List of sky deities

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"Air spirit" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Spirit Air.
"Spirits of the air" redirects here. For the 1989 science fiction film, see Spirits of the Air, Gremlins of the Clouds.
"Spirit of the sky" and "Spirits of the sky" redirect here. For the 1969 psychedelic rock song, see Spirit in the Sky. For the American alternative rock group, see Spirits in the Sky.
Jupiter, the sky father of Greco-Roman mythology

The sky has important religious significance. Most polytheistic religions have a deity or deities whose portfolio includes or is even limited to the sky or the heavens. While there are often multiple sky deities, sometimes this position is reserved for a deity who is conceived as reigning over the others, or at least is one of the most powerful. When the main sky deity was seen as feminine, she often held the title of the "Queen of Heaven." Ancient sky goddesses who held the title "Queen of Heaven" included Isis, Astarte, Ishtar, and Inanna. (The title was later applied to the Virgin Mary, along with various other features and attributes of ancient pagan goddesses.)

Another common conception is that of a complementary polarity between Earth and sky that may be ascribed genders as a mated pair. In some religions this takes the form of a Sky father and an Earth mother, while in other religions the mated couple are a sky goddess and an earth god. (For example, Nut and Geb in ancient Egypt.) In still other religions, there is a main pair of deities who rule the sky as husband and wife (for example, Zeus and Hera in ancient Greece), while a different pair of deities (e.g., Hades and Persephone) rule the Earth and/or chthonic realms. Along similar lines, some scholars of religion hold that Jehovah or Yahweh, the monotheistic deity of the Jewish bible, originally had a wife who was most likely the sky goddess Asherah. (See The Hebrew Goddess.) In some contemporary religions, the divine pair of sky deities are known as the "Heavenly Father" and the "Heavenly Mother."


Egyptian mythology[edit]

Sub Saharan mythology[edit]

Ancient Near East[edit]

Ancient semitic mythology[edit]

Hurrian mythology[edit]

Mesopotamian mythology[edit]

Armenian mythology[edit]


Basque mythology[edit]

Celtic mythology[edit]

Etruscan mythology[edit]

Finnish mythology[edit]

Germanic mythology[edit]

Greek mythology[edit]

Roman mythology[edit]

Sami mythology[edit]

Slavic mythology[edit]

Thracian mythology[edit]

South Asia[edit]


East and Southeast Asia[edit]

Chinese mythology[edit]

Japanese mythology[edit]

Māori mythology[edit]

Thai and Lao Mythology[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

Turkic mythology[edit]

Udmurt mythology[edit]



Aztec mythology[edit]

Inca mythology[edit]

Maya mythology[edit]

Native American mythology[edit]

Australia and Oceania[edit]


Oceania mythology[edit]

See also[edit]