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A slam dunk, also dunk or dunk shot, is a type of basketball shot that is performed when a player jumps in the air and manually powers the ball downward through the basket with one or both hands over the rim. This is considered a normal field goal attempt; if successful it is worth two points. Such a shot was known as a "dunk shot" until the term "slam dunk" was coined by Los Angeles Lakers announcer Chick Hearn.
The slam dunk is one of the highest-percentage shots one can attempt in basketball as well as one of the most crowd-pleasing plays. Slam dunks are also performed as entertainment outside of the game, notably during slam dunk contests. Perhaps the most popular such contest is the NBA Slam Dunk Contest held during the annual NBA All-Star Weekend. The first incarnation of the NBA slam dunk contest was held during the festivities accompanying an American Basketball Association All Star Game.
Dunking was banned in the NCAA from 1967 to 1976. Many people have attributed this to the dominance of the then-college phenomenon Lew Alcindor (now known as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar); the no-dunking rule is sometimes referred to as the "Lew Alcindor rule."
The phrase "slam dunk" has since entered popular usage in American English, meaning a "sure thing": an action with a guaranteed outcome, or a similarly impressive achievement, in the same way that the baseball-inspired phrases "step up to the plate" or "he hit it out of the park" were more commonly used in previous years.
During the 1940s and '50s, 7-foot center and Olympic Gold Medalist Bob Kurland was dunking regularly during games. Yet defenders viewed the execution of a slam dunk as a personal affront that deserved retribution; thus defenders often intimidated offensive players and thwarted the move. Satch Sanders, a career Boston Celtic from 1960 to 1973, said:
"...in the old days, [defenders] would run under you when you were in the air... ...trying to take people out of games so they couldn't play. It was an unwritten rule..."
Still, by the late 1950s and early '60's players such as Bill Russell and Wilt Chamberlain had incorporated the move into their offensive arsenal. The dunk became a fan-favorite, as offensive players began to aggressively intimidate defenders with the threat of vicious slams. Through the 1970s, the slam dunk was standard fare; David Thompson, Julius Erving, Darryl Dawkins, and others wowed crowds with high-flying moves.
In addition to the basic one- or two-hand forward-facing dunk, there are a variety of other dunks. Alternatives to the classic dunk require varying degrees of athleticism and are often employed in the game setting, wowing audiences, or are featured in contests to achieve high scores. A brief discussion of dunk types, with descriptions, examples, variations, and historical tidbits will appear in this module. Some dunk variants may be discussed separately of their progenitor due to the significance of those dunks.
In theory, all dunk types described below could be proceeded by a pass from another person or a self-pass by bouncing the ball off of the ground, the backboard, or other available surroundings (e.g. a 'self-pass off the backboard, double pump' would be a variation of the 'double pump'). Thus, such variations—unless notable—will be omitted from discussion of dunk-variants.
At the onset of the jump, the ball is controlled by both hands and once in the air is typically brought to chest or face level, or higher. The player will then quickly thrust the ball downwards and fully extend their arms, bringing the ball below the waist. Finally the ball is brought above the head and dunked with both hands; and the double pump appears as one fluid motion. As a demonstration of athletic prowess, the ball may be held in the below-the-waist position for milliseconds longer, thus showcasing the player's hang time.
Whether the result of a 180° spin or body angle at takeoff, the double pump is generally performed with the player's back toward the rim. While this orientation is rather conducive to the double pump motion, Spud Webb was known to perform the dunk while facing the basket. Additionally, Kenny "Sky" Walker, Tracy McGrady—in the 1989 and 2000 NBA Contests, respectively—and others, have performed 360° variation of the double pump (McGrady completed a lob self-pass before the dunk). Circa 2007, independent slam dunker T-Dub performed the double pump with a 540° spin which he concluded by hanging on the rim.
Due to the undemanding body mechanics involved in execution, the tomahawk is employed by players of all sizes and jumping abilities. Because of the ball-security provided by the use of both hands, the tomahawk is a staple of game situations—frequently employed in alley-oops and in offense-rebound put-back dunks. Additionally, the two-hand finish can exert tremendous force on the basket—Darryl Dawkins twice shattered NBA backboards with tomahawk dunks.
In one common variation, a 360° spin may be completed prior to or simultaneously with the tomahawk. Circa 2009 independent slam dunker Troy McCray pioneered an especially complex variant of the dunk: once the tomahawk motion is complete, instead of slamming the ball in the rim, a windmill dunk (see below) is then performed.
Prior to take off, or at the onset of the jump, the ball is brought to the abdomen and then the windmill motion is started by moving the ball below the waist according to the length of the player's fully extended arm. Then following the rotation of the outstretch arm, the ball is moved in a circular motion, typically moving from the front towards the back, and then slammed through the rim (from the profile view of a player facing the basket, the windmill motion most generally appears clockwise). Although, due to momentum, many players are unable to palm the ball through the entire windmill motion, the dunk is often completed with one-hand as centripetal force allows the player to guide the ball with only their dunking hand. In some instances sticky resins or powders may be applied to the palm, these are thought to improve grip and prevent loss of possession. Amongst players, subtle variations in the direction of the windmill depend on bodily orientation at takeoff and also jumping style (one-foot or two-feet) in relation to dominant hand.
There are a number of variations on the windmill, the most common being the aforementioned one- or two-hand variants. In these cases, the windmill motion may be performed with the previously discussed one-arm technique and finished with one- or two-hands, or the player may control the ball with two hands, with both arms performing the windmill motion, finishing with one or both hands. Additionally, the ball may be cuffed between the hand and the forearm—generally with the dominant hand. The cuff technique provides better ball security, allowing for a faster windmill motion and increased force exerted on the basket at finish, with either one or both hands. Using the cuffing method, players are also afforded the opportunity of performing the windmill motion towards the front (counterclockwise), a technique exploited by French athlete Kadour Ziani when he pioneered his trademark double-windmill.
Occasionally in the game setting, the windmill is performed via alley-oop but is rarely seen in offense-rebound putback dunks due to the airtime required. Dominique Wilkins popularized powerful windmills—in games as well as in contests—including two-handed, self-pass, 360°, rim-hang, and combined variants thereof.
The baseline dunk is an approach-variation of any dunk type in which the player approaches goal along the court-boundary (baseline) which is parallel with the backboard, instead of from the in front of the goal. In the game setting, the dunk often comes as the result of a pass, creating an assist opportunity for a teammate.
For one-footed jumpers, the ball is generally transferred to the non-dominant hand just prior to or upon take-off; for two-footers, this transfer is delayed for milliseconds as both hands often control the ball to prevent dropping it in the presence of additional momentum induced by the upward trajectory. While airborne, generally, the dominant leg is raised and the ball is transferred from non-dominant to dominant hand beneath the raised leg. Finally the ball is brought upwards by the dominant hand and slammed through the rim.
The under-the-leg dunk was popularized by Isaiah Rider in the 1994 NBA slam dunk contest, so much so that the dunk is often colloquially referred to as a 'Ryder' dunk. However, Orlando Woolridge quietly ushered the dunk into the NBA contest a decade prior. Since these performances, the under-the-legs has been featured in the NBA contest by a number of participants, and has been a staple of other contests as well. While it may be considered archetypical of modern high-flyers, the dunk still caries a certain degree of difficulty on an account of the hand-eye coordination, flexibility, and hang-time required to complete it. As such, the dunk is generally reserved for exhibition and contest performances, absent from competitive game situations. However, both Josh Smith and Ricky Davis have both botched the dunk in NBA games, though Davis has managed to successfully complete the dunk in-game.
Because of the possible combinations of starting and finishing hands, and raised-legs, there are many variations on the basic under-the-legs dunk—more so than any other. For example, in a 1997 French Dunk contest, Dali Taamallah leapt with his right leg while controlling the ball with his left hand, and once airborne he transferred the ball from his left hand, underneath his right leg to his right hand before completing the dunk. NBA star Jason Richardson has also pioneered several notable variations of the between-the-legs including a lob-pass to himself and a pass off of the backboard to himself. Independent athlete Shane 'Slam' Wise introduced a cuffed-cradle of the ball prior to initiating the under the leg transfer and finishing with two-hands. While a number of players have finished the dunk using one- or two-hands with their backs to the rim, perhaps the most renowned variant of the dunk is the combination with a 360°, or simply stated: a 360 between-the-legs. Due to the sheer athleticism and hang-time required, the dunk is a crowd favorite and is heralded by players as the preeminent of all dunks.
The player approaches the goal and leaps as they would for a generic dunk. Instead of simply dunking the ball with one or two hands, the player allows their forearm(s) to pass through the basket, hooking their elbow pit on the rim before hanging for a short period of time. Though the dunk was introduced by Vince Carter in the 2000 NBA Slam Dunk contest, two years earlier, Kobe Bryant was filmed performing the dunk at an exhibition in the Philippines. Colloquially, the dunk has a variety of names including 'honey dip', 'cookie jar', and 'elbow hook'.
In the 2011 NBA contest, L.A. Clippers power-forward Blake Griffin completed a self-pass off of the backboard prior to elbow-hanging on the rim. A number of other variants of the elbow hang have been executed, including a lob self-pass, hanging by the arm pit, a windmill, and over a person. Most notable are two variations which as of July 2012, have yet to be duplicated. In 2008, Canadian athlete Justin Darlington introduced an iteration aptly entitled a 'double-elbow hang', in which the player inserts both forearms through the rim and subsequently hangs on both elbows pits. Circa 2009, French athlete Guy Dupuy demonstrated the ability to perform a between-the-legs elbow hang; however, Guy opted not to hang on the rim by his elbow, likely because the downward moment could have resulted in injury.
This is a dunk where the player takes off from a distance which is significantly further away from the basket than is considered typical. The free-throw line is most commonly constituted as the take-off point, an effect likely attributed to the easily observable span between the line and the basket in the view of the TV audience. In order to achieve the hang-time and altitude necessary, players will generally leap from one-foot to maximize the momentum generated from the half-court running start often required to complete the dunk. A cornerstone of dunk contests, dunks from a distance are also performed in games, most often on the fast break.
In the 1950s, Jim Pollard and Wilt Chamberlain had both dunked from the free throw line—15 feet from the basket. Chamberlain was able to dunk from the free-throw line without a running start, beginning his forward movement from within the top half of the free-throw circle. This was the catalyst for the 1956 NCAA rule change which requires that a shooter maintain both feet behind the line during a free-throw attempt.
Other instances of dunks from a distance abound. James White in the 2006 NCAA Slam Dunk Contest successfully performed tomahawk and windmill variations of the foul-line dunk. Though he was unable to complete a between-the-legs from the foul line at that contest, he has been known to execute it on other occasions. In the 2008
Independent 6'2" North American athlete Eric Bishop introduced a dunk entitled the 'Paint Job'. The title is in reference to the key on a basketball court, often known as 'paint' in common parlance. Approaching along the baseline with a running dribble, Bishop jumped with one-foot at the border of the key, dunked with one-hand while gliding over the key and landed just beyond the border on the side opposite his take-off—a 16-foot flight.
An alley-oop dunk is performed when a pass is caught in the air and then slammed in the hoop; these occur in either game or contest settings. When there are only fractions of a second remaining on the game or shot clock, alley-oops may be attempted on in-bound pass because the neither clock will not start counting down until an in-bounds player touches the ball. The images to the right depict a 1/5th of a second interval.
Several notable and remarkable dunks have been performed by participants in the annual NBA Slam Dunk Contest.
Michael Jordan popularized a dunk referred to by some fans as the "Leaner". This dunk was so called because Jordan's body was not perpendicular to the ground while performing the dunk. TNT viewers rated it "the best dunk of all time" over Vince Carter's between-the-legs slam.
In the 2000 NBA Slam Dunk Contest Carter used an elbow hang along with his reverse 360 windmill dunk and between-the-legs dunk. When performed, much of the audience was speechless, including the judges, because none had seen these types of dunks before (Carter's first round 360 windmill dunk is reminiscent of Kenny Walker's 360 windmill dunk in 1989 except that Carter spins clockwise, where as Walker spins counter-clockwise).
In the 2008 Sprite Rising Star's Slam Dunk Contest Dwight Howard performed the "Superman" dunk. He donned a Superman outfit as Orlando Magic guard Jameer Nelson tied a cape around his shoulders. Nelson alley-ooped the basketball as Howard jumped from within the key side of the free throw circle line, caught the ball, and threw it through the rim. This dunk is somewhat controversial, as his hand was not over as well as on a vertical plane to the rim. Some insist that it should in fact be considered a dunk because the ball was thrust downward into the basket, meeting the basic definition of the dunk.
During the 2009 NBA dunk contest, Howard had a separate goal brought onto the court, and the rim was noticeably significantly higher than a standard goal. Howard, after going into a 1950's era telephone booth and again fashioning the Superman attire, caught a pass from Nelson and easily completed a two-handed dunk on the higher goal. While this was not performed for record-setting purposes, the dunk received a perfect score and a warm response from the crowd, in part because of its theatrics. Also in this contest, 5'9" guard Nate Robinson wore a green New York Knicks jersey and green sneakers to represent Kryptonite, playing on Howard's Superman theme. He used a green "Kryptonite" ball, and jumped over the 6'11" Howard prior to dunking. This dunk and the theatrics could have won the competition for Robinson, who was voted the winner by the NBA fans. Robinson then thanked Howard for graciously allowing him to dunk over him, asking the crowd to also give Howard a round of applause.
JaVale McGee currently holds the world record for Most Basketball Dunks in a Single Jump: three. While competing in the 2011 NBA Sprite Slam Dunk Contest, McGee jumped with two balls in his possession and dunked each prior to receiving and slamming an alley-oop pass from then teammate John Wall.
In the past, it has been possible for players to dunk a basketball and pull the rim down so hard that the glass backboard shatters, either around the rim itself or, at times, shattering the entire backboard, or the entire goal standard fails. Reinforced backboards and breakaway rims have minimized this at the college and professional levels, but it still happens at lower levels.
All-star power forward Gus Johnson of the Baltimore Bullets was the first of the famous backboard breakers in the NBA, shattering three during his career in the 1960s and early 1970s. Darryl Dawkins of the Philadelphia 76ers was also notorious for two glass-shattering dunks in 1979 resulting in the league threatening to fine him and eventually installing breakaway rims. Twice in his rookie season (1992–93) during games, center Shaquille O'Neal dunked so hard that he broke the hydraulic support of one goal standard (against the Phoenix Suns) and broke the welds holding up another goal standard, causing the basket to break off and fall to the floor (against the New Jersey Nets), although in neither case did the glass break. This resulted in reinforced backboard supports as well. During that same season, New Jersey's Chris Morris shattered a backboard in a game against the Chicago Bulls (the most recent shattered-backboard incident in the NBA to date). The NBA has made shattering the backboard a technical foul, although it will not count towards a player's count of seven that can draw a suspension, or two towards ejection from a game, and it counts towards a player's count of six personal fouls. This has assisted in deterring this action, as it can cost the team points.
In the ABA, Charlie Hentz broke two backboards in the same game on November 6, 1970 resulting in the game being called. In the NCAA, Jerome Lane shattered a backboard while playing for Pitt in a 1988 regular-season game against Providence, and Darvin Ham did the same while playing for Texas Tech in a tournament game against North Carolina in 1996.
The Premier Basketball League has had two slam-dunks that have resulted in broken backboards. Both came consecutively in the 2008 and 2009 PBL Finals, and both were achieved by Sammy Monroe of the Rochester Razorsharks.
Dunking is much less common in women's basketball than in men's play. Dunking is slightly more common during practice sessions, but many coaches advise against it in competitive play because of the risks of injury or failing to score.
Georgeann Wells, as a 6'7" (201 cm) junior playing for West Virginia University became the first woman to score a slam dunk in women's collegiate play, in a game against the University of Charleston on December 21, 1984. While a senior in high school, future Baylor University standout Brittney Griner dunked 52 times in 32 games; in one game she even set a single-game record of seven dunks. While in college, Griner became the seventh player to dunk during a women's college basketball game, and only the second woman to dunk twice in a single college game.
In WNBA play, a total of eleven dunks have been scored. Lisa Leslie of the Los Angeles Sparks was the first to score a dunk, on July 30, 2002 against the Miami Sol. Leslie also scored the second dunk in WNBA history on July 9, 2005. Other professional women's players who have scored dunks are Michelle Snow, Candace Parker (twice), and Sylvia Fowles. On May 27, 2013, Brittney Griner dunked twice in her WNBA debut. Griner has a total of five WNBA dunks, including the first dunk in a WNBA playoff game (August 25, 2014).
In 2004, as a high school senior, Candace Parker was invited to participate in the McDonald's All-American Game and accompanying festivities where she competed in and won the slam dunk contest. In subsequent years other women have entered the contest; though Kelley Cain, Krystal Thomas, and Maya Moore were denied entry into the same contest in 2007. Brittney Griner intended to participate in the 2009 McDonald's Dunk Contest but was unable to attend the event due to the attendance policy of her high school. Breanna Stewart, at 6'3" (191 cm), Alexis Prince (6'2"; 188 cm), and Brittney Sykes (5'9"; 175 cm) competed in the 2012 contest; Prince and Sykes failed to complete their dunks, while Stewart landed two in the first round but missed her second two attempts in the final round.
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