sobriquet ( / / ) is a -bri-kay SOH nickname, sometimes assumed, but often given by another. Distinct from a pseudonym that is assumed as a disguise, it more resembles a nickname and usually is a familiar name, familiar enough such that it may be used in place of a real name without the need of explanation. This salient characteristic is of sufficient familiarity that the sobriquet may become more familiar than the original name.
Genghis Khan, who now is rarely recognized by his original name, Temüjin; or Mohandas Gandhi, who is better known as Mahatma Gandhi. Well-known places often have sobriquets, such as Manhattan, often referred to as the Big Apple. Therefore, sobriquet may apply to the nickname for a specific person, group of people, or even a place. Etymology [edit ]
Two early variants of the term are found,
sotbriquet and soubriquet; often, the latter form is still used. The modern French spelling is sobriquet. The first form suggests derivation from sot, foolish, and the second form, briquet, is a French adaptation of Italian brichetto, diminutive of bricco, ass, knave, possibly connected with briccone, rogue, which is supposed to be a derivative of the German brechen, to break; but Skeat considers this spelling to be an example of false etymology. The real origin is to be sought in the form soubriquet. Littré gives an early fourteenth century soubsbriquet as meaning a chuck under the chin, and this would be derived from soubs, mod. sous ( Lat. sub), under, and briquet or bruchel, the brisket, or lower part of the throat. Use [edit ]
Sobriquets often are found in music, sports, and politics. Candidates and political figures often are branded with sobriquets, either while living or posthumously. For example,
president of the United States Abraham Lincoln came to be known as Honest Abe. Sobriquets are not necessarily complimentary. A banking tycoon and politician from Knoxville, Tennessee named Jake Butcher was known as "Jake the Snake" after being indicted and subsequently convicted for bank fraud. (1926) warned, "Now the sobriquet habit is not a thing to be acquired, but a thing to be avoided; & the selection that follows is compiled for the purpose not of assisting but of discouraging it." Fowler included the sobriquet among what he termed the "battered ornaments" of the language, but opinion on their use varies. Sobriquets remain a common feature of speech today. Fowler's Modern English Usage Examples [edit ] This is an incomplete list that may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. A–C [edit ] The Angel of Death or Der Todesengel – Josef Mengele, Nazi war criminal The Angelic Doctor - Thomas Aquinas [1 ] The Antipodes – Australia and New Zealand, close to the Antipodes of Great Britain The Apple Isle - Tasmania The Athens of the North - Edinburgh The Athens of South America - Bogotá Auld Reekie - Edinburgh, "Old Smokey" in the Scots language Auntie or Aunty – either the Australian Broadcasting Corporation or the British Broadcasting Corporation Babe, The Great Bambino, The Sultan of Swat, The Titan of Terror, The Colossus of Clout, The King of Clash – George Herman Ruth, Jr., American baseball player Baghdad by the Bay— San Francisco Bangabandhu (Friend of Bengal) – Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, 1st president of Bangladesh Banker to the Poor - [2 ] Muhammad Yunus, 2006 Nobel Peace Prize winner and managing director of Grameen Bank The Bard (of Avon) – William Shakespeare BasedGod - Lil B The Battleground, Battlefield, or Cock-pit of Europe – Belgium, or the whole area of the former United Netherlands The Bayou City – Houston, Texas, U.S. Beantown – Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. Becks - David Beckham English footballer The Beeb – The British Broadcasting Corporation The Big Apple – Manhattan, New York City, New York, U.S. Big B - Amitabh Bachchan Bollywood actor The Big Bopper - Jiles Perry "J. P." Richardson, Jr. Big D – Dallas, Texas, US The Big Easy – New Orleans, Louisiana The Big O - Roy Orbison The Big Smoke – London, UK and by extension other large industrial cities including Toronto, Canada. The Big Piece - Ryan Howard, Phillies First Baseman [3 ] The Big Stick – Theodore Roosevelt's diplomatic policy The Big Unit - Randy Johnson, baseball pitcher The Big Yin - Billy Connolly, Scottish comedian The Body - Elle Macpherson, also Jesse Ventura Biggest Little City – Reno, Nevada, US, a small casino city Biggie Smalls – Christopher Wallace, American hip hop and rap singer Billy the Kid, William H. Bonney (1859–1881), the notorious Western outlaw The Bill - The William Webb Ellis Cup - trophy awarded to winners of the Rugby Union World Cup King Billy - William III of England (1650–1702) Bird (or Yardbird) – Charlie Parker, jazz musician The Bird – Mark Fidrych, baseball pitcher Birdman – Chris Andersen, U.S. basketball player known for his trademark "bird" celebration Blighty – Great Britain (used by British servicemen abroad and expatriates) The Black Mamba - Kobe Bryant, American basketball player for the Los Angeles Lakers Blackbeard - Edward Teach, English pirate Bloody Mary – Queen Mary I of England Body Beautiful Beale or Little Edie - Edith Bouvier Beale Boney - Napoléon Bonaparte, a derogatory nickname used in Britain Bonnie Prince Charlie – Charles Edward Stuart ("Bonnie" means handsome in the Scots Language) Bono (or Bono Vox) – Paul Hewson, singer with U2 Bonzo/The Beast – John Bonham, drummer with Led Zeppelin Boom Boom Afridi – Shahid Afridi, Pakistani Cricketer known for his aggressive batting style. The Boss – Bruce Springsteen, US musician The Boston Strangler – Albert DeSalvo Boz - Charles Dickens Brangelina – Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie, a portmanteau name used by news media to refer to the couple. Brat Pack – group of young actors and actresses who starred in teen-oriented coming-of-age films in the 1980s (by extension from "The Rat Pack" mentioned below) Brew City – Milwaukee, Wisconsin, famous for its beer production Brisvegas – Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Broadway Joe – Joe Namath, AFL, NFL, American football player Buddha – Siddhartha Gautama Buffalo Bill – American frontier showman William Frederick Cody Buffalo Jones – Kansas frontiersman Charles "Buffalo" Jones Caligula - Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus Chemical Ali – Ali Hassan al-Majid, minister in Saddam Hussein's government held responsible for the use of chemical weapons at Halabja Christ - Jesus of Nazareth Comical Ali – Muhammad Saeed al-Sahhaf, Iraqi information minister during the 2003 U.S. invasion; also known as Baghdad Bob, who became a minor celebrity in the west for his unflagging optimism and increasingly grandiose announcements Chosin Few – Survivors of Korean War battle of Chosin Reservoir The City - the city of London, as central business district of London and by extension the UK financial industry in general The City (or The City by the Bay) – San Francisco The City Beautiful - Coral Gables, Florida The City Care Forgot - New Orleans, Louisiana The City of Angels/L.A. - Los Angeles The City of Brotherly Love – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [4 ] The City of Dreaming Spires - Oxford, England The City of Light - Paris (La Ville-Lumière in French), also Perth, Western Australia, which lit all its streetlights for the passage of astronaut John Glenn in 1962 The City of Medicine - Durham, North Carolina The City of Palaces – Kolkata, India The City of Joy - Kolkata, India The City so Nice They Named It Twice – New York, New York also attributed to Walla Walla, Washington The City that Bombed Itself - Philadelphia The Coat Hanger - Sydney Harbour Bridge, Auckland Harbour Bridge Coco - Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel, French fashion designer The Collar City - Troy, New York Columbia – The United States or The Americas, poetic name The Continent - Continental Europe, generally used by British people Cowtown - The city of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, also attributed to Fort Worth, Texas D–G [edit ] D.C., The District – Washington, D.C. D.F. - Mexico City, (Distrito Federal) The Dark Continent - Africa The Desert Fox - Erwin Rommel, German field marshal of World War II Devil Dog - member of the United States Marine Corps Diamond Dave – David Lee Roth, Singer Digger – Australian soldier Dixie, Dixieland – (from the Mason-Dixon Line of latitude, the northern limit of legal slavery); the eleven Southern states that seceded and fought against the U.S. in the American Civil War: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia; still used affectionately by Southerners The Don - Sir Donald Bradman The Donald - Donald Trump Donnie Baseball - Don Mattingly Dr. Death – Jack Kevorkian proponent of assisted suicide Dr. J – Julius Erving, Hall of Fame NBA player. [5 ] The Dragon – China (as an economy) Dubya – George W. Bush Dullsville - Perth, Western Australia The Duke – John Wayne The Edge – David Howell Evans, guitarist in the rock band U2 The Elephant Man – Joseph Merrick The Edinburgh of the South – Dunedin, New Zealand The Emerald Isle – Ireland or Puerto Rico The Emerald City – Seattle, Washington, U.S. The Enchanted Isle – (from 'la isla del encanto') Puerto Rico The Eternal City – Rome The Fab Five – 1991 University of Michigan men's basketball team The Fab Four – The Beatles The Fastest Girl on Earth - Dorothy Levitt Father of his country – George Washington The Federal City – Washington, D.C. The First Lady of Waikiki - Moana Hotel The Five O'Clock Follies - U.S. Military press briefings during the Vietnam War Flea - Michael Balzary, bassist for Red Hot Chili Peppers Foggy Bottom – the United States State Department, named for the Washington, D.C., neighborhood in which it is headquartered The Fourth Estate – the press Frisco – San Francisco, California The Garden City - Christchurch, New Zealand Garrincha – Manoel Francisco dos Santos Genghis Khan – Temüjin The Gherkin - 30 St Mary Axe The Glimmer Twins – Mick Jagger and Keith Richards, Rolling Stones original members, they co-wrote most of the hits The Godfather of Grunge – Neil Young The Godfather of Soul – James Brown The Golden Bear – Jack Nicklaus Good Queen Bess - Queen Elizabeth I of England GOC or Gods' Own County - Yorkshire GOP ( Grand Old Party) – Republican Party (United States) Gotham – New York The Governator – Arnold Schwarzenegger, 38th governor of California The Grauniad - newspaper, England (because of its formerly frequent typographical errors, such as an edition where the masthead was spelled The Guardian The Gaurdian) The Great Communicator – Ronald Reagan, 40th president of the United States of America The Great Compromiser - Henry Clay, nineteenth century Kentucky statesman The Great Emancipator – Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the United States of America The Great One – Wayne Gretzky, WHA/ NHL hockey player The Great Orator - Daniel Webster The Great Triumvirate - Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and Daniel Webster The Great White North – Canada The Greatest – Muhammad Ali boxer [6 ] Grits – a media term for the Liberal Party of Canada The Gray Lady – The New York Times The Great Commoner – William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham ("Pitt the Elder") or William Jennings Bryan Grizzly Adams - James Adams, California mountain man The Gunners - Arsenal Football Club H–M [edit ] Hanoi Jane – Jane Fonda, for her anti-war stance during the Vietnam War including visiting Hanoi, seen as an act of treason to many Americans The Haryana Hurricane – Kapil Dev, Indian cricketer known for his fast bowling Hef - Hugh Hefner The Hick from French Lick – Larry Bird His Airness – Michael Jordan (The) Hoff – David Hasselhoff Hogtown – Toronto, Ontario, Canada Hollywood North - Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada The Holy Land – Israel or Palestine The Home of Cricket - Lord's Cricket Ground Honest Abe – Abraham Lincoln The Hub - Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. The Iron Duke - Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington The Iron Lady - Margaret Thatcher Iz the Wiz - Michael Martin, Graffiti writer Jock - a Scot, especially a Scottish soldier Joe the Plumber – Samuel Joseph Wurzelbacher, an American plumbing contractor who was cited as an example of a middle class American during the 2008 U.S. presidential election season by Republican nominee for president, John McCain Joltin' Joe – Joe DiMaggio, Baseball player; former husband of Marilyn Monroe K of P – King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, U.S. Kaká – Ricardo Izecson dos Santos Leite The Killer – Jerry Lee Lewis The King Khan – Shahrukh Khan, Bollywood Actor The King (of baseball) – Félix Hernández The King (of all Media) – Howard Stern The King (of golf) – Arnold Palmer The King (of NASCAR) – Richard Petty The King (of Rock and Roll) – Elvis Presley The king of Hip hop - Eminem The King of Reggae - Bob Marley The King (of Rugby League (particularly in Australia)) – Wally Lewis King James – LeBron James The King of Pop – Michael Jackson The King of Spain – Ashley Giles The King of Spin – Shane Warne Knick Killer – Reggie Miller The Lady – Aung San Suu Kyi The Lady with the Lamp - Florence Nightingale The Land of a Thousand Lakes – Finland The Land of the Long White Cloud - New Zealand Larry Legend – Larry Bird The Last Emperor- Xuantong Emperor The Lion of the Round Top – Col. Joshua L. Chamberlain, commander of the 20th Maine Regiment, American Civil War The Little Apple - Manhattan, Kansas, U.S. after The Big Apple – Manhattan in New York City, U.S. The Little Corporal - Napoléon Bonaparte Little Richard – Rev. Richard Wayne Penniman, a prominent figure in rock n' roll The Little General - Ron Lancaster, former quarterback and coach in the Canadian Football League The Little Fellow - Charlie Chaplin The Little Master - Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar, Indian cricketer Little Paris - Bucharest, Romania The Little Sparrow – Édith Piaf, French singer The Little Sparrow – Sezen Aksu, Turkish singer Mad Dog and The Professor - Greg Maddux - Major League Baseball Player and Hall of Famer Madge – Madonna Madiba – Nelson Mandela Mega Star - Chiranjeevi (Actor), India Magic - Earvin Johnson The Magic City - Miami, Florida The Man from Tennessee – Andrew Jackson The Man in Black – Johnny Cash Manitas de Plata – Flamenco guitarist Ricardo Baliardo The Master - Henry James The Material Girl – Madonna The Myth – Bodybuilding great Sergio Oliva Mahatma Gandhi – Mohandas K. Gandhi Maynard – James Herbert Keenan Meat Loaf - Marvin Aday The Mick – Mickey Mantle The Mile-High City - Denver, from its elevation above sea level Ming (the Merciless) - Sir Robert Menzies, Prime Minister of Australia (perhaps from Scots pronunciation of surname, "Mingiss") Mr. Cricket - Michael Hussey, Cricket player who currently plays for Chennai Super Kings of the Indian Premier League Mr. October – Reggie Jackson- Major League Baseball Player and Hall of Fame honoree Mr. Hockey – Gordie Howe Mother Monster - Lady Gaga The Motor City - Detroit, from its automotive heritage Motown - Detroit, from its musical heritage Mr. MojoRisin - Jim Morrison Muggsy - Tyrone Bogues, NBA Player N–S [edit ] Naptown - Indianapolis Netaji – Subhas Chandra Bose, Indian freedom fighter, the leader of the Provisional Government of Free India and leader of Indian National Army New York's Finest - New York City Police Department New York's Best- NYC*EMS, originally run by the Health and Hospitals Corporation, taken over by FDNY in 1996 and is now FDNY EMS New York's Bravest - New York City Fire Department New York's Boldest - New York City Department of Correction (who work in the City's jails) Nightingale of India - Sarojini Naidu, poet, writer, social activist Obamacare - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, generally derogatory The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street – the Bank of England Old Nick – in Christianity, the Devil Old St. Nick – Santa Claus The Old Bailey – The Central Criminal Court in England Ol' Blue Eyes – Frank Sinatra, entertainer Old Hickory – Andrew Jackson, 7th president of the United States Old Kinderhook (OK) – Martin Van Buren, 8th president of the United States The Old Pretender – James Francis Edward Stuart Old Rough and Ready – Zachary Taylor Oxford of the East - University of Dhaka in the early twentieth century Papa - Ernest Hemingway, American author Papa Doc - François Duvalier, Haitian president Para or Paras - British soldier in the Parachute Regiment or the parachute regiment The Paris of the Baltics - Riga, Latvia The Paris of the North - Riga, Latvia The Paris of the West – San Francisco, U.S. The Paris of the South – São Paulo and Buenos Aires Pearl of the Danube - Budapest, Hungary Pearl of the Orient/Pearl of the Orient Seas - the Philippines Pearl of the Orient - Hong Kong Pearl of the Orient - Penang, Malaysia Pelé – Edson Arantes do Nascimento Pensioneers – Chelsea football club The Peoples champ - Kevin 'Pigsy' McCann The People's champ - Manny Pacquiao, former division 8 title holder in boxing Perfidious Albion – Great Britain (from French, Albion perfide) The Philosopher - Aristotle The Pie Man - Andy Smith (darts player) Pink (stylized P!nk) - Alecia Moore Pink City – Jaipur, India Pink Palace of the Pacific - Royal Hawaiian Hotel, also known as the Pink Lady Pommy (or Pom) - Australian name for an English person, vaguely affectionate except when "Pommy" is succeeded by "bastard" Porsche's Quiet Giant - Lake Underwood Prez - Lester Young Prince of the Humanists – Desiderius Erasmus Prince of Kolkata – Saurav Ganguly Prince of Darkness – Ozzy Osbourne Professor of politics (Kenya) – Daniel arap Moi [7 ] The Queen City of the West - Cincinnati, Ohio Nicknames of Cincinnati The Queen of the Arabian Sea – Cochin The Queen of Pop – Madonna The Queen of Soul - Aretha Franklin Queen of the Suburbs – The residential area called Ealing in England The Rat Pack – A group of American singers and entertainers from the late 1950s to the early 1970s The Rawalpindi Express – Shoaib Akhtar The Red Arrows - (British) Royal Air Force Aerobatic Team The Red Baron – Manfred von Richthofen, World War I, German flying ace The Red Devils – (British) parachute regiment, Manchester United Football Club The Red Planet - Mars The Republic - Republic of Ireland or South Africa The Roadrunner (person) - Yvan Cournoyer The Rock (prison) – Alcatraz Prison The Rock (person) – Dwayne Johnson The Rock (place) - Newfoundland, Canada The Rock Chameleon – David Bowie The Rocket (person) - Maurice Richard Rough Riders - 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry Slim Shady - Eminem Saint Jimmy – Billie Joe Armstrong Saint of the Gutter - Mother Teresa Sandman – Howard Sims, dancer Sassenach - Scottish and Irish term for an English person Satchmo – Louis Armstrong Seven Sisters - North Eastern Region of India inclusive of the seven states namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura The Say Hey Kid – Willie Mays, American, Major League baseball player and Hall of Fame honoree The Scottish Play - Macbeth Series of tubes - The Internet Sher-e-Bangla (Tiger of Bengal) - A. K. Fazlul Huq, twentieth century Bengali political leader and statesman William the Silent - William I of Orange (1533–1584) Sin City – Las Vegas, Nevada, US Slash – Saul Hudson, guitarist Slick Willie - Bill Clinton, Willie Sutton, Willie Brown, W. W. Herenton Slowhand – Eric Clapton The Smoke – London The Spider - Anderson Silva, MMA legend Soapy Sam – Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of Oxford The Spaceman – Major League Baseball player Bill Lee The Splendid Splinter - Baseball player Ted Williams The Steel Butterfly - Imelda Marcos The Steel City – Pittsburgh Steeltown - Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Sting – Gordon Sumner The Subtle Doctor – John Duns Scotus The Sultan of Swat – Babe Ruth, Major league Baseball player and Hall of Fame honoree The Sunshine State - Florida T–Z [edit ] The Teflon Don – mobster John Gotti The Teflon Taoiseach – Bertie Ahern, former Taoiseach of Ireland The Thin White Duke – David Bowie, Actor, Entertainer The Thunderer - newspaper, London The Times The Toxic Twins – Aerosmith members Steven Tyler and Joe Perry, referred to as such because of their massive drug intake during the 70s and 80s Tree-Town - Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S. The Twin Cities - Saint Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S. The Twin Towers - former World Trade Center, New York City, U.S. Tinseltown – Hollywood, California, U.S. Trane – John Coltrane Tricky Dick – Richard Nixon, 37th president of the United States Turd Blossom – name given by George W. Bush to Karl Rove Twentieth Century Dinosaurs - sculptures of dinosaurs made by Jim Gary out of automobile parts of the twentieth century and the exhibition of them that traveled around the world Uncle Sam – the U.S.A. in general or specifically, its government Venice of the North - Stockholm, Sweden and the City of Cork, Ireland Venice of the East - Alappuzha, India The Virgin Queen – Queen Elizabeth I of England The Voice - Whitney Houston The Wall - Rahul Dravid The War on the Shore - 1991 Ryder Cup Westminster – the British Parliament Whitehall – the British government including Parliament but excluding the monarchy, often refers primarily to the British Civil Service White House – the executive branch of the government of the United States The Windy City – Chicago, Illinois, U.S. (also various other cities including Wellington, New Zealand and Port Elizabeth, South Africa) The Wizard - Dhyan Chand X-22 – backgammon champion Paul Magriel Yankee – an American of European ancestry not sympathetic to the Southern cause, originally only from the states that fought against the Confederacy in the Civil War, but now from any non-Southern state; used outside the U.S. to mean any American; sometimes derogatory in either usage Yank (a short form of "Yankee") – originally used derogatorily by Southerners but now often heard outside the U.S. Yardbird – jazz saxophonist Charlie Parker (also shortened simply to "Bird") The Young Pretender – Charles Edward Stuart See also [edit ] related articles lists References [edit ] External links [edit ]
Look up in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. sobriquet