Skinhead

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A skinhead is a member of a subculture that originated among working class youths in London, England in the 1960s and then soon spread to other parts of the United Kingdom, and later to other countries around the world. Named for their close-cropped or shaven heads, the first skinheads were greatly influenced by West Indian (specifically Jamaican) rude boys and British mods, in terms of fashion, music and lifestyle.[1] Originally, the skinhead subculture was mainly based on those elements, not politics or race. In fact many British Skinheads during the 1960s were Black.

Eventually, political affiliations grew in significance for the skinhead subculture, and now the political spectrum within the subculture spans from far right to far left, although many skinheads describe themselves as apolitical. Contemporary skinhead fashions range from clean-cut 1960s mod-influenced styles to less-strict punk- and hardcore-influenced styles.[2]

History[edit]

Hoxton Tom McCourt, a revival skinhead pictured in 1977

In the late 1950s the post-war economic boom led to an increase in disposable income among many young people. Some of those youths spent that income on new fashions popularized by American soul groups, British R&B bands, certain movie actors, and Carnaby Street clothing merchants.[3][4] These youths became known as mods, a youth subculture noted for its consumerism and devotion to fashion, music and scooters.[5]

Mods of lesser means made do with practical clothing styles that suited their lifestyle and employment circumstances: work boots or army boots, straight-leg jeans or Sta-Prest trousers, button-down shirts, and braces (called suspenders in North America). When possible, these working class mods spent their money on suits and other sharp outfits to wear at dancehalls, where they enjoyed soul, ska, bluebeat and rocksteady music.[1][6]

Around 1966, a schism developed between the peacock mods (also known as smooth mods), who were less violent and always wore the latest expensive clothes, and the hard mods (also known as gang mods, lemonheads or peanuts), who were identified by their shorter hair and more working class image.[7] These hard mods became commonly known as skinheads by about 1968.[8] Their short hair may have come about for practical reasons, since long hair can be a liability in industrial jobs and in streetfights. Skinheads may also have cut their hair short in defiance of the more middle class hippie culture.[9]

In addition to retaining many mod influences, early skinheads were very interested in Jamaican rude boy styles and culture, especially the music: ska, rocksteady, and early reggae (before the tempo slowed down and lyrics became focused on topics like black nationalism and the Rastafari movement).[1][10][11]

Skinhead culture became so popular by 1969 that even the rock band Slade temporarily adopted the look as a marketing strategy.[12][13][14] The subculture gained wider notice because of a series of violent and sexually explicit novels by Richard Allen, notably Skinhead and Skinhead Escapes.[15][16] Due to largescale British migration to Perth, Western Australia, many British youths in that city joined skinhead/sharpies gangs in the late 1960s and developed their own Australian style.[17][18]

By the early 1970s, the skinhead subculture started to fade from popular culture, and some of the original skins dropped into new categories, such as the suedeheads (defined by the ability to manipulate one's hair with a comb), smoothies (often with shoulder-length hairstyles), and bootboys (with mod-length hair; associated with gangs and football hooliganism).[8][9][19][20] Some fashion trends returned to the mod roots, with brogues, loafers, suits, and the slacks-and-sweater look making a comeback.

In the late 1970s, the skinhead subculture was revived to a notable extent after the introduction of punk rock. Most of these revivalist skinheads reacted to the commercialism of punk by adopting a look that was in line with the original 1969 skinhead style. This revival included Gary Hodges and Hoxton Tom McCourt (both later of the band the 4-Skins) and Suggs, later of the band Madness. Around this time, some skinheads became affiliated with far right groups such as the National Front and the British Movement. From 1979 onwards, punk-influenced skinheads with shorter hair, higher boots and less emphasis on traditional styles grew in numbers and grabbed media attention, mostly due to football hooliganism. There still remained, however, skinheads who preferred the original mod-inspired styles.

Eventually different interpretations of the skinhead subculture expanded beyond Britain and continental Europe. In the United States, certain segments of the hardcore punk scene embraced skinhead styles and developed their own version of the subculture.[21]

Style[edit]

A current day skinhead.
Female skinheads.

Skinheads are visually identified by their short hair and unique clothing styles. Skinhead fashions have evolved since the formation of the subculture in the 1960s, and certain clothing styles have been more prevalent in specific locations and time periods. There are a few different types of skinheads in terms of style, but many of today's skinheads do not fit into one distinct category. Traditional skinheads, also known as trads or Trojan skinheads, adopt the style of the original 1960s skinhead subculture. Oi! skinheads — influenced by the 1970s punk subculture — often have shorter hair than 1960s-style skinheads, and tend to wear higher boots, tighter jeans, and clothing styles that are less mod-influenced than their traditionalist counterparts. Tattoos have been popular in the skinhead subculture since at least the 1970s revival. In 1980s Britain, some skinheads had tattoos on their faces and/or foreheads, although this practice is not as common today. The hardcore skinhead style that originated in the United States 1980s hardcore punk scene is also less strict than that of the first generation of skinheads.

Hair[edit]

Most male skinheads in the 1960s had their hair cropped with a #2 or #3 grade clip guard (short, but not bald). Starting in the late 1970s, male skinheads typically shaved their heads with a #2 grade clip or shorter. During that period, side partings were sometimes shaved into the hair. Since the 1980s, some skinheads have clipped their hair with no guard, or even shaved it with a razor. Some skinheads sport sideburns of various styles, usually neatly trimmed, but most skinheads do not have mustaches or beards.

In the 1960s, most female skinheads had mod-style haircuts. During the 1980s skinhead revival, many female skinheads had feathercuts (known as a Chelsea in North America). A feathercut is short on the crown, with fringes at the front, back and sides. Some female skinheads have a shorter punk-style version of the hairstyle; almost entirely shaved, leaving only bangs and fringes at the front. (Skin girls with hair cropped all over, as in the male style, have always been very rare.)

Clothing and accessories[edit]

The following describes many of the clothing items and accessories common among skinheads.[8][22]

Skinheads have been known to wear long-sleeve or short-sleeve button-up shirts or polo shirts by brands such as Ben Sherman, Fred Perry, Brutus, Warrior or Jaytex; Lonsdale or Everlast shirts or sweatshirts; Grandfather shirts; V-neck sweaters; sleeveless sweaters; cardigan sweaters or T-shirts (plain or with text or designs related to the skinhead subculture). Some Oi! and hardcore-oriented skinheads wear plain white tank top undershirts, especially in North America. They have also worn fitted blazers, Harrington jackets, bomber jackets, denim jackets (usually blue, sometimes splattered with bleach), donkey jackets, Crombie-style overcoats, sheepskin 3/4-length coats, short macs, monkey jackets, or parkas. Traditional skinheads sometimes wear suits, often made out of two-tone tonic fabric (shiny mohair-like material that changes colour in different light and angles), or in a Prince of Wales or houndstooth check pattern.

Many skinheads wear Sta-Prest flat-fronted slacks or other dress trousers; jeans (normally Levi's, Lee or Wrangler); or combat trousers (plain or camouflage). Jeans and slacks are worn deliberately short (either hemmed or rolled) to show off boots, or to show off socks when wearing loafers or brogues. Jeans are often blue, with a parallel leg design, hemmed or with clean and thin rolled cuffs (turn-ups), and are sometimes splattered with bleach to resemble camouflage trousers (a style popular among Oi! skinheads).

Many traditionalist skinheads wear braces (known in North America as suspenders), in various colours, usually no more than 1" in width, clipped to the trouser waistband. In some areas, braces much wider than that may identify a skinhead as either unfashionable or as a white power skinhead. Traditionally, braces are worn up in an X shape at the back, but some Oi!-oriented skinheads wear their braces hanging down. Patterned braces — often black and white check, or vertical stripes — are sometimes worn by traditional skinheads. In a few cases, the colour of braces (suspenders) or flight jackets have been used to signify affiliations. The particular colours chosen have varied regionally, and have had totally different meanings in different areas and time periods. Only skinheads from the same area and time period are likely to interpret the colour significations accurately. The practice of using the colour clothing items to indicate affiliations has become less common, particularly among traditionalist skinheads, who are more likely to choose their colours simply for fashion purposes.

Hats common among skinheads include: Trilby hats; pork pie hats; flat caps (Scally caps or driver caps), winter woollen hats (without a bobble). Less common have been bowler hats (mostly among suedeheads and those influenced by the film A Clockwork Orange).

Traditionalist skinheads sometimes wear a silk handkerchief in the breast pocket of a Crombie-style overcoat or tonic suit jacket, in some cases fastened with an ornate stud. Some wear pocket flashes instead. These are pieces of silk in contrasting colours, mounted on a piece of cardboard and designed to look like an elaborately folded handkerchief. It was common to choose the colours based on one's favourite football club. Some skinheads wear button badges or sewn-on fabric patches with designs related to affiliations, interests or beliefs. Also popular are woollen or printed rayon scarves in football club colours, worn knotted at the neck, wrist, or hanging from a belt loop at the waist. Silk or faux-silk scarves (especially Tootal brand) with paisley patterns are also sometimes worn.

Some suedeheads carried closed umbrellas with sharpened tips, or a handle with a pull-out blade. This led to the nickname brollie boys.

Female skinheads generally wear the same clothing items as men, with addition of skirts, stockings, or dress suits composed of a ¾-length jacket and matching short skirt. Some skingirls wear fishnet stockings and mini-skirts, a style introduced during the punk-influenced skinhead revival.

Footwear[edit]

Skinhead style: Dr. Martens boots with Levi's jeans

Most skinheads wear boots; originally they wore army surplus or generic workboots, then Dr. Martens boots and shoes. In 1960s Britain, steel-toe boots worn by skinheads and hooligans were called bovver boots. Skinheads have also been known to wear brogues, loafers or Dr. Martens (or similarly styled) low shoes.

In recent years, other brands of boots, such as Solovair, Tredair and Grinders, have become popular among skinheads, partly because most Dr. Martens are no longer made in England. Football-style athletic shoes, by brands such as Adidas or Gola, have become popular with many skinheads. Female or child skinheads generally wear the same footwear as men, with the addition of monkey boots. The traditional brand for monkey boots was Grafters, but nowadays they are also made by Dr. Martens and Solovair.

In the early days of the skinhead subculture, some skinheads chose boot lace colours based on the football team they supported. Later, some skinheads (particularly highly political ones) began to use lace colour to indicate beliefs or affiliations. The particular colours chosen have varied regionally, and have had totally different meanings in different areas and time periods. Only skinheads from the same area and time period are likely to interpret the colour significations accurately. This practice has become less common, particularly among traditionalist skinheads, who are more likely to choose their colours simply for fashion purposes.

Suedeheads sometimes wore coloured socks.[23]

Music[edit]

The skinhead subculture was originally associated with black popular music genres such as soul, ska, rocksteady and early reggae.[1][24] The link between skinheads and Jamaican music led to the development of the skinhead reggae genre, performed by artists such as: Desmond Dekker, Derrick Morgan, Laurel Aitken, Symarip and The Pioneers.[11]

In the early 1970s, some reggae songs began to feature themes of black nationalism, which many white skinheads could not relate to.[25] This shift in reggae's lyrical themes created some tension between black and white skinheads, who otherwise got along fairly well.[26] Around this time, some suedeheads (an offshoot of the skinhead subculture) started listening to British glam rock bands such as The Sweet, Slade and Mott the Hoople.[19][27]

The most popular music style for late-1970s skinheads was 2 Tone, which was a fusion of ska, rocksteady, reggae, pop and punk rock.[28] The 2 Tone genre was named after 2 Tone Records, a Coventry, England record label that featured bands such as The Specials, Madness and The Selecter.[29][30][31] Some late-1970s skinheads also liked certain punk rock bands, such as Sham 69 and Menace.

Also in the late 1970s, after the first wave of punk rock, many skinheads embraced Oi!, a working class punk subgenre.[32] Musically, Oi! combines standard punk with elements of football chants, pub rock and British glam rock.[33] The Oi! scene was partly a response to a sense that many participants in the early punk scene were, in the words of The Business guitarist Steve Kent, "trendy university people using long words, trying to be artistic ... and losing touch".[34] The term Oi! as a musical genre is said to come from the band Cockney Rejects and journalist Garry Bushell, who championed the genre in Sounds magazine.[33][35][36] Not exclusively a skinhead genre, many Oi! bands included skins, punks and people who fit into neither category (sometimes called herberts[citation needed]). Notable Oi! bands of the late 1970s and early 1980s include Angelic Upstarts, Blitz, The Business, Last Resort, The Burial, Combat 84 and The 4-Skins.[8]

American Oi! began in the 1980s, with bands such as U.S. Chaos, The Press, Iron Cross, The Bruisers and Anti-Heros.[37][38][39] American skinheads created a link between their subculture and hardcore punk music, with bands such as Warzone, Agnostic Front, and Cro-Mags. The Oi! style has also spread to other parts of the world, and remains popular with many skinheads. Many later Oi! bands have combined influences from early American hardcore and 1970s British streetpunk.

Although many white power skinheads listened to Oi! music, they also developed a separate genre that was more in line with their politics: Rock Against Communism (RAC).[40] The most notable RAC band was Skrewdriver, which started out as a non-political punk band but evolved into a neo-Nazi band after the first lineup broke up and a new lineup was formed.[41][42][43] RAC started out musically similar to Oi! and punk, but has since adopted elements from other genres. White power music that sounds like hardcore is sometimes called hatecore.

Racism, anti-racism and politics[edit]

Unidentified white power skinhead. His badge says "Skinheads - Weiss und stolz" ("Skinheads - White and proud").

In the late 1960s, some skinheads in the United Kingdom (including black skinheads) had engaged in violence against South Asian immigrants (an act known as Paki bashing in common slang).[9][44][45] There had, however, also been anti-racist skinheads since the beginning of the subculture, especially in Scotland and northern England.[44][46]

In the Netherlands, the skinhead fashion was adopted by the Gabber youth culture of the Hardcore techno scene during the 1990s. However, the scene also suffered backlash from the Dutch media, labelling it as racist and neo-fascist. To combat this, many Hardcore producers and event organizers spoke out against racism.

These early skinheads were not necessarily part of any political movement, but that changed by the early 1970s. As the 1970s progressed, racially-motivated skinhead violence in the United Kingdom became more political, and far right groups such as the National Front and the British Movement saw a rise in white power skinheads among their ranks. By the late 1970s, the mass media, and subsequently the general public, had largely come to view the skinhead subculture as one that promotes racism and neo-Nazism.[citation needed] The white power and neo-Nazi skinhead subculture eventually spread to North America, Europe and other areas of the world. The mainstream media started using the term skinhead in reports of racist violence (regardless of whether the perpetrator was actually a skinhead); this has played a large role in skewing public perceptions about the subculture.[47] Three notable groups that formed in the 1980s and became associated with white power skinheads are White Aryan Resistance, Blood and Honour and Hammerskins.

Also during the late 1970s and early 1980s, however, many skinheads and suedeheads in the United Kingdom rejected both the far left and far right. This anti-extremist attitude was musically typified by Oi! bands such as Cockney Rejects, The 4-Skins, Toy Dolls, and The Business. Two notable groups of skinheads who spoke out against neo-Nazism and political extremism—and in support of traditional skinhead culture—were the Glasgow Spy Kids in Scotland (who coined the phrase Spirit of 69), and the publishers of the Hard As Nails zine in England.[44][48]

In the United States, anti-racist skinheads countered the neo-Nazi stereotype by forming organisations such as the Minneapolis Baldies, which started in 1986; Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice (SHARP), which was founded in New York City in 1987 and then spread to other countries; and Anti-Racist Action (ARA), which was formed in the late 1980s by members of the Minneapolis Baldies and other activists.[44][49]

On the far left of the skinhead subculture, redskins and anarchist skinheads take a militant anti-fascist and pro-working class stance.[50] In the United Kingdom, two groups with significant numbers of leftist skinhead members were Red Action, which started in 1981, and Anti-Fascist Action, which started in 1985. Internationally, the most notable left-wing skinhead organisation is Red and Anarchist Skinheads, which formed in the New York City area in 1993 and then spread to other countries.[51]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Brown, Timothy S. (2004). "Subcultures, pop music and politics: skinheads and "Nazi rock" in England and Germany". Journal of Social History. 
  2. ^ Godfrey, John (September 1988). "Ska Party". Skinheadheaven.org.uk. 
  3. ^ Rawlings, Terry (2000). Mod: A Very British Phenomenon. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-68136. 
  4. ^ "Articles from". Modculture.com. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  5. ^ Barnes, Richard (1979). Mods!. London: Eel Pie Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-85965-173-8. 
  6. ^ Edwards, Dave. Trojan Mod Reggae Box Set liner notes. London: Trojan Records. TJETD020. 
  7. ^ Old Skool Jim. Trojan Skinhead Reggae Box Set liner notes. London: Trojan Records. TJETD169. 
  8. ^ a b c d Marshall, George (1991). Spirit of '69 - A Skinhead Bible. Dunoon, Scotland: S.T. Publishing. ISBN 1-898927-10-3. 
  9. ^ a b c "Britain: The Skinheads". Time. 8 June 1970. Retrieved 23 May 2010. 
  10. ^ "Smiling Smash: An Interview with Cathal Smyth, a.k.a Chas Smash, of Madness". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 19 February 2001. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  11. ^ a b "Special Articles". Reggaereggaereggae.com. Retrieved 31 August 2010. [dead link]
  12. ^ "Straight From His Own Gob — Noddy Holder interview". Soundchecks.co.uk. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  13. ^ "Ambrose Slade: The Wolverhampton group that became Slade". Brumbeat.net. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  14. ^ "h2g2 - Slade — the band". BBC. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  15. ^ http://www.skinhead.no/content/articles/richardallen.asp
  16. ^ "British Hell's Angel and Skinhead novels of the 1970s". Stewarthomesociety.org. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  17. ^ "The Sharpies — Cult Gangs of the Sixties and Seventies". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  18. ^ The Space Visual Arts: Sharpies[dead link]
  19. ^ a b de Konigh, Michael (2004). Suedehead Reggae Box Set liner notes. London: Trojan Records. TJETD003. 
  20. ^ "Suedeheads". Film Noir Buff. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  21. ^ Rage with the Machine Article on Stuffmagazine.com[dead link]
  22. ^ Knight, Nick (1997). Skinhead. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-0052-3. 
  23. ^ de Konigh, Michael, Suedehead Reggae Box Set liner notes. (2004: London, Trojan Records. TJETD003)
  24. ^ "Smiling Smash: An Interview with Cathal Smyth, a.k.a Chas Smash, of Madness — Ska/Reggae - 08/16/99". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 19 February 2001. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  25. ^ Brown, 2004
  26. ^ Hebdige, 1979, pg 58
  27. ^ "RICHARD H KIRK Interview". Themilkfactory.co.uk. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  28. ^ "The 2-Tone discography". 2-tone.info. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  29. ^ "2 Tone Records - 2 Tone & Related Bibliography". 2-tone.info. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  30. ^ Moskowitz, David V. (2006). Caribbean Popular Music. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 270. ISBN 0-313-33158-8
  31. ^ The Specials.com[dead link]
  32. ^ Dalton, Stephen, "Revolution Rock", Vox, June 1993
  33. ^ a b Oi! – The Truth by Garry Bushell[dead link]
  34. ^ Robb, John (2006). Punk Rock: An Oral History (London: Elbury Press). ISBN 0-09-190511-7
  35. ^ Turner, Jeff; Garry Bushell (2005). Cockney Reject. London: John Blake Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-84454-054-5
  36. ^ "Cockney Rejects". Oisite.tripod.com. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  37. ^ "The Press a tribute page". Maninblack.org. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  38. ^ "Dementlieu Punk Archive: Washington, DC: Iron Cross interview from If This Goes On 2". Dementlieu.com. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  39. ^ Oi! American Oi! : Anti-Heros
  40. ^ "WNP — Memoirs of a Street Soldier Part 8". Aryanunity.com. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  41. ^ "Skrewdriver- A Fan's View". Punk77.co.uk. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  42. ^ "Skrewdriver- Press Cuttings". Punk77.co.uk. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  43. ^ Diamond in the Dust - The Ian Stuart Biography
  44. ^ a b c d Marshall, George. Skinhead Nation. ST Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1-898927-45-6, ISBN 978-1-898927-45-7.
  45. ^ "Monty Montgomery of the Pyramids/Symarip interview". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 29 September 2005. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  46. ^ "REDSKINS — The Interview, 1986". Sozialismus-von-unten.de. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  47. ^ Osgerby, 1998, 65
  48. ^ "Ska Party". Skinheadheaven.org.uk. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  49. ^ Matt Snyders (20 February 2008). "Skinheads at Forty — City Pages (Minneapolis/St. Paul)". Articles.citypages.com. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  50. ^ REVOLUTION TIMES HOMEPAGE - Revolution Times-Interview aus Autonom # 17
  51. ^ US RASH News Website

Further reading[edit]

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