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Vikersundbakken in Modum, Norway is the world's largest ski jumping hill.
|Highest governing body||International Ski Federation|
|Team members||Individual or groups|
|Olympic||Since the first ever Winter Olympics in 1924|
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2008)|
Vikersundbakken in Modum, Norway is the world's largest ski jumping hill.
|Highest governing body||International Ski Federation|
|Team members||Individual or groups|
|Olympic||Since the first ever Winter Olympics in 1924|
Ski jumping is a sport in which skiers go down a take-off ramp, jump and attempt to land as far as possible down the hill below. In addition to the length of the jump, judges give points for style. The skis used for ski jumping are wide and long (260 to 275 centimetres (100 to 108 in)). Ski jumping is predominantly a winter sport, performed on snow, and is part of the Winter Olympic Games, but can also be performed in summer on artificial surfaces – porcelain or frost rail track on the inrun, plastic on the landing hill.
True ski jumping originated in Morgedal, Norway. Olaf Rye, a Norwegian lieutenant, was the first known ski jumper. In 1809, he launched himself 9.5 meters in the air in front of an audience of other soldiers. By 1862, ski jumpers were tackling much larger jumps and traveling longer. Norway's Sondre Norheim jumped 30 meters over a rock without the benefit of poles. His record stood for three decades. The first proper competition was held in Trysil. The first widely known ski jumping competition was the Husebyrennene, held in Oslo in 1879, with Olaf Haugann of Norway setting the first world record for the longest ski jump at 20 metres. The annual event was moved to Holmenkollen from 1892, and Holmenkollen has remained the pinnacle of ski jumping venues.
According to the International Olympic Committee's site:
Ski jumping has been part of the Olympic Winter Games since the first Games in Chamonix Mont-Blanc in 1924. The Large Hill competition was included on the Olympic programme for the 1964 Olympic Games in Innsbruck.
Today, FIS Ski Jumping World Cup are held on three types of hills:
Amateur and junior competitions are held on smaller hills.
Individual Olympic competition consists of a training jump and two scored jumps. The team event consists of four members of the same nation, who each jump twice.
Ski jumping is one of the two elements of the Nordic combined sport.
Ski jumping can also be performed in the summer on a porcelain track and plastic grass combined with water. There are also many competitions during the summer. The World Cup (Summer Grand Prix) often includes those hills:
On 26 May 2006, the International Ski Federation decided to allow women to ski jump at the 2009 Nordic World Ski Championships in Liberec, Czech Republic and then to have a team event for women at the 2011 world championships. FIS also decided to submit a proposal to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to allow women to compete at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver.
On 28 November 2006, the proposal for a women's ski jumping event was rejected by the Executive Board of the IOC. The reason for the rejection cited the low number of athletes as well as few participating countries in the sport. The Executive Board noted that women's ski jumping has yet to be fully established internationally. Jacques Rogge, president of the International Olympic Committee stated that women's ski jumping will not be an Olympic event because "we do not want the medals to be diluted and watered down," referring to the relatively small number of potential competitors in women's ski jumping.
It has been noted that while the number of women in ski jumping is not insignificant, the field has a much wider spread in terms of talent, in that the top men are all of a similar level of strength competitively, while the women are more varied, even in the top tiers.
A group of 15 competitive female ski jumpers filed a suit against the Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC) claiming that conducting a men's ski jumping event without a women's event in the Vancouver Winter Olympics in 2010 would be in direct violation of Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The arguments associated with this suit were argued 20 to 24 April 2009 and a judgment came down on June 10, 2009 against the ski jumpers. The judge ruled that although the women were being discriminated against, the issue is an International Olympic Committee responsibility and thus not governed by the charter. It further ruled that the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms does not apply to VANOC. Three British Columbia judges unanimously denied an appeal on November 13, 2009. The American actress and documentary film producer Virginia Madsen has chronicled the Canadian team's efforts in a film called Fighting Gravity (2009).
On June 16, 2012 a historic world premiere of "Mixed Team (couples) ski jumping event for men and women" (also called Battles of Genders or Duels of Genders) was held at Mostec in Ljubljana, Slovenia. It was part of a traditional 42nd International Revial Ski Jumping competition on hills of Arena Triglav Mostec ski jumping complex located in Šiška District, Ljubljana. On four different hills of size HS14, HS23, HS38 and HS62 mixed teams (couples) for the first time competed with each other by rules of elimination system. Slovenians Maja Vtič and Tomaž Naglič are the first Mixed Team (couples) winners in history.
All Pre-World Cup, Olympic Games, World Championships & World Cup events are included. (As of March 18, 2011)
|Olympic Games (1924–2010)|
|most individual victories||Simon Ammann||4||2002–2010|
|all medals||Matti Nykänen||5||1984–1988|
|most team victories||Finland Team||2||1988–1992|
|most team medals||Austria Team||5||1992–2010|
|youngest winner individual (Albertville)||Toni Nieminen||16 y, 261 d||1992|
|oldest winner individual (Lillehammer)||Jens Weißflog||29 y, 214 d||1994|
|by No. of Olympic appearances||Noriaki Kasai||6||1992–2010|
|FIS Nordic World Ski Championships (1925–2011)|
|most individual victories||Adam Małysz||4||2001–2007|
|most individual medals||Adam Małysz||6||2001–2011|
|all medals||Janne Ahonen||10||1995–2005|
|most team victories||Austria Team||8||1984–2011|
|most team medals||Austria Team||14||1984–2011|
|youngest winner individual (Thunder Bay)||Tommy Ingebrigtsen||17 y, 222 d||1995|
|oldest winner individual (Liberec)||Andreas Küttel||29 y, 308 d||2009|
|by No. of Championships appearances||Noriaki Kasai||10||1989–2009|
|FIS Ski-Flying World Championships (1972–2010)|
|most individual victories||Walter Steiner||2||1972–1977|
|most individual medals||Matti Nykänen||5||1983–1990|
|all medals||Janne Ahonen||7||1996–2008|
|most team victories||Norway Team||2||2004–2006|
|most team medals||Norway Team||4||2004–2010|
|youngest winner individual (Oberstdorf)||Gregor Schlierenzauer||18 y, 47 d||2008|
|oldest winner individual (Vikersund)||Robert Kranjec||30 y, 224 days||2012|
|by No. of Championships appearances||Janne Ahonen||9||1994–2010|
|Four Hills Tournament (1952–2011)|
|most overall victories||Janne Ahonen||5||1999–2008|
|most individual victories||Jens Weißflog||10||1983–1996|
|youngest winner individual (Oberstdorf)||Toni Nieminen||16 y, 212 d||29 December 1991|
|oldest winner individual (Bischofshofen)||Jens Weißflog||31 y, 169 d||6 January 1996|
|youngest winner overall||Toni Nieminen||16 y, 220 d||1991–92|
|oldest winner overall||Jens Weißflog||31 y, 169 d||1995–96|
|World Cup (1979–2011)|
|most overall wins||Matti Nykänen||4||1983–1988|
|most individual victories||Matti Nykänen||46||1981–1989|
|most individual podiums||Janne Ahonen||108||1993–2010|
|most individual Top 10 results||Janne Ahonen||245||1993–2011|
|most team victories||Austria team||23||1990–2011|
|most team medals||Austria team||45||1990–2011|
|most individual performances||Noriaki Kasai||409||1989-active|
|most team performances||Noriaki Kasai||42||1990-active|
|all performances||Noriaki Kasai||451||1989-active|
|most seasons||Noriaki Kasai||22||1989-active|
|most ski-flying individual victories||Gregor Schlierenzauer||10||2006-active|
|youngest winner individual (Lahti)||Steve Collins||15 y, 362 d||9 March 1980|
|oldest winner individual (Kuopio)||Takanobu Okabe||38 y, 135 d||10 March 2009|
|youngest winner overall||Toni Nieminen||16 y, 303 d||1991-92|
|oldest winner overall||Adam Małysz||29 y, 112 d||2006-07|
|oldest World Cup performance jumper||Takanobu Okabe||41 y, 95 d||1989-2012|
|most wins in one season individual||Gregor Schlierenzauer||13||2008-09|
|most points in one season individual||Gregor Schlierenzauer||2083 (points)||2008-09|
|Other records (all times)|
|first jump over 100m (Planica)||Sepp Bradl||101m||1936|
|first jump over 200m (Planica)||Andreas Goldberger (fall, invalid)||202m*||1994|
|Toni Nieminen (official)||203m||1994|
|most jumps over 200m||Robert Kranjec||131||1998–active|
|world record (Vikersund)||Johan Remen Evensen||246.5m||2011|
|first World Cup individual event||Cortina d'Ampezzo||December||1979|
|first World Cup team event||Lahti||March||1990|
The winner is decided on a scoring system based on distance, style, inrun length and wind conditions.
Each hill has a target called the calculation point (or K point or "critical point") which is a par distance to aim for. It is also the place where many jumpers land, in the middle of the landing area. This point is marked by the K line on the landing strip. For K-90 and K-120 competitions, the K line is at 90 metres (300 ft) and 120 metres (390 ft) respectively. Skiers are awarded 60 points if they land on the K Line. Skiers not landing on the K Line receive or lose points for every metre (3 ft) they miss the mark by, depending on if they surpass it or fall short, respectively. Thus, it is possible for a jumper to get a negative score if the jump is way short of the K line with poor style marks (typically a fall). The value of a metre is determined from the size of the hill. The K point is the point on the hill where the slope begins to flatten as measured from the take off.
In addition, five judges are based in a tower to the side of the expected landing point. They can award up to 20 points each for style based on keeping the skis steady during flight, balance, good body position, and landing. The highest and lowest style scores are disregarded, with the remaining three scores added to the distance score. Thus, a perfectly scored K-120 jump - with at least four of the judges awarding 20 points each - and the jumper landing on the K-point, is awarded a total of 120 points.
In January 2010, a new scoring system was introduced to compensate for variable outdoor conditions. Aerodynamics and take-off speed are important variables that determine the value of a jump, and if weather conditions change during a competition, the conditions will not be equal for everyone and thus unfair. The jumper will now receive or lose points if the inrun length is adjusted. An advanced calculation also determines plus/minus points for the actual wind conditions at the time of the jump. These points are added or withdrawn from the original scores from the jump itself.
In the individual event, the scores from each skier's two competition jumps are combined to determine the winner.
Ski jumpers below the minimum safe body mass index are penalized with a shorter maximum ski length, reducing the aerodynamic lift they can achieve. These rules have been credited with stopping the most severe cases of underweight athletes, but some competitors still lose weight to maximize the distance they can jump.
The ski jump is divided into four separate sections; 1) In-run, 2) Take-off (jump), 3) Flight and 4) Landing. In each part the athlete is required to pay attention to and practice a particular technique in order to maximise the outcome of ultimate length and style marks.
Using the modern V-technique, pioneered by Jan Boklöv of Sweden in 1985, world-class skiers are able to exceed the distance of the take-off hill by about 10% compared to the previous technique with parallel skis. Aerodynamics has become a factor of increasing importance in modern ski jumping, with recent rules addressing the regulation of ski jumping suits. This follows a period when loopholes in the rules seemed to favour skinny jumpers in stiff, air foil-like suits.
Previous techniques first included the Kongsberger technique, developed in Kongsberg, Norway by two ski jumpers, Jacob Tullin Thams and Sigmund Ruud following World War I. This technique had the upper body bent at the hip, a wide forward lean, and arms extended to the front with the skis parallel to each other. It would lead to jumping length going from 45 meters to over 100 meters. In the 1950s Andreas Daescher of Switzerland and Erich Windisch of Germany modified the Kongsberger technique by placing his arms backward toward his hips for a closer lean. The Daescher technique and Windisch technique were the standard for ski jumping from the 1950s.
Until the mid 1970s, the Ski jumper would come down the in-run of the hill with both arms pointing forwards. This changed when the former East German Ski jumper Jochen Danneberg introduced the new in-run technique of directing the arms backwards in a more aerodynamic position.
The landing requires the skiers to touch the ground in the Telemark landing style. This involves the jumper landing with one foot in front of the other, mimicking the style of the Norwegian inventors of Telemark skiing. Failure to comply with this regulation will lead to the deduction of style marks (points).
Ski jumping is popular among spectators and TV audiences in Scandinavia and Central Europe. Almost all world-class ski jumpers come from those regions or from Japan. Traditionally, the strongest countries are Finland, Norway, Germany, Austria, Poland, Switzerland, Slovenia, and Japan. However, there have always been successful ski jumpers from other countries as well (see list below). The Four Hills Tournament, held annually at four sites in Bavaria, Germany and Austria around New Year's, is very popular.
There have been attempts to spread the popularity of the sport by finding ways by which the construction and upkeep of practicing and competition venues can be made easier. These include plastic fake snow to provide a slippery surface even during the summer time and in locations where snow is a rare occurrence.
Ski jumping originates from Norway but homeland of ski flying is Slovenia. World's first ski flying hill was in Planica. In 1936 the FIS started to regulate the construction of the jumping hills and issued international standards. Back then it was forbidden to build hills on which jumps longer than 80 meters are possible. Nevertheless the first ever skiflying hill was built in Planica (SLO) but It took several more years until competitions on this hill were approved by the International Federation.
|Hill name||Location||Opened||K-point||Hill size||Hill record|
|Vikersundbakken||Vikersund, Norway||1936||K-195||HS 225||246.5 metres (809 ft)|
|Letalnica Bratov Gorišek||Planica, Slovenia||1969||K-185||HS 215||239.0 metres (784.1 ft)|
|Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze||Oberstdorf, Germany||1950||K-185||HS 213||225.5 metres (740 ft)|
|Kulm||Bad Mitterndorf, Austria||1950||K-185||HS 200||215.5 metres (707 ft)|
|Čerťák||Harrachov, Czech Republic||1979||K-185||HS 205||214.5 metres (704 ft)|
|Copper Peak||Ironwood, Michigan, United States||1970||K-170||HS 180||158.0 metres (518.4 ft)|
Ski Flying is an extreme version of ski jumping. The events take place in big hills with a K-spot of at least 185 metres (607 ft). The difference between ski flying and "big hill" ski jumping is subtle, but ski flying puts more focus on the ability to float or glide through the air, and less on pure jumping ability. Copper Peak's reprofiling landing zone is already completed.
Ski Flyers rely on the same aerodynamics body positions (i.e. tracking and delta formations) that are used by skydivers. As gear technology and flight techniques improved in the early 1970s, both sports seem to have developed these aerodynamically stable "body positions". Depending on the gear being used, the glide ratios for the "tracking" and "delta" body positions for both sports can be as much as 2:1, meaning the ski jumper or skydiver can attain as much as 2 metres of travel over ground for every 1 metre of altitude they drop. Generally, skydivers "fly" through the air twice as fast as ski jumpers. Participants in both sports call themselves "jumpers."
Nonetheless, most of the top competitors in "regular" ski jumping tend to be among the best in ski flying competitions as well. However, some jumpers, such as Martin Koch of Austria, Johan Remen Evensen from Norway and Slovenia's Robert Kranjec are regarded as ski flying specialists.
The "father" of ski flying is Janez Gorišek, an engineer, sportsman and enthusiastic sport-promoter who designed the Planica ski-jump. There are five ski flying hills in the world today: Vikersundbakken in Vikersund, Norway; Oberstdorf, Germany; Kulm Austria; Letalnica, Planica, Slovenia; and Harrachov, Czech Republic. A sixth hill, Copper Peak in the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan, is currently disused, although there are plans to rebuild it to FIS standards. There are plans for more ski flying hills, even for an indoor ski flying hill in Ylitornio, Finland. The biggest hill is Vikersundbakken in Vikersund.
It is possible to fly more than 200 metres (660 ft) in all the ski flying hills, and the current World Record is 246.5 metres (809 ft), set by Norwegian Johan Remen Evensen at Vikersund in 2011.
The Fédération Internationale de Ski (FIS) Ski flying World Championships started in 1972 and have been held on a mainly biennial basis, although there have been several occasions where events were held annually. The 2010 FIS World Championships in skiflying were organised in Planica, and in 2012 the FIS World Championships will take place in Vikersund, Norway.
|1.||Robert Kranjec (SLO)||131|
|2.||Martin Koch (AUT)||121|
|3.||Adam Małysz (POL)||114|
|Bjørn Einar Romøren (NOR)||114|
|5.||Matti Hautamäki (FIN)||108|
|Thomas Morgenstern (AUT)||108|
|...||Simon Ammann (SUI)||99|
|...||Noriaki Kasai (JPN)||85|
|...||Gregor Schlierenzauer (AUT)||80|
The most notable ski jumpers may be considered those who have managed to show a perfect jump, which means that all five judges attributed the maximum style score of 20 points for their jumps.
So far only 5 jumpers are recorded to have achieved this:
|Anton Innauer||7 March 1976||Oberstdorf||Ski flying (International ski flying weeks)||1|
|Kazuyoshi Funaki||15 February 1998||Nagano||Olympic Winter Games, large hill, second jump||1|
|Sven Hannawald||8 February 2003||Willingen||Worldcup competition, large hill, first jump||1|
|Hideharu Miyahira||8 February 2003||Willingen||Worldcup competition, large hill, second jump||6|
|Wolfgang Loitzl||6 January 2009||Bischofshofen||Four Hills Jumping, large hill, first jump||1|
Sven Hannawald and Wolfgang Loitzl were attributed four times 20 (plus another 19,5) style score points for their second jump, thus receiving nine times the maximum score of 20 points within one competition.
Other notable ski jumpers can be found in the following lists:
|This list of "famous" or "notable" sporting persons has no clear inclusion or exclusion criteria. Please help to define clear inclusion criteria and edit the list to contain only subjects that fit that criteria. (June 2012)|
|Czech Republic||Jakub Janda|
|Alessio de Crignis|
|Bjørn Einar Romøren|
|Johan Remen Evensen|
|Ole Marius Ingvaldsen|
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2012)|
|1.||Norway||Johan Remen Evensen||246.5 metres (809 ft)||Vikersund||2011||Elan|
|2.||Slovenia||Robert Kranjec||244 metres (801 ft)||Vikersund||2012||Fischer|
|3.||Austria||Gregor Schlierenzauer||243.5 metres (799 ft)||Vikersund||2011||Fischer|
|4.||Finland||Janne Happonen||240 metres (790 ft)||Vikersund||2011||Fischer|
|Japan||Daiki Ito||240 metres (790 ft)||Vikersund||2012||Fischer|
|6.||Switzerland||Simon Ammann||238.5 metres (782 ft)||Vikersund||2011||Fischer|
|7.||Czech Republic||Antonín Hájek||236 metres (774 ft)||Planica||2010||Fischer|
|8.||Poland||Piotr Żyła||232.5 metres (763 ft)||Vikersund||2012||Fischer|
|9.||Russia||Denis Kornilov||232 metres (761 ft)||Vikersund||2012||Fischer|
|10.||Germany||Richard Freitag||230 metres (750 ft)||Vikersund||2012||Fischer|
|11.||France||Vincent Descombes Sevoie||225 metres (738 ft)||Vikersund||2012||Fischer|
|12.||United States||Alan Alborn||221.5 metres (727 ft)||Planica||2002||Fischer|
|13.||Italy||Andrea Morassi||216.5 metres (710 ft)||Planica||2012||Elan|
|14.||Sweden||Isak Grimholm||207.5 metres (681 ft)||Planica||2007||Elan|
|South Korea||Choi Heung-Chul||207.5 metres (681 ft)||Planica||2008||Fischer|
|16.||Estonia||Kaarel Nurmsalu||204 metres (669 ft)||Vikersund||2012||Fischer|
|17.||Belarus||Petr Chaadaev||197.5 metres (648 ft)||Kulm||2006||Rossignol|
|18.||Kazakhstan||Radik Zhaparov||196.5 metres (645 ft)||Planica||2007||Fischer|
|19.||Slovakia||Martin Mesik||195.5 metres (641 ft)||Kulm||2006||Elan|
|20.||Canada||Mackenzie Boyd-Clowes||194 metres (636 ft)||Vikersund||2012||Fischer|
|21.||Ukraine||Vitaliy Shumbarets||189.5 metres (622 ft)||Planica||2009||Elan|
|22.||Bulgaria||Petar Fartunov||175 metres (574 ft)||Planica||2009||-|
|23.||Netherlands||Christoph Kreuzer||162 metres (531 ft)||Planica||2002||-|
|24.||Hungary||Gabor Geller||139 metres (456 ft)||Harrachov||1980||-|
|25.||Turkey||Faik Yuksel||138 metres (453 ft)||-||-||-|
|26.||Kyrgyzstan||Dmitry Chvykov||122 metres (400 ft)||-||-||-|
|27.||Romania||Florin Spulber||118 metres (387 ft)||Borșa||1999||-|
|28.||China||Tian Zhandong||118 metres (387 ft)||-||-||-|
|29.||United Kingdom||Glynn Pedersen||113.5 metres (372 ft)||Salt Lake City||2002||-|
|30.||Georgia||Kakhaber Tsakadze||105 metres (344 ft)||-||-||-|
|31.||Croatia||Josip Šporer||102 metres (335 ft)||Planica||1940's||-|
|32.||Moldova||Filipciuc Ivan||95 metres (312 ft)||Borșa||2002||Fischer|
|33.||Wales||Mark Wayne Evans||85.5 metres (281 ft)||-||-||-|
|34.||Argentina||Ferdinand Gomez||78 metres (256 ft)||-||-||-|
|35.||Armenia||Sarahn Czizkabika||49.5 metres (162 ft)||Gibswil||2011||-|
|36.||Montenegro||Bozo Cvorovic||46 metres (151 ft)||Zabijak||1960's||-|
|37.||Belgium||Rembert Notten||35 metres (115 ft)||Rückershausen||2012||-|
The ski jump is performed on two long skis similar to those a beginner uses, with a specialized tailfin that is somewhat shorter and much wider (so it will support the weight of the skier when he is on the jump ramp). Skiers towed behind a boat at fixed speed, maneuver to achieve the maximum speed when hitting a ramp floating in the water, launching themselves into the air with the goal of traveling as far as possible before touching the water. Professional ski jumpers can travel up to 70 metres (230 ft). The skier must successfully land and retain control of the ski rope to be awarded the distance.
An extreme version of this sport named Ski Flying was promoted by Scot Ellis and Jim Cara, in which boat speeds and ramp heights are boosted because physics have proved that the standard 75 feet (23 m) line and traditional 35 miles per hour (56 km/h) boat speed is outrun by the skier and the pro skier was ahead of the boat, being held back by the line.
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