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Sledding (US), sledging (UK), sleding or tobogganing is a common activity in wintry areas, similar to sliding, but in a prone or seated position requiring a device or vehicle generically known in the US as a sled or in other countries as a sledge or toboggan. More formally it is one of three olympic sports— the luge, skeleton, or bobsledding, all of which are based on sled principles and developed in the same time and place (St. Moritz) by much the same circle of people, mainly English tourists with an interested assist from the worthy craftsmen of that Swiss village.
The generic US term sledding refers to traveling down a snowy hill using a sled such as a flexible flyer with wooden slats and metal runners. Flat plastic or aluminum discs, or improvised sleds (carrier bags, baking trays, cafeteria trays, sheets of cardboard, etc.) may also be used. The activity has been known to exist as a fringe recreational activity far into the distant murky past in toboggan-type sleds which seasonally supplant the ubiquitous cart, wheelbarrow, and small hand-pulled wagon for winter work needs in the agrarian societies of the day, or winter yard work even today. A sled, sleigh, or sledge, as a work vehicle, is far more efficient and easier to motivate in ice and snow covered terrain than wheeled vehicles, including even the simple wheelbarrow. Wheels simply pile up snow in front of themselves in the direction of travel and create a great deal of rolling friction which must be overcome to move a load of firewood or fodder for the cattle.
Modern sledding began in St Moritz during the early 1870s when British visitors with more time than activities began to experiment and play around with boys' delivery sleds (much like the first picture) for recreation at the dawn of winter resorting in winter climes. Soon they were brainstorming on how to steer the old-fashioned flat-bottomed toboggans (toboggans coming from the words to and bargain. These sleds were created after citizens of St. Moritz would bargain over lumber to create sleds.) typical of the time and added runners whilst terrorizing the pedestrians as they used the narrow lanes and streets of the picturesque town as a run and subsequently took to racing. Soon the Bobsled, Luge, and Skeleton were developed in succession. By mid-decade, Kulm hotel owner Caspar Badrutt had the first run or course purpose built for the fledgling sport, and alpine events began amongst the privileged leisure set.
News of the rich and famous inspired the invention of the flexible flyer covered hereafter, which along with toboggans were the prosaic substitute to the nascent competitive sports aborning among the beautiful people of wealth and leisure. Unlike purpose built courses, such sleds were available to the common man and usable on any suitably snow covered nearby slope.
The first ride down a hill on a sled is the most important, but most also the most difficult, as it determines the path of the sled for further runs down the hill. It is essential to steer the sled along the most exciting course, perhaps adding twists and turns to make the run down the hill faster or more exciting. Other techniques to improve the ride include turning around, lying on the stomach, or closing both eyes. Running up to a sled and jumping onto it can create additional momentum and improve ride speed. This technique can be referred to as "Flopping."
With each course down the hill, the sled's path through the snow can become more icy. Sleds with a greater surface area (disks, toboggans and tubes) are able to make the first runs a great deal easier than the variety of sleds with metal runners. Runner sleds are typically faster once the snow has compacted or turned icy. In the 1880s, Samuel Leeds Allen invented the first steerable runner sled, the Flexible Flyer. Since that date, the ability to steer the sled away from obstacles has led people to believe it to be more appropriate choice for the safety conscious. On the other hand, the hard wood or metal front section of steerable runner sleds is far more likely to cause serious injury if it strikes a person, or if the hands are caught between the steering mechanism and a solid object in a crash. Each year, around 30,000 children in the US are injured in sledding, with one in 25 injuries requiring hospitalization. In a majority of these serious cases, young children are riding runner sleds in a prone position, and suffer hand and finger injuries when they are caught under the runners or between the sled and another object.  In addition, runner sleds force the weight of the rider onto two thin runners where the pressure causes a microscopic film of snow or ice to melt as the sled passes over it. This invisible layer of fluid reduces friction, causing the sled's speed to greatly exceed that of its flat bottomed relatives. Some people who sled sometimes use ramps or jumps to increase the danger or fun factor of sledding. In some cases, the ramp or jump may send the participant over objects such as fences, boxes, plants, and benches.
In contrast to the more common forms of sledding, backcountry sledding involves four important elements in combination: a great amount of directional control, flotation, a binding system, and padding. First, backcountry sleds are made of strong plastic material, with the snow-side surface possessing various grooves and chines for directional control. Second, the plastic construction, with a large amount of snow-side surface area keeps the sled afloat in deeper snow conditions (the same principle behind wider powder skis or snowboards). Though the original runner sleds possessed directional control, their thin runner blades bogged down in anything but icy or thin snow conditions. Disk sleds, on the other hand, possessed floation but no directional control. Third, modern backcountry sleds have a binding system, which usually consists of a simple belt strap that attaches to the sides of the sled. With the sledder in the kneeling position, the strap may go over the sledder's thighs or calves before connecting with the strap from the other side of the sled with some sort of buckling device. Finally, backcountry sleds have foam pads glued for the sledder go kneel for shock absorption.
Backcountry sledding is a closer kin to backcountry alpine skiing or snowboarding than to traditional "pile the family in the van and go to the local hill" type of sledding. The terrain for backcountry sledding includes gladed powder-filled steeps, open mountain bowls, cliff-filled ridges, and basically anywhere that one finds the powder, steeps, rocks and trees. Backcountry sleds, with the binding system and padding, may also be used for freestyle moves such as spins and flips off jumps and rail slides. Though similarities exist between backcountry sledding and alpine skiing/snowboarding, important differences separate the disciplines. From a technical perspective, the lack of a metal edge and the lower center of gravity make it more difficult to directionally control a backcountry sled on icy or packed snow surfaces. From an access perspective, alpine resorts do not allow sledding on the actual mountain, except for the occasional small tubing hill. And in essence, backcountry sledding is a more underground, do-it-yourself activity that is relatively inexpensive in comparison to other sledding activities.