Sioux

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Sioux
Očhéthi Šakówiŋ
En-chief-sitting-bull.jpg
Sitting Bull, a Hunkpapa Lakota chief and holy man, circa 1885
Total population
170,110[1]
Regions with significant populations
US: (SD, MN, NE, MT, ND, IA, WI, WY)
Canada: (MB, SK, AB)
Languages
Sioux, English, French
Religion
Christianity (incl. syncretistic forms), Wakan Tanka, Midewiwin
Related ethnic groups
Assiniboine, Stoney (Nakoda), and other Siouan peoples
 
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This article is about the ethnic group. For other uses, see Sioux (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Sault (disambiguation), due to the pronunciation.
Sioux
Očhéthi Šakówiŋ
En-chief-sitting-bull.jpg
Sitting Bull, a Hunkpapa Lakota chief and holy man, circa 1885
Total population
170,110[1]
Regions with significant populations
US: (SD, MN, NE, MT, ND, IA, WI, WY)
Canada: (MB, SK, AB)
Languages
Sioux, English, French
Religion
Christianity (incl. syncretistic forms), Wakan Tanka, Midewiwin
Related ethnic groups
Assiniboine, Stoney (Nakoda), and other Siouan peoples

The Sioux /ˈs/ are a Native American tribe and First Nations people in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or any of the nation's many language dialects. The Sioux comprise three major divisions based on Siouan dialect and subculture: the Santee, the Yankton-Yanktonai, and the Lakota.

The Santee (Isáŋyathi; "Knife"), also called Eastern Dakota, reside in the extreme east of the Dakotas, Minnesota and northern Iowa. The Yankton and Yanktonai (Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ and Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna; "Village-at-the-end" and "Little village-at-the-end"), collectively also referred to as the Western Dakota or by the endonym Wičhíyena, reside in the Minnesota River area. They are considered to be the middle Sioux, and have in the past been erroneously classified as Nakota.[2] The Lakota, also called Teton (Thítȟuŋwaŋ; possibly "Dwellers on the prairie"), are the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture.

Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations, communities, and reserves in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Montana in the United States; and Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan in Canada.

Etymology[edit]

The name "Sioux" is an abbreviated form of Nadouessioux borrowed into Canadian French from Nadoüessioüak from the early Odawa exonym: naadowesiwag "Sioux".[3] Jean Nicolet recorded the use in 1640.[4] The Proto-Algonquian form *na·towe·wa, meaning "Northern Iroquoian", has reflexes in several daughter languages that refer to a small rattlesnake (massasauga, Sistrurus).[5] This information was interpreted by some that the Odawa borrowing was an insult. However, this Proto-Algonquian term most likely was ultimately derived from a form *-a·towe·, meaning simply "to speak a foreign language",[3] which would make it similar to the etymology of the Greek "Barbarian". Later this was extended in meaning in some Algonquian languages to refer to the massasauga. Thus, contrary to many accounts, the old Odawa word naadowesiwag did not equate the Sioux with snakes. This is not confirmed though, since usage over the previous decades has led to this term having negative connotations to those tribes to which it refers. This would explain why many tribes have rejected this term as an exonym. One source states that the name "Sioux" derives from a Chippewa word meaning "little snake";[6] Chippewa, or Ojibwa, is a dialectic variant of Odawa.

Some of the tribes have formally or informally adopted traditional names: the Rosebud Sioux Tribe is also known as the Sičháŋǧu Oyáte, and the Oglala often use the name Oglála Lakȟóta Oyáte, rather than the English "Oglala Sioux Tribe" or OST. The alternative English spelling of Ogallala is considered improper.[4]

Očhéthi Šakówiŋ[edit]

The historical Sioux referred to the Great Sioux Nation as the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ (pronounced [oˈtʃʰetʰi ʃaˈkowĩ]), meaning "Seven Council Fires". Each fire was a symbol of an oyate (people or nation). The seven nations that comprise the Sioux are: Bdewákaŋthuŋwaŋ (Mdewakanton), Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ (Wahpeton), Waȟpékhute (Wahpekute), Sisíthuŋwaŋ (Sisseton), the Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ (Yankton), Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna (Yanktonai), and the Thítȟuŋwaŋ (Teton or Lakota).[4] The Seven Council Fires would assemble each summer to hold council, renew kinships, decide tribal matters, and participate in the Sun Dance.[7] The seven divisions would select four leaders known as Wičháša Yatápika from among the leaders of each division.[7] Being one of the four leaders was considered the highest honor for a leader; however, the annual gathering meant the majority of tribal administration was cared for by the usual leaders of each division. The last meeting of the Seven Council Fires was in 1850.[7]

Today the Teton, Santee (mixture of the four Dakota tribes) and the Minnesota Dakota, and Yankton/Yanktonai are usually known, respectively, as the Lakota, Eastern Dakota, or Western Dakota.[4][8] In any of the three main dialects, "Lakota" or "Dakota" translate to mean "friend," or more properly, "ally." Usage of Lakota or Dakota may then refer to the alliance that once bound the Great Sioux Nation.

History[edit]

First contacts with Europeans[edit]

The Dakota are first recorded to have resided at the source of the Mississippi River during the seventeenth century.[9] By 1700 some had migrated to present-day South Dakota.[10] Late in the 17th century, the Dakota entered into an alliance with French merchants.[11] The French were trying to gain advantage in the struggle for the North American fur trade against the English, who had recently established the Hudson's Bay Company.

Relationship with French traders[edit]

The first recorded encounter between the Sioux and the French occurred when Radisson and Groseilliers reached what is now Wisconsin during the winter of 1659-60. Later visiting French traders and missionaries included Claude-Jean Allouez, Daniel Greysolon Duluth, and Pierre-Charles Le Sueur who wintered with Dakota bands in early 1700.[12] In 1736 a group of Sioux killed Jean Baptiste de La Vérendrye and twenty other men on an island in Lake of the Woods.[13] However, trade with the French continued until after the French gave up North America in 1763.

Relationship with Pawnees[edit]

Author and historian Mark van de Logt wrote: "Although military historians tend to reserve the concept of “total war” for conflicts between modern industrial nations, the term nevertheless most closely approaches the state of affairs between the Pawnees and the Sioux and Cheyennes. Both sides directed their actions not solely against warrior-combatants but against the people as a whole. Noncombatants were legitimate targets. ... It is within this context that the military service of the Pawnee Scouts must be viewed."[14]

The battle of Massacre Canyon on August 5, 1873, was the last major battle between the Pawnee and the Sioux.[15]

Dakota War of 1862[edit]

Main article: Dakota War of 1862
Siege of New Ulm, August 19, 1862.
Drawing of the mass hanging of Dakota in Mankato, Minnesota

By 1862, shortly after a failed crop the year before and a winter starvation, the federal payment was late. The local traders would not issue any more credit to the Santee and one trader, Andrew Myrick, went so far as to say, "If they're hungry, let them eat grass."[16] On August 17, 1862 the Dakota War began when a few Santee men murdered a white farmer and most of his family. They inspired further attacks on white settlements along the Minnesota River. The Santee attacked the trading post. Later settlers found Myrick among the dead with his mouth stuffed full of grass.[17]

On November 5, 1862 in Minnesota, in courts-martial, 303 Santee Sioux were found guilty of rape and murder of hundreds of American settlers. They were sentenced to be hanged. No attorneys or witness were allowed as a defense for the accused, and many were convicted in less than five minutes of court time with the judge.[18] President Abraham Lincoln commuted the death sentence of 284 of the warriors, while signing off on the execution of 38 Santee men by hanging on December 26, 1862 in Mankato, Minnesota. It was the largest mass-execution in U.S. history.[19]

Afterwards, the US suspended treaty annuities to the Dakota for four years and awarded the money to the white victims and their families. The men remanded by order of President Lincoln were sent to a prison in Iowa, where more than half died.[18]

During and after the revolt, many Santee and their kin fled Minnesota and Eastern Dakota to Canada, or settled in the James River Valley in a short-lived reservation before being forced to move to Crow Creek Reservation on the east bank of the Missouri.[18] A few joined the Yanktonai and moved further west to join with the Lakota bands to continue their struggle against the United States military.[18]

Others were able to remain in Minnesota and the east, in small reservations existing into the 21st century, including Sisseton-Wahpeton, Flandreau, and Devils Lake (Spirit Lake or Fort Totten) Reservations in the Dakotas. Some ended up in Nebraska, where the Santee Sioux Tribe today has a reservation on the south bank of the Missouri.

Those who fled to Canada now have descendants residing on nine small Dakota Reserves, five of which are located in Manitoba (Sioux Valley, Long Plain, Dakota Tipi, Birdtail Creek, and Oak Lake [Pipestone]) and the remaining four (Standing Buffalo, Moose Woods [White Cap], Round Plain [Wahpeton], and Wood Mountain) in Saskatchewan.

Red Cloud's War[edit]

Main article: Red Cloud's War

Red Cloud's War (also referred to as the Bozeman War) was an armed conflict between the Lakota and the United States Army in the Wyoming Territory and the Montana Territory from 1866 to 1868. The war was fought over control of the Powder River Country in north central Wyoming.

The war is named after Red Cloud, a prominent Sioux chief who led the war against the United States following encroachment into the area by the U.S. military. The war ended with the Treaty of Fort Laramie. The Sioux victory in the war led to their temporarily preserving their control of the Powder River country.[20]

Great Sioux War of 1876–77[edit]

The Great Sioux War comprised a series of battles between the Lakota and allied tribes such as the Cheyenne against the United States military. The earliest engagement was the Battle of Powder River, and the final battle was the Wolf Mountain. Included are the Battle of the Rosebud, Battle of the Little Bighorn, Battle of Warbonnet Creek, Battle of Slim Buttes, Battle of Cedar Creek, and the Dull Knife Fight. The Great Sioux War of 1876–77 was also known as the Black Hills War, and was centered on the Lakota tribes of the Sioux, although several[who?] natives believe that the primary target of the United States military was the Northern Cheyenne tribe. The series of battles occurred in Montana territory, Dakota territory, and Wyoming territory, and resulted in a victory for the United States military.

Wounded Knee Massacre[edit]

Main article: Wounded Knee Massacre
Mass grave for the dead Lakota after massacre of Wounded Knee.

The massacre at Wounded Knee Creek was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota and the United States. It was described as a "massacre" by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.[21]

On December 29, 1890, five hundred troops of the U.S. 7th Cavalry, supported by four Hotchkiss guns (a lightweight artillery piece capable of rapid fire), surrounded an encampment of the Lakota bands of the Miniconjou and Hunkpapa [22] with orders to escort them to the railroad for transport to Omaha, Nebraska.

By the time it was over, 25 troopers and more than 150 Lakota Sioux lay dead, including men, women, and children. It remains unknown which side was responsible for the first shot; some of the soldiers are believed to have been the victims of "friendly fire" because the shooting took place at point-blank range in chaotic conditions.[23] Around 150 Lakota are believed to have fled the chaos, many of whom may have died from hypothermia.[citation needed]

Reserves and First Nations[edit]

Traditional location of Sioux tribes prior to 1770 (dark green) and their current reservations (orange)

Later in the 19th century, the railroads hired hunters to exterminate the buffalo herds, the Indians' primary food supply. The Santee and Lakota were forced to accept white-defined reservations in exchange for the rest of their lands, and domestic cattle and corn in exchange for buffalo. They became dependent upon annual federal payments guaranteed by treaty.

In Minnesota, the treaties of Traverse des Sioux and Mendota in 1851 left the Sioux with a reservation twenty miles (32 km) wide on each side of the Minnesota River. Today, one half of all enrolled Sioux in the United States live off the reservation. Enrolled members in any of the Sioux tribes in the United States are required to have ancestry that is at least 1/4 degree Sioux (the equivalent to one grandparent).[24]

In Canada, the Canadian government recognizes the tribal community as First Nations. The land holdings of the these First Nations are called Indian Reserves.

Modern reservations, reserves, and communities[edit]

Reserve/Reservation[4]CommunityBands residingLocation
Fort Peck Indian ReservationAssiniboine and Sioux TribesHunkpapa, Upper Yanktonai (Pabaksa), Sisseton, Wahpeton, and the Hudesabina (Red Bottom), Wadopabina (Canoe Paddler), Wadopahnatonwan (Canoe Paddlerrs Who Live on the Prairie), Sahiyaiyeskabi (Plains Cree-Speakers), Inyantonwanbina (Stone People) and Fat Horse Band of the AssiniboineMontana, US
Spirit Lake Reservation

(Formerly Devil's Lake Reservation)

Spirit Lake Tribe

(Mni Wakan Oyate)

Wahpeton, Sisseton, Upper YanktonaiNorth Dakota, US
Standing Rock Indian ReservationStanding Rock Sioux TribeUpper Yanktonai, HunkpapaNorth Dakota, South Dakota, US
Lake Traverse Indian ReservationSisseton Wahpeton OyateSisseton, WahpetonSouth Dakota, US
Flandreau Indian ReservationFlandreau Santee Sioux TribeMdewakanton, Wahpekute, WahpetonSouth Dakota, US
Cheyenne River Indian ReservationCheyenne River Sioux TribeMinneconjou, Blackfoot, Two Kettle, Sans ArcSouth Dakota, US
Crow Creek Indian ReservationCrow Creek Sioux TribeLower YanktonaiSouth Dakota, US
Lower Brule Indian ReservationLower Brule Sioux TribeBruléSouth Dakota, US
Yankton Sioux Indian ReservationYankton Sioux TribeYanktonSouth Dakota, US
Pine Ridge Indian ReservationOglala LakotaOglala, few BruléSouth Dakota, US
Rosebud Indian ReservationRosebud Sioux Tribe (also as Sicangu Lakota or Upper Brulé Sioux Nation)

(Sičháŋǧu Oyate)

Sićangu (Brulé), few OglalaSouth Dakota, US
Upper Sioux Indian ReservationUpper Sioux Community

(Pejuhutazizi Oyate)

Mdewakanton, Sisseton, WahpetonMinnesota, US
Lower Sioux Indian ReservationLower Sioux Indian CommunityMdewakanton, WahpekuteMinnesota, US
Shakopee-Mdewakanton Indian Reservation

(Formerly Prior Lake Indian Reservation)

Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux CommunityMdewakanton, WahpekuteMinnesota, US
Prairie Island Indian CommunityPrairie Island Indian CommunityMdewakanton, WahpekuteMinnesota, US
Santee Indian ReservationSantee Sioux NationMdewakanton, WahpekuteNebraska, US
Sioux Valley Dakota Nation Reserve, Fishing Station 62A Reserve*Sioux Valley First NationSisseton, Mdewakanton, Wahpeton, WahpekuteManitoba, Canada
Dakota Plains Indian Reserve 6ADakota Plains First NationWahpeton, SissetonManitoba, Canada
Dakota Tipi 1 ReserveDakota Tipi First NationWahpetonManitoba, Canada
Birdtail Creek 57 Reserve, Birdtail Hay Lands 57A Reserve, Fishing Station 62A Reserve*Birdtail Sioux First NationMdewakanton, Wahpekute, YanktonaiManitoba, Canada
Canupawakpa Dakota First Nation, Oak Lake 59A Reserve, Fishing Station 62A Reserve*Canupawakpa Dakota First NationWahpekute, Wahpeton, YanktonaiManitoba, Canada
Standing Buffalo 78 ReserveStanding Buffalo Dakota First NationSisseton, WahpetonSaskatchewan, Canada
Whitecap ReserveWhitecap Dakota First NationWahpeton, SissetonSaskatchewan, Canada
Wood Mountain 160 Reserve, Treaty Four Reserve Grounds Indian Reserve No. 77*Wood MountainHunkpapaSaskatchewan, Canada

20th century activism[edit]

Wounded Knee incident[edit]

Main article: Wounded Knee incident

Beginning in the late 1960s, young Native Americans began to agitate for improved conditions, respect for their civil rights, and better programs in education and economic development. Dramatic protests were conceived and carried out, such as the occupation of Alcatraz Island in California.

The Wounded Knee incident began February 27, 1973 when the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota was seized by followers of the American Indian Movement. The occupiers controlled the town for 71 days while various state and federal law enforcement agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the United States Marshals Service laid siege. Two members of A.I.M. were killed by gunfire during the incident.

Republic of Lakota[edit]

Main article: Republic of Lakota

The Lakota Freedom Delegation, a group of controversial Native American activists, declared on December 19, 2007 the Lakota were withdrawing from all treaties signed with the United States to regain sovereignty over their nation. One of the activists, Russell Means, claimed that the action is legal and cites Natural, International and U.S. law.[25] The group considers Lakota to be a sovereign nation, although as yet the state is generally unrecognized. The proposed borders reclaim thousands of square kilometres of North and South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska and Montana.[26]

Political organization[edit]

Ogalala Lakota Tipi

The historical political organization was based on individual participation and the cooperation of many to sustain the tribe’s way of life. Leaders were chosen based upon noble birth and demonstrations of chiefly virtues, such as bravery, fortitude, generosity, and wisdom.[7]

Linguistics[edit]

Chief Bone Necklace an Oglala Lakota from the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (1899)

The Sioux comprise three closely related language groups:

  1. Eastern Dakota (also known as Santee-Sisseton or Dakhóta)
    • Santee (Isáŋyáthi: Bdewákhathuŋwaŋ, Waȟpékhute)
    • Sisseton (Sisíthuŋwaŋ, Waȟpéthuŋwaŋ)
  2. Western Dakota (or Yankton-Yanktonai or Dakȟóta)
    • Yankton (Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ)
    • Yanktonai (Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna)
  3. Lakota (or Lakȟóta, Teton, Teton Sioux)

The earlier linguistic three-way division of the Sioux language identified Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota as dialects of a single language, where Lakota = Teton, Dakota = Santee-Sisseton and Nakota = Yankton-Yanktonai.[5] However, the latest studies [8][28] show that Yankton-Yanktonai never used the autonym Nakhóta, but pronounced their name roughly the same as the Santee (i.e. Dakȟóta).

These later studies identify Assiniboine and Stoney as two separate languages, with Sioux being the third language. Sioux has three similar dialects: Lakota, Western Dakota (Yankton-Yanktonai) and Eastern Dakota (Santee-Sisseton). Assiniboine and Stoney speakers refer to themselves as Nakhóta or Nakhóda[8] (cf. Nakota).

The term Dakota has also been applied by anthropologists and governmental departments to refer to all Sioux groups, resulting in names such as Teton Dakota, Santee Dakota, etc. This was mainly because of the misrepresented translation of the Ottawa word from which Sioux is derived.[7]

Modern geographic divisions[edit]

Funeral scaffold of a Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer)

The Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations and communities in North America: in the Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Montana in the United States; and in Manitoba, southern Saskatchewan and Alberta in Canada.

The earliest known European record of the Sioux identified them in Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin.[5] After the introduction of the horse in the early 18th century, the Sioux dominated larger areas of land—from present day Central Canada to the Platte River, from Minnesota to the Yellowstone River, including the Powder River country.[27]

Santee (Isáŋyathi or Eastern Dakota)[edit]

The Santee migrated north and westward from the Southeast United States, first into Ohio, then to Minnesota. Some came up from the Santee River and Lake Marion, area of South Carolina. The Santee River was named after them, and some of their ancestors' ancient earthwork mounds have survived along the portion of the dammed-up river that forms Lake Marion. In the past, they were a Woodland people who thrived on hunting, fishing and farming.

Migrations of Anishinaabe/Chippewa (Ojibwe) people from the east in the 17th and 18th centuries, with muskets supplied by the French and British, pushed the Dakota further into Minnesota and west and southward. The US gave the name "Dakota Territory" to the northern expanse west of the Mississippi River and up to its headwaters.[5]

Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ-Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna (Yankton-Yanktonai or Western Dakota)[edit]

The Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ-Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna, also known by the anglicized spelling Yankton (Iháŋkthuŋwaŋ: "End village") and Yanktonai (Iháŋkthuŋwaŋna: "Little end village") divisions consist of two bands or two of the seven council fires. According to Nasunatanka and Matononpa in 1880, the Yanktonai are divided into two sub-groups known as the Upper Yanktonai and the Lower Yanktonai (Hunkpatina).[5]

They were involved in quarrying pipestone. The Yankton-Yanktonai moved into northern Minnesota. In the 18th century, they were recorded as living in the Mankato region of Minnesota.[29]

Lakota (Teton or Thítȟuŋwaŋ)[edit]

Main article: Lakota people

The Sioux likely obtained horses sometime during the seventeenth century (although some historians date the arrival of horses in South Dakota to 1720, and credit the Cheyenne with introducing horse culture to the Lakota). The Teton (Lakota) division of the Sioux emerged as a result of this introduction. Dominating the northern Great Plains with their light cavalry, the western Sioux quickly expanded their territory further to the Rocky Mountains (which they call Heska, "white mountains"). The Lakota once subsisted on the buffalo hunt, and on corn. They acquired corn mostly through trade with the eastern Sioux and their linguistic cousins, the Mandan and Hidatsa along the Missouri.[5] The name Teton or Thítȟuŋwaŋ is archaic among the people, who prefer to call themselves Lakȟóta.[8]

Ethnic divisions[edit]

Dakota, Nakota and Lakota historic distribution
Womendress of the Sioux
Baby sling of the Sioux
Shirt for Chief's War Dress, 19th century, Brooklyn Museum

The Sioux are divided into three ethnic groups, the larger of which are divided into sub-groups, and further branched into bands.

Today, many Sioux also live outside their reservations.

In popular media[edit]

Video clip of a dance performed by a Sioux tribe from Buffalo Bill's Wild West show. This is part of a group of films constituting the first appearance of Native Americans in motion pictures

Notable Sioux[edit]

Historical[edit]

Chiefs American Horse and Red Cloud (1891)
Running Antelope, a Hunkpapa Lakota Chief, depicted on the US 1899 $5 silver certificate.

Contemporary[edit]

Albert White Hat (1938–2013), Sicangu Lakota language activist
Vine Deloria Jr. (1933–2005), Standing Rock author, activist, historian, and theologian

Contemporary Sioux people are listed under the tribes to which they belong.

By individual tribe[edit]

Legacy[edit]

A Manitoba Historical Plaque was erected at the Spruce Woods Provincial Park by the province to commemorate Assiniboin (Nakota) First Nation's role in Manitoba's heritage.[31]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Tina Norris; Paula L. Vines; Elizabeth M. Hoeffel (January 2012). "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  2. ^ for a report on the long-established blunder of misnaming as “Nakota”, the Yankton and the Yanktonai, see the article Nakota
  3. ^ a b "Sioux". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2007-09-05. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Johnson, Michael (2000). The Tribes of the Sioux Nation. Osprey Publishing Oxford. ISBN 1-85532-878-X. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Riggs, Stephen R. (1893). Dakota Grammar, Texts, and Ethnography. Washington Government Printing Office, Ross & Haines, Inc. ISBN 0-87018-052-5. 
  6. ^ Learn about the history of the Sioux Indians. Indians.org. Retrieved on 2012-07-08.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hassrick, Royal B.; Dorothy Maxwell; Cile M. Bach (1964). The Sioux: Life and Customs of a Warrior Society. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-0607-7. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Ullrich, Jan (2008). New Lakota Dictionary (Incorporating the Dakota Dialects of Yankton-Yanktonai and Santee-Sisseton). Lakota Language Consortium. pp. 1–2. ISBN 0-9761082-9-1. 
  9. ^ Hyde, George E. (1984). Red Cloud's Folk: A History of the Oglala Sioux Indians. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-8061-1520-3. 
  10. ^ Johnson, Michael; Smith, Jonathan (2000). Tribes of the Sioux Nation. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 3. ISBN 1-85532-878-X. 
  11. ^ van Houten, Gerry (1991). Corporate Canada An Historical Outline. Toronto: Progress Books. pp. 6–8. ISBN 0-919396-54-2. 
  12. ^ Gibbon, Guy E (2003). The Sioux: The Dakota and Lakota Nations. Blackwell. pp. 48–52. ISBN 1-55786-566-3. 
  13. ^ "Where is the real Massacre Island?". Retrieved 2013-04-28. 
  14. ^ Mark van de Logt (2012). "War Party in Blue: Pawnee Scouts in the U.S. Army". University of Oklahoma Press. pp.35-36. ISBN 0806184396
  15. ^ The Nebraska Indian Wars reader, 1865-1877 By R. Eli Paul p.88 Publisher: University of Nebraska Press (April 1, 1998) Language: English ISBN 0-8032-8749-6
  16. ^ Dillon, Richard (1993). North American Indian Wars. City: Booksales. p. 126. ISBN 1-55521-951-9. 
  17. ^ Steil, Mark; Tim Post (2002-09-26). "Let them eat grass". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved 2011-09-21. 
  18. ^ a b c d War for the Plains. Time-Life Books. 1994. ISBN 0-8094-9445-0. 
  19. ^ Steil, Mark; Tim Post (2002-09-26). "Execution and expulsion". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  20. ^ *Brown, Dee (1970). Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, ch. 6. Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-11979-6. 
  21. ^ Letter: General Nelson A. Miles to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, March 13, 1917.
  22. ^ Liggett, Lorie (1998). "Wounded Knee Massacre – An Introduction". Bowling Green State University. Retrieved 2007-03-02. 
  23. ^ Strom, Karen (1995). "The Massacre at Wounded Knee". Karen Strom. 
  24. ^ "Enrollment Ordinance". Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  25. ^ Descendants of Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse break away from US, Agence France-Presse news
  26. ^ Bill Harlan (21 December 2007). "Lakota group secedes from U.S.". Rapid City Journal. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f Mails, Thomas E. (1973). Dog Soldiers, Bear Men, and Buffalo Women: A Study of the Societies and Cults of the Plains Indians. Prentice-Hall, Inc. ISBN 0-13-217216-X. 
  28. ^ Parks, D. R.; DeMallie, R. J. (1992). "Sioux, Assiniboine, and Stoney Dialects: a Classification". Anthropological Linguistics 34 (1–4). 
  29. ^ OneRoad, Amos E.; Alanson Skinner (2003). Being Dakota: Tales and Traditions of the Sisseton and Wahpeton. Minnesota Historical Society. ISBN 0-87351-453-X. 
  30. ^ not to be confused with the Oglala thiyóšpaye bearing the same name, "Unkpatila", the most famous member of which was Crazy Horse
  31. ^ Manitoba Plaque. Gov.mb.ca. Retrieved on 2012-07-08.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]