Sochi

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Sochi (English)
Сочи (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Sochi Skyscrapers.jpeg
View of Sochi in spring
Map of Russia - Krasnodar Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Krasnodar Krai in Russia
Sochi is located in Krasnodar Krai
Sochi
Location of Sochi in Krasnodar Krai
Coordinates: 43°35′07″N 39°43′13″E / 43.58528°N 39.72028°E / 43.58528; 39.72028Coordinates: 43°35′07″N 39°43′13″E / 43.58528°N 39.72028°E / 43.58528; 39.72028
Coat of Arms of Sochi (Krasnodar krai).svg
Flag of Sochi (Krasnodar krai).svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of May 2013)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectKrasnodar Krai
Administratively subordinated toCity of Sochi[1]
Administrative center ofCity of Sochi[1]
Municipal status (as of June 2009)
Urban okrugSochi Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center ofSochi Urban Okrug[2]
Head[3]Anatoly Pakhomov[3]
Representative bodyCity Assembly[citation needed]
Statistics
Area (city) (January 2008)176.77 km2 (68.25 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census)343,334 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 201052nd
Density1,942 /km2 (5,030 /sq mi)[6]
Time zoneMSK (UTC+04:00)[7]
Founded1838[8][9]
Previous namesDakhovsky (until 1896)[10]
Postal code(s)[11]354000, 354002–354004, 354008–354010, 354013, 354014, 354018, 354019, 354022, 354024, 354025, 354030, 354031, 354033, 354036, 354037, 354039, 354053–354055, 354057, 354059, 354061, 354065–354068, 354071, 354073, 354084, 354099, 354200, 354202–354214, 354216–354218, 354220, 354226, 354231, 354233, 354299, 354340, 354346, 354348, 354349, 354354, 354355, 354364, 354380, 354382, 354383, 354399, 993501
Dialing code(s)+7 8622[citation needed]
Official website
Sochi on WikiCommons
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Sochi (English)
Сочи (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Sochi Skyscrapers.jpeg
View of Sochi in spring
Map of Russia - Krasnodar Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Krasnodar Krai in Russia
Sochi is located in Krasnodar Krai
Sochi
Location of Sochi in Krasnodar Krai
Coordinates: 43°35′07″N 39°43′13″E / 43.58528°N 39.72028°E / 43.58528; 39.72028Coordinates: 43°35′07″N 39°43′13″E / 43.58528°N 39.72028°E / 43.58528; 39.72028
Coat of Arms of Sochi (Krasnodar krai).svg
Flag of Sochi (Krasnodar krai).svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of May 2013)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectKrasnodar Krai
Administratively subordinated toCity of Sochi[1]
Administrative center ofCity of Sochi[1]
Municipal status (as of June 2009)
Urban okrugSochi Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center ofSochi Urban Okrug[2]
Head[3]Anatoly Pakhomov[3]
Representative bodyCity Assembly[citation needed]
Statistics
Area (city) (January 2008)176.77 km2 (68.25 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census)343,334 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 201052nd
Density1,942 /km2 (5,030 /sq mi)[6]
Time zoneMSK (UTC+04:00)[7]
Founded1838[8][9]
Previous namesDakhovsky (until 1896)[10]
Postal code(s)[11]354000, 354002–354004, 354008–354010, 354013, 354014, 354018, 354019, 354022, 354024, 354025, 354030, 354031, 354033, 354036, 354037, 354039, 354053–354055, 354057, 354059, 354061, 354065–354068, 354071, 354073, 354084, 354099, 354200, 354202–354214, 354216–354218, 354220, 354226, 354231, 354233, 354299, 354340, 354346, 354348, 354349, 354354, 354355, 354364, 354380, 354382, 354383, 354399, 993501
Dialing code(s)+7 8622[citation needed]
Official website
Sochi on WikiCommons

Sochi (Russian: Со́чи, IPA: [ˈsot͡ɕɪ]) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia. The Greater Sochi, with a total area of 3,526 square kilometres (1,361 sq mi), sprawls for 145 kilometers (90 mi) along the shores of the Black Sea near the Caucasus Mountains, while the area of the city proper is 176.77 square kilometers (68.25 sq mi).[4] According to the 2010 Census, the city had a permanent population of 343,334,[5] up from 328,809 recorded in the 2002 Census,[12] making it Russia's largest resort city. It is one of the very few places in Russia with a subtropical climate, with warm to hot summers and mild winters.

Sochi will host the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games in 2014, as well as the Russian Formula 1 Grand Prix from 2014 until at least 2020 subject to the circuit being ready in time.[13][14] It is also one of the host cities for the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

Geography[edit]

At 145 kilometers (90 mi), Greater Sochi claims to be the longest city in Europe.[15] Other sources using the Caucasus Mountains as the Europe-Asia divide place Sochi in Southwest Asia as it falls on the southern (Asian) side of the Greater Caucasus.[16][17] Alternatively, Sochi falls within Krasnodar Krai which is politically considered to be entirely European Russia [18][19][20] as with, generally, all territory of Russia west of the Ural Mountains and Ural River.[21][22] Sochi is approximately 1,603 kilometers (996 mi) from Moscow.[23]

Map of Black Sea showing location of Sochi on the east coast
Map of Black Sea showing location of Sochi
Sochi seen from the Black Sea
Sochi seen from the Black Sea

Sochi has a humid subtropical climate[24][25] with mild winters (average 11 °C (52 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night) in the period from December to March and warm summers (average 24 °C (75 °F) during the day and 16 °C (61 °F) at night) in the period from May to October.

History[edit]

Before the whole area was conquered by Cimmerian, Scythian and Sarmatian invaders, the Zygii people lived in Smaller Abkhazia under the Kingdom of Pontus' then the Roman Empire's influence in antiquity. From the 6th to the 11th centuries, the area successively belonged to the kingdom of Lazica and kingdom of Abkhazia who built a dozen churches within the city boundaries. From the 11th to the middle of the 19th century it was a part of the Georgian Kingdom. The Christian settlements along the coast were destroyed by the invading Göktürks, Khazars, Mongol Empire and other nomadic empires whose control of the region was slight. The northern wall of an 11th-century Byzantinesque basilica still stands in the Loo Microdistrict.[citation needed]

In the 14th–19th centuries, the region was dominated by the Abkhaz, Ubykh and Adyghe tribes, the current location of the city of Sochi known as Ubykhia was part of historical Circassia, and was controlled by the native people of the local mountaineer clans of the north-west Caucasus, nominally under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, which was their principal trading partner in the Muslim world. The coastline was ceded to Russia in 1829 as a result of a Caucasian War and Russo-Turkish War, 1828–1829; however, the Circassians did not admit the Russian control over Circassia and kept resisting the newly established Russian outposts along the Circassian coast (Adyghe: Адыгэ хы аушу ); .[8][26] Provision of weapons and ammunition from abroad to the Circassians caused a diplomatic conflict between the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom that occurred in 1836 over the mission of the Vixen.[27]

The Russians had no detailed knowledge of the area until Baron Feodor Tornau investigated the coastal route from Gelendzhik to Gagra, and across the mountains to Kabarda, in the 1830s.[citation needed] In 1838, the fort of Alexandria, renamed Navaginsky a year later, was founded at the mouth of the Sochi River as part of the Black Sea coastal line, a chain of seventeen fortifications set up to protect the area from recurring Circassian resistance. At the outbreak of the Crimean War, the garrison was evacuated from Navaginsky in order to prevent its capture by the Turks, who effected a landing on Cape Adler soon after.

The last battle of the Caucasian War took place at the Godlikh river on March 18, 1864 O.S., where the ubykhs were defeated by the Dakhovsky regiment of the Russian Army. On March 25, 1864, the Dakhovsky fort was established on the site of the Navaginsky fort. The end of Caucasian War was proclaimed at Kbaade tract (modern Krasnaya Polyana) on June 2 (May 21 O.S.), 1864, by the manifesto of Emperor Alexander II read aloud by Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia.[8]

After the end of Caucasian War (during the period of 1864–1870) almost all Ubykhs and a major part of the Shapsugs, who lived on the territory of modern Sochi, were either killed in the Circassian Genocide or expelled to the Ottoman Empire (see Circassian Genocide). Starting in 1866 the coast was actively colonized by Russians, Armenians, Ukrainians, Belorussians, Greeks, Estonians, Germans, Moldavians, Georgians and other people from inner Russia.[8][26]

In 1874–1891, the first Russian Orthodox church, St. Michael's Church, was constructed, and the Dakhovsky settlement was renamed Dakhovsky Posad on April 13, 1874 (O.S.). In February 1890, the Sochi Lighthouse was constructed. In 1896, the Dakhovsky Posad was renamed Sochi Posad (after the name of local river) and incorporated into the newly formed Black Sea Governorate. In 1900–1910, Sochi burgeoned into a sea resort. The first resort, "Kavkazskaya Riviera", opened on June 14, 1909 (O.S.). Sochi was granted town status in 1917.[8]

During the Russian Civil War, the littoral area saw sporadic armed clashes involving the Red Army, White movement forces, and the Democratic Republic of Georgia, after war Sochi become Russian territory. In 1923, Sochi acquired one of its most distinctive features, a railway which runs from Tuapse to Georgia within a kilometer or two of the coastline. Although this branch of the Northern Caucasus Railway may appear somewhat incongruous in the setting of beaches and sanatoriums, it is still operational and vital to the region's transportation infrastructure.[8]

Sochi was established as a fashionable resort area under Joseph Stalin, who had his favorite dacha built in the city; Stalin's study, complete with a wax statue of the leader, is now open to the public.[28] During Stalin's reign the coast became dotted with imposing Neoclassical buildings, exemplified by the opulent Rodina and Ordzhonikidze sanatoriums. The centerpiece of this early period is Shchusev's Constructivist Institute of Rheumatology (1927–31). The area was continuously developed until the demise of the Soviet Union.[8]

Following Russia's loss of the traditionally popular resorts of the Crimean peninsula (transferred away from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954 by Nikita Khrushchev), Sochi emerged as the unofficial summer capital of the country. During Vladimir Putin's term in office, the city witnessed a significant increase in investment, although many Russian holidaymakers still flock to the cheaper resorts of neighbouring Abkhazia (Georgia), Ukraine, or to the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.[citation needed] Additionally, Sochi has also served as the location for the signing of many treaties, especially those between the Georgian, separatist Abkhazian, and separatist South Ossetian governing authorities.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one urban-type settlement and seventy-nine rural localities, incorporated as the City of Sochi—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Sochi is incorporated as Sochi Urban Okrug.[2]

City divisions[edit]

Sochi proper[edit]

Tsentralny City District, or Sochi proper, covers an area of 32 square kilometers (12 sq mi) and, as of the 2010 Census, has a population of 137,677.[5] The highlights include:

Lazarevsky City District[edit]

The Summer Theater

Lazarevsky City District lies to the northwest from the city center; the 2010 Census showed the population of 63,894people.[5] It is the largest city district by area, covering some 1,744 square kilometers (673 sq mi) and comprising several microdistricts:

Khostinsky City District[edit]

Sochi Arboretum

Khostinsky City District, sprawling to the southeast from the city center, occupies approximately 374 square kilometers (144 sq mi), with a population of 65,229 as of the 2010 Census.[5] The district is traversed by many rivulets which give their names to the microdistricts of Matsesta ("flame-colored river"), Kudepsta, and Khosta ("the river of boars"):

Adlersky City District[edit]

A trout farm in Adler

Adlersky City District, with an area of 1,352 square kilometers (522 sq mi) and a population of 76,534 people as of the 2010 Census,[5] is the southernmost district of the city, located just north of the border with Abkhazia. Until the establishment of Greater Sochi in 1961, it was administered as a separate town, which had its origin in an ancient Sadz village and a medieval Genoese trading post.

Among the natural wonders of the district is the Akhshtyr Gorge with a 160-meter-long cave that contains traces of human habitation from about 30,000 years ago. The upland part of the district includes a network of remote mountain villages (auls), the Estonian colony at Estosadok, and the ski resort of Krasnaya Polyana which will host the events (Alpine and Nordic) of the 2014 Winter Olympics.

Also located here are the largest trout fishery in Russia (founded in 1964) and a breeding nursery for great apes.

Demographics[edit]

The city has an ethnic Russian majority (~70%) and a sizable Armenian minority (~20%), especially in the Adlersky City District.[29][30]

YearTotal populationUrban populationRussiansArmeniansUkrainiansGeorgians
188798no data
1891460no data
1897[31]1,352no data37.9%6.0%19.9%17.1%
19048,163no data
191613,254no data
192613,000no data
193972,59749,813
1959127,00081,912
1970245,300203,100
1979292,300245,600
1989[32]385,851339,814
1992369,900322,40068.7%14.2%5.9%1.5%
1994378,300no data
1997388,200no data
2002[12]397,103332,778
2006395,012329,481
2007402,043331,059
2008406,800334,282
2009410,987337,947
2010[5]420,589347,93269.92%20.09%2.29%2.03%
Source, unless otherwise marked:[10][33][34][35]

Religion[edit]

Before 1864 Sochi was a Muslim town. Most residents belonged to the Sunni Muslim Ubykh clans or, in the north, the Sunni Muslim Shapsugs tribe, a part of the Adyghe nation. Currently, Sochi is a predominantly Christian city, though there are thought to be around 20,000 Muslims living there (the majority are from Adyghe) plus other Eastern Caucasians, Turks, Tatars, and other smaller Muslim groups.[36]

Despite this fact, there is no mosque in the city of Sochi, the nearest being around 60 km (37 miles) north of the city center[36][37] in the Adyghe village of T'hagapsh (Adyghe: Тхьагъапшъ Къоджэ, Tkhag’apsh’ K’odzhe; Russian: Тхагапш, Tkhagapsh). In 2009, President Medvedev promised that a permanent mosque would be built in the city but so far permission has not been given.[36]

Climate[edit]

Sochi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa),[24] at the lower elevations. Its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C (65.1 °F) during the day and 11 °C (52 °F) at night. In the coldest months — January and February — the average temperature is about 10 °C (50 °F) during the day, above 3 °C (37 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is about 9 °C (48 °F). In the warmest months — July and August — the temperature typically ranges from 25 to 29 °C (77 to 84 °F) during the day, about 20 °C (68 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is about 23–24 °C (73–75 °F). Yearly sunshine hours are around 2,200. Generally, the summer season lasts six months, from May to October. Two months – April and November – are transitional; sometimes temperatures reach 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of around 16 °C (61 °F) during the day and 9 °C (48 °F) at night. December, January, February and March are the coldest months, with average temperature (of these four months) 11 °C (52 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night. Average annual precipitation is about 1,700 millimeters (67 in).[9][25][38] Sochi lies at 8b/9a hardiness zone, so the city supports different types of palm trees.[23] Sochi is situated on the same latitude as Nice but strong cold winds from Asia make winters less warm. In fact, temperatures drop below freezing every winter for one or two days. The highest temperature recorded was 39.4 °C (102.9 °F), on July 30, 2000, and the lowest temperature recorded was −13.4 °C (7.9 °F) on January 25, 1892.[39]

Mean sea temperature (1977–2006).[41]
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
9.6 °C (49.3 °F)8.7 °C (47.7 °F)9.6 °C (49.3 °F)11.2 °C (52.2 °F)15.2 °C (59.4 °F)19.6 °C (67.3 °F)24.0 °C (75.2 °F)25.3 °C (77.5 °F)23.1 °C (73.6 °F)19.5 °C (67.1 °F)14.9 °C (58.8 °F)11.5 °C (52.7 °F)16.0 °C (60.8 °F)

Layout and landmarks[edit]

Sochi is almost unique among larger Russian cities as having some aspects of a subtropical resort. Apart from the scenic Caucasus Mountains, pebble and sand beaches, the city attracts vacation-goers with its subtropical vegetation, numerous parks, monuments, and extravagant Stalinist architecture. About two million people visit Greater Sochi each summer,[42] when the city is home to the annual film festival "Kinotavr" and a getaway for Russia's elite.

A UNESCO World Heritage Site, the 2,957 square kilometers (731,000 acres) Caucasian Biosphere Reserve, lies just north from the city.[43] Sochi also has Europe's most northerly tea plantations.

One of the significant places of Sochi is Friendship Tree that grows in the Friendship Tree Garden.

Transportation[edit]

Marine terminal, Russian stamp of 2011

Sochi is served by the Adler-Sochi International Airport. The Sochi Light Metro is under construction, projected to be completed by 2014. A marine terminal building was built in 1955 by K.S. Alabyan and L.B. Karlik. It is topped with a 71 meter steepled tower. Sculptures embodying seasons and cardinal points are set above the tower's three tiers.

Sports facilities[edit]

Sochi is also known for its sport facilities: a local tennis school spawned the careers of such notable players as Grand Slam champions Maria Sharapova and Yevgeny Kafelnikov (Kafelnikov spent much of his childhood here, while Sharapova relocated to Florida at the age of seven). In late 2005, the Russian Football Union announced that it was planning to establish a year-round training center for the country's national teams in Sochi. The city's warm climate was cited as one of the main incentives. And it's home to FC Zhemchuzhina who play in the Russian First Division.

2014 Winter Olympics and Paralympics[edit]

Russki Gorki ski jump arena.

In June 2006, the International Olympic Committee announced that Sochi had been selected as a finalist city to host the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics. On July 4, 2007, Sochi was announced as the host city of the 2014 Winter Games, edging out Pyeongchang, South Korea and Salzburg, Austria.[44]

This will be Russia's first time to host the Winter Olympic Games, and the first time to host the Paralympic Games. The site of a training centre for aspiring Olympic athletes, as of 2008, the city has no world-class level athletic facilities fit for international competition.[45] To get the city ready for the Olympics, the Russian government has committed to a $12 billion investment package,[46] shared 60–40 between the government and private sector.[47] By some estimates, the investments necessary to bring the location up to Olympic standards may exceed that of any previous Olympic games.[45]

The 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi have been surrounded by concern and controversy following a new federal law approved in Russia in June 2013 that bans "homosexual propaganda to minors".[48] Many voices have since then claimed to boycott the 2014 Winter Olympics, including British actor Stephen Fry who published an open letter[49] to David Cameron and to the International Olympic Committee asking for a boycott and relocation of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.

Construction work[edit]

Ski resort of Krasnaya Polyana

The state-controlled RAO UES announced in July 2007 that it might spend 30 billion roubles (about US$1.2 billion) on upgrading the electrical power system in the Sochi area by 2014.[50] The power generating companies Inter RAO UES and RusHydro would have to build or modernize four thermal power plants and four hydroelectric plants—and the federal grid company FGC UES has to replace the Central-Shepsi electricity transmission line, which reportedly often fails in bad weather. The new power line would run partly on power towers and partly across the bottom of the Black Sea. By 2011, the power supply of the resort area would increase by 1129 MW—of which 300 MW would be used for Olympic sports facilities “The cost of the work is estimated at 83.6 billion roubles (about US $3.26 billion), of which 50 billion roubles (about US$2 billion dollars) will go to investments in the electricity grid,” power company announced. They did not say how much of the bill the state would foot. In February 2007, when UES had planned to spend 48.8 billion roubles (about US$1.9 billion) on the Sochi area, the share the state had been ready to pay 38 billion roubles (about US$1.48 billion) of that.

The coming of 2014 Olympics also urges the construction of a medium capacity rapid transit system, the Sochi Light Metro. The current alignment would connect the Sochi Olympic Village, Sochi International Airport, two major railway stations of Northern Caucasus Railway, the downtown of Sochi, and the Alpine skiing area Krasnaya Polyana.

Other sports events[edit]

The Silk way Rally which is part of Dakkar series took place in Sochi in 2010 for the last stage between the capital of the Republic of Adygea Maykop to the city of Sochi through Pseshwap.[51]

The Bandy World Championships 2014 will be held in the city at the same time as the Olympic and Paralympic Games.

President Vladimir Putin has reportedly reached a deal with Bernie Ecclestone for the city to host the Formula One Russian Grand Prix from 2014.[52]

Sochi Olympic Stadium will also be used to host 2018 World Cup matches.

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Sochi is twinned with:

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Explanatory notes
Citations
  1. ^ a b c d Reference Information 34.01-707/13-03
  2. ^ a b c Law #679-KZ
  3. ^ a b Official website of Sochi (Russian)
  4. ^ a b Городское Собрание Сочи. Решение №89 от 14 июля 2009 г. «Об утверждении генерального плана городского округа города Сочи». Вступил в силу со дня опубликования. (City Assembly of Sochi. Decision #89 of July 14, 2009 On the Adoption of the General Plan of the Urban Okrug of the City of Sochi. Effective as of the publication date.).
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Exposition of the Historical Museum of Sochi, partly reflected in Russian in История Сочи (History of Sochi) at the official cite of the city
  9. ^ a b Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Entry on Sochi (Russian)
  10. ^ a b Сочи in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Russian)
  11. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  12. ^ a b "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  13. ^ Sochi hosts 2014 Winter Olympics BBC Sport, July 4, 2007
  14. ^ PM Putin confirms Russian GP for 2014 GPUpdate, October 15, 2010
  15. ^ Port of Sochi at Russia.com; Retrieved July 8, 2007
  16. ^ National Geographic Atlas. National Geographic Society. 2011. p. 59. 
  17. ^ Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. 1997. pp. 37, 80. 
  18. ^ Department of Investments and Project Support of Krasnodar region: Main page. Investkuban.ru. Retrieved on July 26, 2012.
  19. ^ Krasnodar region location on the map of Europe. Investkuban.ru. Retrieved on 2012-07-26.
  20. ^ Krasnodar Region. Eng.spb-venchur.ru. Retrieved on July 26, 2012.
  21. ^ European Russia – Map of Russia, European Russia Map, Russia Countries. Worldatlas.com. Retrieved on July 26, 2012.
  22. ^ Russia Europe. Wwp.greenwichmeantime.com (May 16, 2011). Retrieved on July 26, 2012.
  23. ^ a b http://www.travelersguide360.com/index.php/travel-destinations-sochi-russia-322/
  24. ^ a b "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification". 
  25. ^ a b V. A. Drozdov, O. B. Glezer, T. G. Nefedova and I. V. Shabdurasulov (1992). "Ecological and geographical characteristics of the coastal zone of the Black Sea". GeoJournal 27 (2): 169–178. doi:10.1007/BF00717701. 
  26. ^ a b Sochi – from ancient sites to 2014 Olympics, information from the Historical Museum of Sochi
  27. ^ Peter Hopkirk The great game: On Secret Service in High Asia, Chapter 12 “The Greatest Fortress in the World”, pp. 158–159, Oxford University Press, 2001 ISBN 0-19-280232-1
  28. ^ Stalin's ghost haunts Black Sea hotel at Mail & Guardian Online, Retrieved July 7, 2007
  29. ^ Cordula Gdaniec, ed., Cultural Diversity in Russian Cities: The Urban Landscape in the Post-Soviet Era (Berghahn Books, 2010), 117.
  30. ^ Kimitaka Matsuzato, "Transnational minorities challenging the interstate system: Mingrelians, Armenians, and Muslims in and around Abkhazia," Nationalities Papers 39 (September 2011), 820.
  31. ^ 1897 Census. demoscope.ru (in Russian)
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