair and pollen grains. The flowers are zygomorphic. The androecium has 2 stamen and 3 stamenodes, anther dehiscence is explosive. The embryo is curved. The basic chromosome number is x=10. Schizanthus is a somewhat atypical genus among the solanaceas due to its strongly zygomorphic flowers and basic chromosome number. Morphological and molecular data suggest that Schizanthus is a sister genus to the other solanaceas and diverged early from the rest of the solanaceas, probably in the late Cretaceous or in the early Cenozoic, 50 million years ago.[17][18] The great diversity of flower types within Schizanthus has been the product of the species’ adaptation to the different types of pollinator that exist in the Mediterranean, high alpine and desert ecosystems that were present in Chile and adjacent areas of Argentina.[22]


Contains annual plants with pericyclic fibres, the flowers are zygomorphic, the androecium has 4 didynamous stamens or 3 stamenodes, the embryo is straight and short. El basic chromosome number is x=12. Includes 4 genera and some 30 species distributed throughout South America.


Tobacco inflorescence, Nicotiana tabacum.


Capsicum frutescens cultivar "tabasco", a solanoidea.
Flor de beleño (Hyoscyamus niger).
Nicandra physaloides flower.
Solandra maxima flower.
Fruit of Physalis peruviana (tomatillo), note the persistent calyx that surrounds the fruit.
Iochroma australe flower.
Jaltomata procumbens flower.
Solanum bonariense flower.
Flower of Solanum betaceum (=Cyphomandra betacea).
Acnistus arborescens flower.
Scopolia carniolica flower.

The following genera have still not been placed in any of the recognized subfamilies within the solanaceas.

Genera and distribution of species[edit]

Flowers and foliage of Cestrum parqui.

The solanaceas contain 98 genera and some 2,700 species. Despite this immense richness of species they are not uniformly distributed between the genera. The 8 most important genera contain more than 60% of the species, as shown in the table below. In fact, just Solanum – the genus that typifies the family- includes nearly 50% of the total species of the solanaceas.

GeneraApproximate number of species
Estimated number of species in the family2,700

Economic importance[edit]

Pink flower of the Brugmansia
Petunia hybrida, a herbaceous annual that is commonly used in gardens

The solanaceas include such important food species as the potato (Solanum tuberosum), the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the pepper (Capsicum annuum) and the aubergine or egg plant (Solanum melongena). Nicotiana tabacum, originally from South America, is now cultivated throughout the world to produce tobacco. Many solanaceas are important weeds in various parts of the world. Their importance lies in the fact that they can host pathogens or diseases of the cultivated plants, therefore their presence increases the loss of yield or the quality of the harvested product. An example of this can be seen with Acnistus arborescens and Browalia americana that host thrips, which cause damage to associated cultivated plants,[32] and certain species of Datura that play host to various types of virus that are later transmitted to cultivated solanaceas.[33] Some species of weeds such as, for example Solanum mauritianum in South Africa represent such serious ecological and economic problems that studies are being carried out with the objective of developing a biological control through the use of insects.[34]

Various solanaceas species are grown as ornamental trees or shrubs.[35] Examples include Brugmansia x candida ("Angel’s Trumpet") grown for its large pendulous trumpet-shaped flowers, or Brunfelsia latifolia, whose flowers are very fragrant and change colour from violet to white over a period of 3 days. Other shrub species that are grown for their attractive flowers are Lycianthes rantonnetii (Blue Potato Bush or Paraguay Nightshade) with violet-blue flowers and Nicotiana glauca ("Tree Tobacco") Other solanacea species and genera that are grown as ornamentals are the petunia (Petunia × hybrida), Lycium, Solanum, Cestrum, Calibrachoa × hybrida and Solandra. There is even a hybrid between Petunia and Calibrachoa (which constitutes a new nothogenus called × Petchoa G. Boker & J. Shaw) that is being sold as an ornamental.[36][37] Many other species, in particular those that produce alkaloids, are used in pharmacology and medicine (Nicotiana, Hyoscyamus, and Datura).

Solanaceas and the genome[edit]

Many of the species belonging to this family, among them tobacco and the tomato, are model organisms that are used for research into fundamental biological questions. One of the aspects of the solanaceas’ genomics is an international project that is trying to understand how the same collection of genes and proteins can give rise to a group of organisms that are so morphologically and ecologically different. The first objective of this project was to sequence the genome of the tomato. In order to achieve this each of the 12 chromosomes of the tomato’s haploid genome was assigned to different sequencing centres in different countries. So chromosomes 1 and 10 were sequenced in the United States, 3 and 11 in China, 2 in Korea, 4 in Britain, 5 in India, 7 in France, 8 in Japan, 9 in Spain and 12 in Italy. The sequencing of the mitochondrial genome was carried out in Argentina and the chloroplast genome was sequenced in the European Union.[38][39]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Solanaceae Juss., nom. cons.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-04-12. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  2. ^ a b Olmstead, R. G., J. A. Sweere, R. E. Spangler, L. Bohs, and J. D. Palmer. 1999. Phylogeny and provisional classification of the Solanaceae based on chloroplast DNA. Pp. 111-137. En: Solanaceae IV: advances in biology and utilization, M. Nee, D. E. Symon, R. N. Lester, and J. P. Jessop (eds.). The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew [1]
  3. ^ a b Olmstead, R.G. and Bohs, L. 2007. A Summary of molecular systematic research in Solanaceae: 1982-2006. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 745:255-268
  4. ^ Yasin J. Nasir. "Solanaceae". Flora of Pakistan. 
  5. ^ Fujii, Kenjiro (1934). Cytologia. Botanical Institute. p. 281. 
  6. ^ Hunziker, A.T. 1979: South American Solanaceae: a synoptic review. In: D'ARCY, W.G., 1979: The Biology and Taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Linn. Soc. Symp. Ser. 7: p 48-85. Linnean Soc. & Academic Press; London.
  8. ^ Zeiger, E. 1998. Solanine and Chaconine. Review of Toxicological Literature. Integrated Laboratory Systems, USA.[3]
  9. ^ "Solanine poisoning". Br Med J. 2 (6203): 1458–9. 1979-12-08. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.6203.1458-a. PMC 1597169. PMID 526812. 
  10. ^ Alexander RF, Forbes GB, Hawkins ES (1948-09-11). "A Fatal Case of Solanine Poisoning". Br Med J. 2 (4575): 518. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4575.518. PMC 2091497. PMID 18881287. 
  11. ^ Griffin WJ, Lin GD (March 2000). "Chemotaxonomy and geographical distribution of tropane alkaloids". Phytochemistry 53 (6): 623–37. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00475-6. PMID 10746874. 
  12. ^ Sneden, A. The tropane alkaloids. Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design. Virginia Commonwealth University []
  13. ^ Evans, W.C. 1979. Tropane alkaloids of the Solanaceae. En: HAWKES, LESTER and SHELDING (eds.). The biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Linn. Soc. Symp. Ser. 7:241-254. Linnean Soc. & Academic Press., London.
  14. ^ MATSUDA, J.; OKABE, S.; HASHIMOTO, T. and YAMADA, Y. Molecular cloning of hyoscyamine 6 beta-hydroxylase, a 2-oxoglutarate- dependent dioxygenase, from cultured roots of Hyoscyamus niger. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1991, vol. 266, no. 15, p. 9460-9464.
  15. ^ ROCHA, P.; STENZEL, O.; PARR, A.; WALTON, N. and LEECH, M.J. Functional expression of tropinone reductase I (trI) and hyoscyamine-6β-hydroxylase (h6h) from Hyoscyamus niger in Nicotiana tabacum. Plant Science, 2002, vol. 162, no. 6, p. 905-913
  16. ^ CARDILLO, Alejandra B., GIULIETTI, Ana M. y MARCONI, Patricia L. Analysis and sequencing of h6hmRNA, last enzyme in the tropane alkaloids pathway from anthers and hairy root cultures of Brugmansia candida (Solanaceae). Electron. J. Biotechnol. [online]. June 2006, vol.9, no.3 [4]
  17. ^ a b Olmster, R.G. & J. Palmer. 1992. A chloroplast DNA phylogeny of the solanaceae: subfamilial relationships and character evolution. Annals Missouri Botanical Garden 79 (2):346-360. [5]
  18. ^ a b Martins TR, Barkman TJ (2005) Reconstruction of Solanaceae Phylogeny Using the Nuclear Gene SAMT. Systematic Botany: Vol. 30, No. 2 pp. 435–447 [6]
  19. ^ a b c d e f Olmstead, R.G. and Bohs, L. 2007. A Summary of molecular systematic research in Solanaceae: 1982-2006. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 745:255-268
  20. ^ Ando, T, Kokubun, H., Marchesi, E., Suárez, E. & Basualdo, I. 2005. Phylogenetic Analysis of Petunia sensu Jussieu (Solanaceae) using Chloroplast DNA RFLP. Ann. Bot. 96(2): 289 - 297.[7]
  21. ^ Kei-Ichiro Mishiba , Toshio Ando , Masahiro Mii , Hitoshi Watanabe , Hisashi Kokubun , Goro Hashimoto , and Eduardo Marchesi. 2000. Nuclear DNA Content as an Index Character Discriminating Taxa in the Genus Petunia sensu Jussieu (Solanaceae). Ann Bot 85: 665-673. [8]
  22. ^ Perez, F., Arroyo, M., Medel, R. & M. Herskovitz. 2006. Ancestral reconstruction of flower morphology and pollination systems in Schizanthus (Solanaceae). American Journal of Botany 93(7): 1029–1038. [9]
  23. ^ Garcia VF, Olmstead RG (2003) Phylogenetics of Tribe Anthocercideae (Solanaceae) Based on ndhF and trnL/F Sequence Data. Systematic Botany 28, No. 3 pp. 609–615 [10]
  24. ^ Mace, E. S. C. G. Gebhardt, R. N. Lester. 1999. AFLP analysis of genetic relationships in the tribe Datureae (Solanaceae). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 99, (3-4): 634-641 [11]
  25. ^ a b Knapp, S., V. Persson & S. Blackmore. 1997. A Phylogenetic Conspectus of the Tribe Juanulloeae (Solanaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Vol. 84, No. 1: 67-89 [12]
  26. ^ Sazima, M. ; Buzato, S.; Sazima, I. 2003. Dyssochroma viridiflorum (Solanaceae): a Reproductively Bat-dependent Epiphyte from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Annals of Botany. 92(5):725-730.
  27. ^ Bernardello, L.M. 1987. Comparative Floral Morphology in Lycieae (Solanaceae). Brittonia, Vol. 39, No. 1:112-129 [13]
  28. ^ Levin, R.A. & Miller, J.S. 2005. Relationships within tribe Lycieae (Solanaceae): paraphyly of Lycium and multiple origins of gender dimorphism. American Journal of Botany. 2005;92:2044-2053 [14]
  29. ^ Bernardello, L. & F. Chiang-Cabrera. 1998.A cladistic study on the American species of Lycium (Solanaceae) based on morphological variation. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 68: 33–46.
  30. ^ DeWitt Smith, S. & David A. Baum. 2006. Phylogenetics of the florally diverse Andean clade Iochrominae (Solanaceae). American Journal of Botany 93:1140-1153 [15]
  31. ^ Whitson, M. & P.S. Manos. 2005. Untangling Physalis (Solanaceae) from the physaloids: a two-gene phylogeny of the Physalinae. Systematic Botany 30: 216-230. [16]
  32. ^ Masis, C. & Madrigal, R. 1994. Lista preliminar de malezas hospedantes de Thrips (Thysanoptera) que dañan al Chrysanthemum morifolium en el valle central de Costa Rica. Agronomía Costarricense 18(1): 99-101. 1994
  33. ^ Ormeño, J., Sepúlveda R., Rojas, R. Malezas del género Datura como factor epidemiológico del virus del mosaico de la alfalfa (amv), virus del mosaico del pepino (cmv) y virus y de la papa (pvy) en Solanáceas cultivadas. Agricultura técnica Vol. 66, Nº. 4, 2006, 333-341 Summary in Spanish
  34. ^ Pedrosa-Macedo, J., Olckers, T. & Vitorino, M. 2003. Phytophagous arthropods associated with Solanum mauritianum Scopoli (Solanaceae) in the first Plateau of Paraná, Brazil: a cooperative project on biological control of weeds between Brazil and South Africa. Neotrop. Entomol. 32: 519-522. Article in English, with a summary in Portuguese
  35. ^ Arboles ornamentales cultivados en España. Solanáceas
  36. ^ Shaw, J. 2007. A new hybrid genus for Calibrachoa × Petunia (Solanaceae). HANBURYANA 2: 50–51 [17]
  37. ^ The Value of Growing Petchoa SuperCal®. Ornamental News Oct 25 2012
  38. ^ International Tomato Sequencing Project Home
  39. ^ International Solanaceae Genomics Project (SOL), Systems Approach to Diversity and Adaptation.[18]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]