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In particle theory, the skyrmion is a hypothetical particle related originally to baryons. It was described by Tony Skyrme and consists of a quantum superposition of baryons and resonance states.
Skyrmions as topological objects are also important in solid state physics, especially in the emerging technology of spintronics. A two-dimensional skyrmion, as a topological object, is formed, e.g., from a 3d effective-spin "hedgehog" (in the field of micromagnetics: out of a so-called "Bloch point" singularity of homotopy degree +1) by a stereographic projection, whereby the positive northpole spin is mapped onto a far-off edge circle of a 2d-disk, while the negative southpole spin is mapped onto the center of the disk.
In field theory, skyrmions are homotopically non-trivial classical solutions of a nonlinear sigma model with a non-trivial target manifold topology – hence, they are topological solitons. An example occurs in chiral models  of mesons, where the target manifold is a homogeneous space of the structure group
where SU(N)L and SU(N)R are the left and right parts of the SU(N) matrix, and SU(N)diag is the diagonal subgroup.
is equivalent to the ring of integers, with the congruence sign referring to homeomorphism.
A topological term can be added to the chiral Lagrangian, whose integral depends only upon the homotopy class; this results in superselection sectors in the quantised model. A skyrmion can be approximated by a soliton of the Sine-Gordon equation; after quantisation by the Bethe ansatz or otherwise, it turns into a fermion interacting according to the massive Thirring model.
One particular form of the skyrmions is found in magnetic materials that break the inversion symmetry and where the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction plays an important role. They form "domains" as small as a 1 nm (e.g. in Fe on Ir(111)). The small size of magnetic skyrmions makes them a good candidate for future data storage solutions. Physicists at the University of Hamburg have managed to read and write skyrmions using scanning tunneling microscopy. The topological charge, representing the existence and non-existence of skyrmions, can represent the bit states "1" and "0".