Sodium periodate

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Sodium periodate
Identifiers
CAS number7790-28-5 YesY
PubChem23667635
ChemSpider58683 YesY
EC number232-197-6
ChEBICHEBI:75226 N
RTECS numberSD4550000
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaNaIO4
Molar mass213.8918 g/mol
Appearancewhite crystals
Density3.865 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
3/210 g/cm3
Melting point

300 °C (anhydrous)
175 °C (trihydrate) (decomp)

Solubility in watersoluble
Solubilitysoluble in acids
Structure
Crystal structuretetragonal (anhydrous)
trigonal (trihydrate)
Related compounds
Other anionssodium perchlorate, sodium perbromate
Other cationspotassium periodate
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
 
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Sodium periodate
Identifiers
CAS number7790-28-5 YesY
PubChem23667635
ChemSpider58683 YesY
EC number232-197-6
ChEBICHEBI:75226 N
RTECS numberSD4550000
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaNaIO4
Molar mass213.8918 g/mol
Appearancewhite crystals
Density3.865 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
3/210 g/cm3
Melting point

300 °C (anhydrous)
175 °C (trihydrate) (decomp)

Solubility in watersoluble
Solubilitysoluble in acids
Structure
Crystal structuretetragonal (anhydrous)
trigonal (trihydrate)
Related compounds
Other anionssodium perchlorate, sodium perbromate
Other cationspotassium periodate
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Sodium periodate is the sodium salt of periodic acid. It can refer to two different chemical compounds, sodium metaperiodate, which has the formula NaIO4, and sodium orthoperiodate (IUPAC: sodium hydrogen periodate), which has the formula Na2H3IO6. Both salts are useful in certain synthetic chemistries owing to their oxidative power.[1]

Preparation[edit]

Sodium metaperiodate can be isolated from the oxidation of sodium iodide with sodium hypochlorite and is best recrystallized from nitric acid. However, electrochemistry offers an easier alternative.

Uses[edit]

Sodium periodate can be used in solution to open saccharide rings between vicinal diols leaving two aldehyde groups. This process is often used in labeling saccharides with fluorescent molecules or other tags such as biotin. Because the process requires vicinal diols, periodate oxidation is often used to selectively label the 3'-termini of RNA (ribose has vicinal diols) instead of DNA as deoxyribose does not have vicinal diols.

NaIO4 is used in organic chemistry to cleave diols to produce two aldehydes.[2]

Oxidative breakage of 1,2-diol.png

In 2013 US Army announced that it would replace environmentally harmful chemicals barium nitrate and potassium perchlorate with sodium metaperiodate for use in their tracer ammunition.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Andrew G. Wee, Jason Slobodian, Manuel A. Fernández-Rodríguez and Enrique Aguilar "Sodium Periodate" e-EROS Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis 2006. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rs095.pub2
  2. ^ McMurry, John. Organic chemistry (8th ed., [international ed.] ed.). Singapore: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning. pp. 285 – 286. ISBN 9780840054531. 
  3. ^ "Picatinny to remove tons of toxins from lethal rounds". U.S. Army. Retrieved 31 October 2013.