Sodium sesquicarbonate

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Sodium sesquicarbonate
Identifiers
CAS number533-96-0 YesY
PubChem10791
EC number208-580-9
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaC2HNa3O6
Molar mass190.00 g mol−1
Density2.112 g/cm3 (dihydrate)
Solubility in waterdihydrate
13 g/100 mL (0 °C)
42 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Refractive index (nD)1.5073 (dihydrate)
Structure
Crystal structuremonoclinic (dihydrate)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references
 
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Sodium sesquicarbonate
Identifiers
CAS number533-96-0 YesY
PubChem10791
EC number208-580-9
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaC2HNa3O6
Molar mass190.00 g mol−1
Density2.112 g/cm3 (dihydrate)
Solubility in waterdihydrate
13 g/100 mL (0 °C)
42 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Refractive index (nD)1.5073 (dihydrate)
Structure
Crystal structuremonoclinic (dihydrate)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Sodium sesquicarbonate (Systematic name trisodium hydrogendicarbonate) Na3H(CO3)2 is a double salt of sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate, and has a needle-like crystal structure. However, the term is also applied to an equimolar mixture of those two salts, with whatever water of hydration the sodium carbonate includes, supplied as a powder.

The dihydrate, Na3H(CO3)2·2H2O, occurs in nature as the evaporite mineral trona.

Uses[edit]

Sodium sesquicarbonate is used in bath salts, swimming pools, as an alkalinity source for water treatment, and as a phosphate free trisodium phosphate replacement for heavy duty cleaning.

Sodium sesquicarbonate is used in the conservation of copper and copper alloy artefacts that corrode due to contact with salt (called "bronze disease" due to its effect on bronze). The chloride from salt forms cuprous chloride. In the presence of oxygen and water, even the small amount of moisture in the atmosphere, the cuprous chloride forms cupric chloride and hydrochloric acid. The later of which dissolves the metal and forms more cuprous chloride in a self-sustaining reaction that leads to the entire destruction of the object. Treatment with sodium sesquicarbonate removes copper chlorides from the corroded layer.

It is also used as a precipitating water softener, which combines with hard water minerals (calcium- and magnesium-based minerals) to form an insoluble precipitate, removing these hardness minerals from the water. [1] It is the carbonate moiety which forms the precipitate, the bicarbonate being included to moderate the material's alkalinity.