Ski jumping

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Ski jumping
Vikersund skiflygingsbakke.jpg
Vikersundbakken in Modum, Norway is the world's largest ski jumping hill.
Highest governing bodyInternational Ski Federation
First played1808
Eidsberg, Norway
Characteristics
Team membersIndividual or groups
OlympicSince the first ever Winter Olympics in 1924
 
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Ski jumping
Vikersund skiflygingsbakke.jpg
Vikersundbakken in Modum, Norway is the world's largest ski jumping hill.
Highest governing bodyInternational Ski Federation
First played1808
Eidsberg, Norway
Characteristics
Team membersIndividual or groups
OlympicSince the first ever Winter Olympics in 1924
Ski jumping facility in Einsiedeln, Switzerland
The Ski Jumping Complex in Pragelato during the 2006 Winter Olympics of Turin.
Matti Nykänen ski jumping hill (K100) and a smaller K64 hill in Jyväskylä, Finland.

Ski jumping is a sport in which skiers go down a take-off ramp, jump and attempt to land as far as possible down the hill below. In addition to the length of the jump, judges give points for style. The skis used for ski jumping are wide and long (260 to 275 centimetres (100 to 108 in)). Ski jumping is predominantly a winter sport, performed on snow, and is part of the Winter Olympic Games, but can also be performed in summer on artificial surfaces – porcelain or frost rail track on the inrun, plastic on the landing hill.

Contents

History

True ski jumping originated in Morgedal, Norway. Olaf Rye, a Norwegian lieutenant, was the first known ski jumper. In 1809, he launched himself 9.5 meters in the air in front of an audience of other soldiers. By 1862, ski jumpers were tackling much larger jumps and traveling longer. Norway's Sondre Norheim jumped 30 meters over a rock without the benefit of poles. His record stood for three decades. The first proper competition was held in Trysil. The first widely known ski jumping competition was the Husebyrennene, held in Oslo in 1879, with Olaf Haugann of Norway setting the first world record for the longest ski jump at 20 metres.[1] The annual event was moved to Holmenkollen from 1892, and Holmenkollen has remained the pinnacle of ski jumping venues.

According to the International Olympic Committee's site[2]:

Ski jumping has been part of the Olympic Winter Games since the first Games in Chamonix Mont-Blanc in 1924. The Large Hill competition was included on the Olympic programme for the 1964 Olympic Games in Innsbruck.

Competition

Today, FIS Ski Jumping World Cup are held on three types of hills:

Normal hill competitions
for which the calculation line is found at approximately 80–100 metres (260–330 ft). Distances of up to and over 110 metres (360 ft) can be reached.
Large hill competitions
for which the calculation line is found at approximately 120–130 metres (390–430 ft). Distances of over 145 metres (476 ft) can be obtained on the larger hills. Both individual and team competitions are run on these hills.
Ski-flying competitions
for which the calculation line is found at 185 metres (607 ft). The Ski Flying World Record of 246.5 metres (809 ft) is held by Johan Remen Evensen, and was set in Vikersundbakken, Norway in February 2011.

Amateur and junior competitions are held on smaller hills.

Individual Olympic competition consists of a training jump and two scored jumps. The team event consists of four members of the same nation, who each jump twice.

Ski jumping is one of the two elements of the Nordic combined sport.

Summer jumping

Ski jumping can also be performed in the summer on a porcelain track and plastic grass combined with water. There are also many competitions during the summer. The World Cup (Summer Grand Prix) often includes those hills:

Ski jumping Fis-Cup and Continental Cup also have summer competitions and even more than the World Cup.

Women's ski jumping

On 26 May 2006, the International Ski Federation decided to allow women to ski jump at the 2009 Nordic World Ski Championships in Liberec, Czech Republic and then to have a team event for women at the 2011 world championships. FIS also decided to submit a proposal to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to allow women to compete at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver.[3]

On 28 November 2006, the proposal for a women's ski jumping event was rejected by the Executive Board of the IOC. The reason for the rejection cited the low number of athletes as well as few participating countries in the sport. The Executive Board noted that women's ski jumping has yet to be fully established internationally.[4] Jacques Rogge, president of the International Olympic Committee stated that women's ski jumping will not be an Olympic event because "we do not want the medals to be diluted and watered down," referring to the relatively small number of potential competitors in women's ski jumping.[5]

It has been noted that while the number of women in ski jumping is not insignificant, the field has a much wider spread in terms of talent, in that the top men are all of a similar level of strength competitively, while the women are more varied, even in the top tiers.[6]

A group of 15 competitive female ski jumpers filed a suit against the Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC) claiming that conducting a men's ski jumping event without a women's event in the Vancouver Winter Olympics in 2010 would be in direct violation of Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[7] The arguments associated with this suit were argued 20 to 24 April 2009 and a judgment came down on June 10, 2009 against the ski jumpers. The judge ruled that although the women were being discriminated against,[8] the issue is an International Olympic Committee responsibility and thus not governed by the charter. It further ruled that the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms does not apply to VANOC.[9] Three British Columbia judges unanimously denied an appeal on November 13, 2009. The American actress and documentary film producer Virginia Madsen has chronicled the Canadian team's efforts in a film called Fighting Gravity (2009).[10]

On April 6, 2011 the International Olympic Committee officially accepted women ski jumping into the official Olympic program for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.[11]

Mixed Team

On June 16, 2012 a historic world premiere of "Mixed Team (couples) ski jumping event for men and women"[12] (also called Battles of Genders or Duels of Genders) was held at Mostec in Ljubljana, Slovenia. It was part of a traditional 42nd International Revial Ski Jumping competition on hills of Arena Triglav Mostec[13] ski jumping complex located in Šiška District, Ljubljana. On four different hills of size HS14, HS23, HS38 and HS62 mixed teams (couples) for the first time competed with each other by rules of elimination system. Slovenians Maja Vtič and Tomaž Naglič are the first Mixed Team (couples) winners in history.[14]

Records

All Pre-World Cup, Olympic Games, World Championships & World Cup events are included. (As of March 18, 2011)

CategorySki JumperRecordDate/Year
Olympic Games (1924–2010)
most individual victoriesSwitzerland Simon Ammann42002–2010
all medalsFinland Matti Nykänen51984–1988
most team victoriesFinland Finland Team21988–1992
Germany Germany Team21994–2002
Austria Austria Team22006–2010
most team medalsAustria Austria Team51992–2010
youngest winner individual (Albertville)Finland Toni Nieminen16 y, 261 d1992
oldest winner individual (Lillehammer)Germany Jens Weißflog29 y, 214 d1994
by No. of Olympic appearancesJapan Noriaki Kasai61992–2010
FIS Nordic World Ski Championships (1925–2011)
most individual victoriesPoland Adam Małysz42001–2007
most individual medalsPoland Adam Małysz62001–2011
all medalsFinland Janne Ahonen101995–2005
Germany Martin Schmitt101997–2011
most team victoriesAustria Austria Team81984–2011
most team medalsAustria Austria Team141984–2011
youngest winner individual (Thunder Bay)Norway Tommy Ingebrigtsen17 y, 222 d1995
oldest winner individual (Liberec)Switzerland Andreas Küttel29 y, 308 d2009
by No. of Championships appearancesJapan Noriaki Kasai101989–2009
FIS Ski-Flying World Championships (1972–2010)
most individual victoriesSwitzerland Walter Steiner21972–1977
Germany Sven Hannawald22000–2002
Norway Roar Ljøkelsøy22004–2006
most individual medalsFinland Matti Nykänen51983–1990
all medalsFinland Janne Ahonen71996–2008
most team victoriesNorway Norway Team22004–2006
Austria Austria Team22008–2010
most team medalsNorway Norway Team42004–2010
Finland Finland Team42004–2010
youngest winner individual (Oberstdorf)Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer18 y, 47 d2008
oldest winner individual (Vikersund)Slovenia Robert Kranjec30 y, 224 days2012
by No. of Championships appearancesFinland Janne Ahonen91994–2010
Four Hills Tournament (1952–2011)
most overall victoriesFinland Janne Ahonen51999–2008
most individual victoriesGermany Jens Weißflog101983–1996
youngest winner individual (Oberstdorf)Finland Toni Nieminen16 y, 212 d29 December 1991
oldest winner individual (Bischofshofen)Germany Jens Weißflog31 y, 169 d6 January 1996
youngest winner overallFinland Toni Nieminen16 y, 220 d1991–92
oldest winner overallGermany Jens Weißflog31 y, 169 d1995–96
World Cup (1979–2011)
most overall winsFinland Matti Nykänen41983–1988
Poland Adam Małysz42001–2007
most individual victoriesFinland Matti Nykänen461981–1989
most individual podiumsFinland Janne Ahonen1081993–2010
most individual Top 10 resultsFinland Janne Ahonen2451993–2011
most team victoriesAustria Austria team231990–2011
most team medalsAustria Austria team451990–2011
most individual performancesJapan Noriaki Kasai4091989-active
most team performancesJapan Noriaki Kasai421990-active
all performancesJapan Noriaki Kasai4511989-active
most seasonsJapan Noriaki Kasai221989-active
most ski-flying individual victoriesAustria Gregor Schlierenzauer102006-active
youngest winner individual (Lahti)Canada Steve Collins15 y, 362 d9 March 1980
oldest winner individual (Kuopio)Japan Takanobu Okabe38 y, 135 d10 March 2009
youngest winner overallFinland Toni Nieminen16 y, 303 d1991-92
oldest winner overallPoland Adam Małysz29 y, 112 d2006-07
oldest World Cup performance jumperJapan Takanobu Okabe41 y, 95 d1989-2012
most wins in one season individualAustria Gregor Schlierenzauer132008-09
most points in one season individualAustria Gregor Schlierenzauer2083 (points)2008-09
Other records (all times)
first jump over 100m (Planica)Austria Sepp Bradl101m1936
first jump over 200m (Planica)Austria Andreas Goldberger (fall, invalid)202m*1994
Finland Toni Nieminen (official)203m1994
most jumps over 200mSlovenia Robert Kranjec1311998–active
world record (Vikersund)Norway Johan Remen Evensen246.5m2011
first World Cup individual eventItaly Cortina d'AmpezzoDecember1979
first World Cup team eventFinland LahtiMarch1990

Scoring

The winner is decided on a scoring system based on distance, style, inrun length and wind conditions.

Each hill has a target called the calculation point (or K point or "critical point") which is a par distance to aim for. It is also the place where many jumpers land, in the middle of the landing area. This point is marked by the K line on the landing strip. For K-90 and K-120 competitions, the K line is at 90 metres (300 ft) and 120 metres (390 ft) respectively. Skiers are awarded 60 points if they land on the K Line. Skiers not landing on the K Line receive or lose points for every metre (3 ft) they miss the mark by, depending on if they surpass it or fall short, respectively. Thus, it is possible for a jumper to get a negative score if the jump is way short of the K line with poor style marks (typically a fall). The value of a metre is determined from the size of the hill. The K point is the point on the hill where the slope begins to flatten as measured from the take off.

In addition, five judges are based in a tower to the side of the expected landing point. They can award up to 20 points each for style based on keeping the skis steady during flight, balance, good body position, and landing. The highest and lowest style scores are disregarded, with the remaining three scores added to the distance score. Thus, a perfectly scored K-120 jump - with at least four of the judges awarding 20 points each - and the jumper landing on the K-point, is awarded a total of 120 points.

In January 2010, a new scoring system was introduced to compensate for variable outdoor conditions. Aerodynamics and take-off speed are important variables that determine the value of a jump, and if weather conditions change during a competition, the conditions will not be equal for everyone and thus unfair. The jumper will now receive or lose points if the inrun length is adjusted. An advanced calculation also determines plus/minus points for the actual wind conditions at the time of the jump. These points are added or withdrawn from the original scores from the jump itself.

In the individual event, the scores from each skier's two competition jumps are combined to determine the winner.

Rules

Ski jumpers below the minimum safe body mass index are penalized with a shorter maximum ski length, reducing the aerodynamic lift they can achieve. These rules have been credited with stopping the most severe cases of underweight athletes, but some competitors still lose weight to maximize the distance they can jump.[15]

Technique

The ski jump is divided into four separate sections; 1) In-run, 2) Take-off (jump), 3) Flight and 4) Landing. In each part the athlete is required to pay attention to and practice a particular technique in order to maximise the outcome of ultimate length and style marks.

Using the modern V-technique, pioneered by Jan Boklöv of Sweden in 1985, world-class skiers are able to exceed the distance of the take-off hill by about 10% compared to the previous technique with parallel skis. Aerodynamics has become a factor of increasing importance in modern ski jumping, with recent rules addressing the regulation of ski jumping suits. This follows a period when loopholes in the rules seemed to favour skinny jumpers in stiff, air foil-like suits.

Previous techniques first included the Kongsberger technique, developed in Kongsberg, Norway by two ski jumpers, Jacob Tullin Thams and Sigmund Ruud following World War I. This technique had the upper body bent at the hip, a wide forward lean, and arms extended to the front with the skis parallel to each other. It would lead to jumping length going from 45 meters to over 100 meters. In the 1950s Andreas Daescher of Switzerland and Erich Windisch of Germany modified the Kongsberger technique by placing his arms backward toward his hips for a closer lean. The Daescher technique and Windisch technique were the standard for ski jumping from the 1950s.

Until the mid 1970s, the Ski jumper would come down the in-run of the hill with both arms pointing forwards. This changed when the former East German Ski jumper Jochen Danneberg introduced the new in-run technique of directing the arms backwards in a more aerodynamic position.

The landing requires the skiers to touch the ground in the Telemark landing style. This involves the jumper landing with one foot in front of the other, mimicking the style of the Norwegian inventors of Telemark skiing. Failure to comply with this regulation will lead to the deduction of style marks (points).

Popularity

Ski jumping is popular among spectators and TV audiences in Scandinavia and Central Europe. Almost all world-class ski jumpers come from those regions or from Japan. Traditionally, the strongest countries are Finland, Norway, Germany, Austria, Poland, Switzerland, Slovenia, and Japan. However, there have always been successful ski jumpers from other countries as well (see list below). The Four Hills Tournament, held annually at four sites in Bavaria, Germany and Austria around New Year's, is very popular.

There have been attempts to spread the popularity of the sport by finding ways by which the construction and upkeep of practicing and competition venues can be made easier. These include plastic fake snow to provide a slippery surface even during the summer time and in locations where snow is a rare occurrence.

Ski flying

Ski jumping originates from Norway but homeland of ski flying is Slovenia. World's first ski flying hill was in Planica. In 1936 the FIS started to regulate the construction of the jumping hills and issued international standards. Back then it was forbidden to build hills on which jumps longer than 80 meters are possible. Nevertheless the first ever skiflying hill was built in Planica (SLO) but It took several more years until competitions on this hill were approved by the International Federation.[citation needed]

List of ski flying hills

Hill nameLocationOpenedK-pointHill sizeHill record
Norway VikersundbakkenVikersund, Norway1936K-195HS 225246.5 metres (809 ft)
Slovenia Letalnica Bratov GorišekPlanica, Slovenia1969K-185HS 215239.0 metres (784.1 ft)
Germany Heini-Klopfer-SkiflugschanzeOberstdorf, Germany1950K-185HS 213225.5 metres (740 ft)
Austria KulmBad Mitterndorf, Austria1950K-185HS 200215.5 metres (707 ft)
Czech Republic ČerťákHarrachov, Czech Republic1979K-185HS 205214.5 metres (704 ft)
United States Copper PeakIronwood, Michigan, United States1970K-170HS 180158.0 metres (518.4 ft)

Ski Flying is an extreme version of ski jumping. The events take place in big hills with a K-spot of at least 185 metres (607 ft). The difference between ski flying and "big hill" ski jumping is subtle, but ski flying puts more focus on the ability to float or glide through the air, and less on pure jumping ability. Copper Peak's reprofiling landing zone is already completed.

Ski flying and Sky diving

Ski Flyers rely on the same aerodynamics body positions (i.e. tracking and delta formations) that are used by skydivers. As gear technology and flight techniques improved in the early 1970s, both sports seem to have developed these aerodynamically stable "body positions". Depending on the gear being used, the glide ratios for the "tracking" and "delta" body positions for both sports can be as much as 2:1, meaning the ski jumper or skydiver can attain as much as 2 metres of travel over ground for every 1 metre of altitude they drop. Generally, skydivers "fly" through the air twice as fast as ski jumpers. Participants in both sports call themselves "jumpers."

Nonetheless, most of the top competitors in "regular" ski jumping tend to be among the best in ski flying competitions as well. However, some jumpers, such as Martin Koch of Austria, Johan Remen Evensen from Norway and Slovenia's Robert Kranjec are regarded as ski flying specialists.

The "father" of ski flying is Janez Gorišek, an engineer, sportsman and enthusiastic sport-promoter who designed the Planica ski-jump. There are five ski flying hills in the world today: Vikersundbakken in Vikersund, Norway; Oberstdorf, Germany; Kulm Austria; Letalnica, Planica, Slovenia; and Harrachov, Czech Republic. A sixth hill, Copper Peak in the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan, is currently disused, although there are plans to rebuild it to FIS standards.[16] There are plans for more ski flying hills, even for an indoor ski flying hill in Ylitornio, Finland. The biggest hill is Vikersundbakken in Vikersund.

It is possible to fly more than 200 metres (660 ft) in all the ski flying hills, and the current World Record is 246.5 metres (809 ft), set by Norwegian Johan Remen Evensen at Vikersund in 2011.

The Fédération Internationale de Ski (FIS) Ski flying World Championships started in 1972 and have been held on a mainly biennial basis, although there have been several occasions where events were held annually. The 2010 FIS World Championships in skiflying were organised in Planica, and in 2012 the FIS World Championships will take place in Vikersund, Norway.

1992, 1994, 1996, 1998 Ski flying World Championships individual day event wins in two series also counted as an individual World Cup win.

Official jumps over 200m

RankSki Jumper#
1. Robert Kranjec (SLO)131
2. Martin Koch (AUT)121
3. Adam Małysz (POL)114
 Bjørn Einar Romøren (NOR)114
5. Matti Hautamäki (FIN)108
 Thomas Morgenstern (AUT)108
... Simon Ammann (SUI)99
... Noriaki Kasai (JPN)85
... Gregor Schlierenzauer (AUT)80

Notable ski jumpers

The most notable ski jumpers may be considered those who have managed to show a perfect jump, which means that all five judges attributed the maximum style score of 20 points for their jumps.

So far only 5 jumpers are recorded to have achieved this:

NameDateLocationCompetitionRank
Austria Anton Innauer7 March 1976[17]Germany OberstdorfSki flying (International ski flying weeks)1
Japan Kazuyoshi Funaki15 February 1998[18]Japan NaganoOlympic Winter Games, large hill, second jump1
Germany Sven Hannawald8 February 2003[19]Germany WillingenWorldcup competition, large hill, first jump1
Japan Hideharu Miyahira8 February 2003[19]Germany WillingenWorldcup competition, large hill, second jump6
Austria Wolfgang Loitzl6 January 2009[20]Austria BischofshofenFour Hills Jumping, large hill, first jump1

Sven Hannawald and Wolfgang Loitzl were attributed four times 20 (plus another 19,5) style score points for their second jump, thus receiving nine times the maximum score of 20 points within one competition.

Other notable ski jumpers can be found in the following lists:

Male

The view from the top of the ski jump in Salt Lake City, Utah for the 2002 Winter Olympics
Ski jumping facility in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Letalnica Bratov Gorišek (outrun)
Letalnica Bratov Gorišek (inrun)
Currently active
CountryFlagName
AustriaAustriaMartin Koch
Andreas Kofler
David Zauner
Manuel Fettner
Gregor Schlierenzauer
Thomas Morgenstern
Wolfgang Loitzl
Czech RepublicCzech RepublicJakub Janda
Roman Koudelka
Jan Matura
Antonín Hájek
Lukáš Hlava
FinlandFinlandJanne Happonen
Matti Hautamäki
Ville Larinto
Anssi Koivuranta
GermanyGermanyMichael Neumayer
Martin Schmitt
Richard Freitag
Andreas Wank
Severin Freund
ItalyItalySebastian Colloredo
Andrea Morassi
Roberto Dellasega
Alessio de Crignis
JapanJapanNoriaki Kasai
Junshiro Kobayashi
Taku Takeuchi
Daiki Ito
Shōhei Tochimoto
KoreaSouth KoreaChoi Heung-Chul
Choi Yong-Jik
Kim Hyun-Ki
Kang Chil-Gu
NorwayNorwayTom Hilde
Vegard-Haukø Sklett
Bjørn Einar Romøren
Anders Bardal
Johan Remen Evensen
Ole Marius Ingvaldsen
Anders Fannemel
Rune Velta
PolandPolandKamil Stoch
Stefan Hula
Krzysztof Miętus
Marcin Bachleda
Maciej Kot
Dawid Kubacki
Łukasz Rutkowski
Rafał Śliż
SloveniaSloveniaRobert Kranjec
Jernej Damjan
Peter Prevc
Jure Šinkovec
Jurij Tepeš
Dejan Judež
SwitzerlandSwitzerlandSimon Ammann
Marco Grigoli
RussiaRussiaDenis Kornilov
Dimitry Vassiliev
Anton Kalinitschenko
FranceFranceEmmanuel Chedal
USAUnited StatesNicholas Alexander
Peter Frenette
BulgariaBulgariaVladimir Zografski
CanadaCanadaMackenzie Boyd-Clowes

Female

Unsuccessful

Important venues

The second largest jump in the world, Letalnica Bratov Gorišek, in Planica, Slovenia
Ski jumping World Cup
Four Hills Tournament
Nordic Tournament

National records

GDR stamp - Memorial for the Skijumper
RankNationRecord holderLengthVenueYearSkis
1. NorwayJohan Remen Evensen246.5 metres (809 ft)Vikersund2011Elan
2. SloveniaRobert Kranjec244 metres (801 ft)Vikersund2012Fischer
3. AustriaGregor Schlierenzauer243.5 metres (799 ft)Vikersund2011Fischer
4. FinlandJanne Happonen240 metres (790 ft)Vikersund2011Fischer
 JapanDaiki Ito240 metres (790 ft)Vikersund2012Fischer
6. SwitzerlandSimon Ammann238.5 metres (782 ft)Vikersund2011Fischer
7. Czech RepublicAntonín Hájek236 metres (774 ft)Planica2010Fischer
8. PolandPiotr Żyła232.5 metres (763 ft)Vikersund2012Fischer
9. RussiaDenis Kornilov232 metres (761 ft)Vikersund2012Fischer
10. GermanyRichard Freitag230 metres (750 ft)Vikersund2012Fischer
11. FranceVincent Descombes Sevoie225 metres (738 ft)Vikersund2012Fischer
12. United StatesAlan Alborn221.5 metres (727 ft)Planica2002Fischer
13. ItalyAndrea Morassi216.5 metres (710 ft)Planica2012Elan
14. SwedenIsak Grimholm207.5 metres (681 ft)Planica2007Elan
 South KoreaChoi Heung-Chul207.5 metres (681 ft)Planica2008Fischer
16. EstoniaKaarel Nurmsalu204 metres (669 ft)Vikersund2012Fischer
17. BelarusPetr Chaadaev197.5 metres (648 ft)Kulm2006Rossignol
18. KazakhstanRadik Zhaparov196.5 metres (645 ft)Planica2007Fischer
19. SlovakiaMartin Mesik195.5 metres (641 ft)Kulm2006Elan
20. CanadaMackenzie Boyd-Clowes194 metres (636 ft)Vikersund2012Fischer
21. UkraineVitaliy Shumbarets189.5 metres (622 ft)Planica2009Elan
22. BulgariaPetar Fartunov175 metres (574 ft)Planica2009-
23. NetherlandsChristoph Kreuzer162 metres (531 ft)Planica2002-
24. HungaryGabor Geller139 metres (456 ft)Harrachov1980-
25. TurkeyFaik Yuksel138 metres (453 ft)---
26. KyrgyzstanDmitry Chvykov122 metres (400 ft)---
27. RomaniaFlorin Spulber118 metres (387 ft)Borșa1999-
28. ChinaTian Zhandong118 metres (387 ft)---
29. United KingdomGlynn Pedersen113.5 metres (372 ft)Salt Lake City2002-
30. GeorgiaKakhaber Tsakadze105 metres (344 ft)---
31. CroatiaJosip Šporer102 metres (335 ft)Planica1940's-
32. MoldovaFilipciuc Ivan95 metres (312 ft)Borșa2002Fischer
33. WalesMark Wayne Evans85.5 metres (281 ft)---
34. ArgentinaFerdinand Gomez78 metres (256 ft)---
35. ArmeniaSarahn Czizkabika49.5 metres (162 ft)Gibswil2011-
36. MontenegroBozo Cvorovic46 metres (151 ft)Zabijak1960's-
37. BelgiumRembert Notten[21][22][23]35 metres (115 ft)Rückershausen2012-

Water ski jumping

The ski jump is performed on two long skis similar to those a beginner uses, with a specialized tailfin that is somewhat shorter and much wider (so it will support the weight of the skier when he is on the jump ramp). Skiers towed behind a boat at fixed speed, maneuver to achieve the maximum speed when hitting a ramp floating in the water, launching themselves into the air with the goal of traveling as far as possible before touching the water. Professional ski jumpers can travel up to 70 metres (230 ft). The skier must successfully land and retain control of the ski rope to be awarded the distance.

An extreme version of this sport named Ski Flying was promoted by Scot Ellis and Jim Cara, in which boat speeds and ramp heights are boosted because physics have proved that the standard 75 feet (23 m) line and traditional 35 miles per hour (56 km/h) boat speed is outrun by the skier and the pro skier was ahead of the boat, being held back by the line.

See also

References

  1. ^ Oslo – Huseby (Ski Jumping Hill Archive)
  2. ^ "Ski Jumping". International Olympic Committee. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Sports/All-Sports/Skiing/Ski-Jumping/. 
  3. ^ "FIS MEDIA INFO: Decisions of the 45th International Ski Congress in Vilamoura/Algarve (POR)". Fédération Internationale de Ski. 2006-05-26. http://www.fis-ski.com/uk/news/pressreleases/pressreleases2006/gacongressdecisions.html. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  4. ^ IOC approves skicross; rejects women's ski jumping
  5. ^ "Rogge: Women jumpers would dilute Olympics medals". CTV News. 2008-02-28. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20080228/ski_jumping_080227/20080228/. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  6. ^ Christa Case Bryant (2009-11-08). "Why women can't ski jump in the Winter Olympics". Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2009/1109/p17s03-ussc.html. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  7. ^ Cindy Chan (2009-04-29). "Female Ski Jumpers Seem Olympic Inclusion". Epoch Times. http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/content/view/16139/. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  8. ^ Rod Mickelburgh (2009-07-10). "No female flight in 2010: B.C. court rejects ski jump bid". CTV Olympics. http://www.ctvolympics.ca/ski-jumping/news/newsid=12739.html#no+female+flight+2010?cid=rssctv. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  9. ^ CBC News (2009-07-10). "Female ski jumpers lose Olympic battle". CBC News. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/british-columbia/story/2009/07/10/bc-olympic-women-ski-jump-decision.html. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  10. ^ Tatianan Siegel, "Virginia Madsen to defy 'Gravity'", Variety, Apr. 8, 2009
  11. ^ Olympic.org
  12. ^ "Prvič v zgodovini smučarskih skokov – tekma mešanih parov", Športna zveza Ljubljane, June 16, 2012
  13. ^ ski jumping hills in Mostec skisprungschanzen.com
  14. ^ video, tvslo.si (slovene), June 16, 2012
  15. ^ For Ski Jumpers, a Sliding Scale of Weight, Distance and Health
  16. ^ [1][dead link]
  17. ^ Vom Olymp zu den Fischen auf faz.net
  18. ^ Australian Olympic Committee commenting the Olympic Winter Games of Nagano 1998
  19. ^ a b FIS result list 8 February 2003, Rank 1 Hannawald, Rank 6 Miyahira (PDF-File, 379 kB)
  20. ^ FIS result list 6 January 2009, Rank 1 Loitzl (PDF-File, 273 kB)
  21. ^ "Neerpeltenaar kroont zich tot Belgisch kampioen schansspringen" (in Dutch). Het Belang van Limburg. 2012-06-13. http://www.hbvl.be/limburg/neerpelt/neerpeltenaar-kroont-zich-tot-belgisch-kampioen-schansspringen-video.aspx. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  22. ^ Broekx, Jesse (2012-06-11). "Tom Waes niet langer beste Belgische schansspringer" (in Dutch). sport.be.msn.com. http://sport.be.msn.com/nl/andere/article.html?Article_ID=589694. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  23. ^ Van Horne, Kizzy (2012-06-14). "Twintiger snoept Belgisch record schansspringen van Tom Waes af" (in Dutch). Het Nieuwsblad. http://www.nieuwsblad.be/article/detail.aspx?articleid=DMF20120614_00183842. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 

External links